Advertising 2016 Abstracts

Professional Freedom & Responsibility (PF&R) Papers
Advertising Alcohol in the Evidence-based Way: Constructing a Threatful and Harmful Drinking Advice Campaign for the General Population in Hong Kong • Annisa Lee, The Chinese University of Hong Kong • With the rapid increase in alcohol consumption, developing an anti-alcohol campaign is needed to raise cultural relevant awareness of adverse health effects of alcohol for the Hong Kong public. We conducted a two-phased study for this purpose. The first phase is a formative reasearch, involving a literature review of 103 articles from MEDLINE and 36 papers from EMBASE databases, four focus groups and a general population survey of 506 respondents. Results generate ten major messages and show that various physiological and psychological harms are stopping factors, more effective than the facilitating factors like social pressure. The second phase develops the harm theme, with four focus groups, by pre-testing the campaign theme, empirically supported claims, appeals and media deliverables. Results show that the theme ‘Drinking Will Harm You’ is effective with the fear appeal, instead of the dark humorous appeal used in comparison. The fear level should be staged progressively, with the more effective physiological harms first, followed by non-physiological ones, including sexual violence. Ten ad claims are ranked according to the health belief model. Using the Department of Health logo increases credibility of the claims. Most participants preferred recovered alcoholics as spokespersons and scientific claims on media channels such as bottle packaging, TV/newspapers, MTR stations, and social media.

Organic Literacy, Involvement, Information Processing, and ‘Green’ Consumer Behavior: A Preliminary Investigation • S. Senyo Ofori-Parku, The University of Alabama • This study extends previous work on ‘green’ marketing, advertising and consumer behavior. It explores concepts such as organic literacy, involvement (and information processing), chronic organic food consumption behaviors, and how they relate to consumer a

Research Papers
Effects of Disclosure of Native Advertising and Knowledge of Marketing Communication Tactics on Ad Evaluation • A-Reum Jung, Louisiana State University; Jun Heo, Louisiana State University • Although the belief that the effects of native advertising is from the unrecognizable format is widely accepted, it is hard to find empirical studies that examine the effect of native advertising. In particular, there is a harsh criticism that advertisers try to increase ad effectiveness by using unclear ad disclosure language which makes people not to recognize native advertising. However, there is no definite answer that the effects of disclosure language on ad effectiveness. On one hand, persuasion knowledge model posits that high knowledge people are more likely to resist advertising. However, previous studies tried to develop conceptual relationship between persuasion knowledge and negative ad effects, rather than empirical examination. Thus, one of the purposes of this current study is to examine the influence of disclosure on the evaluation of native advertising on social media platforms. Another purpose of this study is to explain how people’s knowledge regarding persuasion marketing tactics influences the response to the marketing messages. Studies found that different language of ad disclosure does not affect ad recognition, and ad effectiveness. However, once people recognize content as advertising, they negatively response to the content. Studies also found that high knowledge for advertising tactic generates positive responses to advertising even though people recognize advertisers’ persuasive intention. Based on the results, marketing implication and suggestions for future research are also discussed.

“I didn’t see that label!” Using eye-tracking to evaluate native advertising news stories • Bartosz Wojdynski, University of Georgia; Nathaniel Evans, University of Georgia • The past two years have seen a rapid growth in the publication of sponsored content online, as news organizations and advertisers alike have sought to improve return on investment in online advertising. However, the potential deceptiveness of paid advertisements that strongly resemble a publisher’s editorial content has raised the concern of critics and regulators regarding how consumers evaluate whether a given piece of content is or is not paid advertising. Recent research in this area has shown that design characteristics of disclosures — labels that identify sponsored content as distinct from other content on the site –may influence consumers’ ability to recognize sponsored content as advertising (Wojdynski & Evans, 2016). The present research seeks to add to knowledge of how consumers evaluate sponsored content by examining how participants (N=60) view and evaluate six diverse published sponsored online news stories. Eye-tracking measures were employed to capture participants’ overall attention to disclosures, and time required to notice the disclosures, and open-ended measures were used to capture participants’ perceptions of sponsorship transparency and suggestions for improving transparency. Findings showed that variations in disclosure design and layout lead to differences in attention to the disclosure, time to notice the disclosure, and perceived sponsorship transparency of the article. Implications of these findings for practitioners and regulators are discussed.

Placing Snacks in Children’s Movies: Cognitive, Evaluative, and Conative Effects of Product Placements With Character Product Interaction • Brigitte Naderer; Jörg Matthes, U of Vienna; Patrick Zeller • No studies have explored the role of character product interaction (CPI) for product placement effects on children. We exposed N = 363 children aged 6–15 years to a movie containing no placement, static placement, or CPI placement. The presence of placements affected cognitive and conative brand outcomes. However, children’s product memory and consumption were higher for CPI placements compared to static placements. Results were independent of the children’s ages and prior movie familiarity.

That Ad’s So Bad, It’s Criminal: Advertising Meets the Federal Fraud Statutes • Carmen Maye, University of South Carolina; Erik Collins, University of South Carolina • In the United States, legal repercussions for deceptive advertising traditionally have been meted out by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), which has at its disposal a variety of civil remedies. The FTC’s civil authority over deceptive commercial expression in the marketplace is generally acknowledged. Less well known within the advertising industry is the Department of Justice’s (DOJ) power to criminally punish those who disseminate what it may deem deceptive advertising. Advertisers, who clearly should expect FTC oversight and whose practices likely are geared toward satisfying the FTC’s stated expectations, also must be aware, if not beware, of the DOJ. Recent DOJ actions, triggered by car-dealer advertising, serve as useful reminders that the FTC is not the only governmental regulatory authority looming in the advertiser’s rear-view mirror. Prosecutorial discretion is essentially all that stands between a deceptive advertiser and a federal, criminal prosecution. The danger for advertisers lies in an environment where “I don’t like your ads” may inspire federal prosecutors to investigate an advertiser’s business practices in search of conduct to which fraud and related criminal statutes may be applied.

Effects of Perceived Social Distance on Consumer Attitudes and Purchase Intentions among College Students • Carolyn Lin; Linda Dam • Little research addresses the ways in which perceived social distance – the level of acceptance individuals feel towards a different racial background – may impact consumer responses toward advertising spokespersons from different racial groups. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether perceived social distance between consumers and multiracial advertising spokespersons will influence purchase intentions and consumer attitudes. This research also explores whether the two related concepts – consumer social identity and perceived similarity with racially congruent advertising spokespersons – have an impact on consumer decision-making. The study design entails three experimental conditions, each featuring a Caucasian, Asian, or African American advertising spokesperson. Study participants (N = 363) were randomly assigned to one of three study conditions. Results demonstrated that lower levels of perceived social distance predicted more positive consumer attitudes and purchase intentions. Partial support was also found for the effects of perceived social identity and perceived similarity toward the multiracial spokesperson on consumer attitudes and intentions to purchase the product. Discussion of multicultural advertising implications and future research addressing strategic communication are discussed.

Personalizing an ad for a consumer versus personalizing a consumer for an ad: A test of reversed personalization effects • Cong Li, University of Miami • Research on the effects of personalized communication has grown tremendously over the past decade. Prior studies have widely discussed how a message can be personalized for a person and why a personalized message is more effective than a non-personalized message, which is often labeled personalization effects. However, no known research has theorized on the possibility of personalizing a person for a message. The current study aims to make a unique contribution to the literature by illustrating how a person can be personalized for a message via priming tactics and why it can lead to reversed personalization effects. It is argued that an individual’s evaluation of a personalized or non-personalized message can be influenced by a prime. A non-personalized message may generate more favorable effects than a personalized message if a prime activates a certain mental representation associated with it, leading to reversed personalization effects. The effects of priming on personalization are moderated by perceived prime credibility and mediated by perceived message relevance.

Exploring the prevalence and execution of brand placements in Hong Kong prime time television programs • Fanny Fong Yee Chan, Hang Seng Management College; Ben Lowe, University of Kent • Product placement involves the planned integration of branded products into media content with the aim of influencing audiences. A majority of product placement research tend to be focused on understanding its impact on consumer behavior variables such as brand recall, attitudes, and purchase intentions (Chan 2012). Less research, however, examines the nature of placement execution, and those which do are outdated and are focused mainly on western contexts such as the US. This study utilizes and extends the framework developed by La Ferle and Edwards (2006) to document and explore the execution of product placement in Hong Kong. Specifically it examines 1) the prevalence of brand appearances; 2) the characteristics of programs with brand appearances; 3) features of placed brands/products; 4) modality of brand appearances; 5) extent of character interaction with placed products; and 6) general characteristics of placement context. An extensive content analysis of five weeks of prime-time programming on three free-on-air television channels in Hong Kong was conducted. A coding protocol was developed with items adapted from earlier studies (Ferraro and Avery 2000; La Ferle and Edwards 2006; Smit, van Reijmersdal and Neijens 2009) and a few items added specifically for the current study. In the 225 hours of prime time television programming, 1225 brand appearances were identified. It is equivalent to about one brand appearance in every 11 minutes of programming. The results provide valuable insights to communication scholars and brand practitioners with regards to brand placement strategies.

Image or Recruitment: The Relationships between Cue and Military Advertising Strategy on Military Attitudes and Intentions to Enlist • FuWei Sun, The University of Oklahoma; Glenn Leshner, The University of Oklahoma • This study tested the effects of two factors—cues (extrinsic and intrinsic) and the military advertising strategies (image and image + recruitment)—on participants’ attitudes and behavioral intentions. In a 2 × 2 mixed design experiment, participants saw three military advertisements in one of four conditions. The results of this study suggest that participants’ evaluations of the advertisements and the military are generally driven by intrinsic cues rather than extrinsic characteristics. However, cue effects do not influence receivers’ enlistment intentions. Further, there is no significant difference between the strategies, participants’ evaluations of the military, and their enlistment intentions. These results are discussed in the context of military advertising and its impact.

Beyond gains/losses to compliance/non-compliance: effects of framing, need-for-cognition and mood on organic food advertising effectiveness • George Anghelcev, Penn State University; Ruoxu Wang, Penn State University; Yan Huang, The Pennsylvania State University; Sela Sar, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign • Two message framing techniques have been investigated with predilection by advertising researchers: gain vs. loss and promotion vs. prevention. In this study, we bridge these separate approaches and consider four advertising frames informed by the theoretical frameworks of Regulatory Focus Theory and Prospect Theory. We investigate the joint impact of mood on these four message frames on advertising promoting organic foods. The findings support our predictions that it is neither a gain/loss approach nor a promotion/prevention approach that leads to effective messages for consumers who experience positive or negative moods. Rather, the winning strategy consists of framing the ads in terms of compliance (gain and non-loss) and noncompliance (loss and non-gain). As expected, NFC moderated the postulated effects.

Only Other People Post Food Photos on Facebook: How Social Media Fits into Our Lives and The Third Person Effect • Giang Pham; Matthew Shancer; Danyang Guo; Tao Jailin; Yi Peng; Yanyun Wang; Michelle Nelson, UIUC – Advertising Department • Understanding consumers’ perceptions about social media is important for advertisers. Interviews with Millennials and Baby-Boomers revealed differences in social media use and perceptions of use. Third-person perceptions (TPP) emerged among millennials: they believed the content they shared was very different from that of ‘others’. A survey of Millennials showed TPP effects scaled with the social distance corollary. Individuals perceived their behaviors were very different from those of ‘acquaintances’ and less so with close friends.

The Impact of Erotic Imagery on Visual Attention within Advertisements: An Eye-Tracking Study • Glenn Cummins; Tom Reichert, University of Georgia; Zijian Gong, University of Tampa • An eye-tracking experiment (N = 120) was conducted to gauge how the use of erotic models in advertisements impacted visual attention to the ad, model, and other ad execution elements, thus moving beyond indirect self-report measures of attention from previous research. Findings revealed a distraction effect for ads containing erotic models. Attention to ad copy suffered when erotic models were employed, and viewers were less likely to remember the brand name or ad content.

Advertising Skepticism Effects on Chinese Consumer Attitudes toward Green Ads: A Mediating Role of Consumer Attribution of Green Advertising Motivation • Jason Yu • This study examined how advertising skepticism in general as a consumer characteristic affects consumer attitudes toward green ads (AGreen-ad) in three dimensions: hedonism, interestingness and utilitarianism. The results suggested a significant effect of advertising skepticism on consumer utilitarian AGreen-ad, which was mediated by consumer attribution of the motive behind the green ad. The insignificant correlation of advertising skepticism and hedonism implies that a consumer’s advertising skepticism might be irrelevant to his hedonic AGreen-ad if his disbelief of the environmental claims in the ad is not substantial enough to arouse negative feelings such as a feeling of being deceived or cheated.

Political advertising saturation: A natural experiment • Jay Newell, Iowa State University • This research explores the results of political advertising spending under conditions of advertising saturation, in which candidates and their supporters chose to advertise in selected markets with nearly complete reach and very high frequencies, versus the same candidates and supporters advertising in different markets using more moderate levels of reach and frequency. Combining a two-phase telephone survey of more than 700 registered voters with a tally of more than 3000 broadcast advertising contracts, the research explores the connection between political advertising spending, political participation, and election outcomes.

When It Just Feels Right: The Impact of Regulatory-Fit on Consumer Responses to Fundraising Campaigns • Ji Mi Hong, University of Texas at Austin; Wei-Na Lee • This research investigates whether the fit between an individual’s chronic regulatory focus and the type of regulatory focus used in fundraising messages enhances persuasion effects. A content assessment of current fundraising ads suggests that regulatory focus was indeed employed as a persuasion strategy. An experimental study was then carried out to test the main and interaction effects of two independent variables (chronic regulatory foci x regulatory-focused message frames) on three dependent variables (attitudes toward the ad, attitudes toward the non-profit organization, and willingness to donate). Findings suggest that individuals with a chronic promotion-focused orientation responded more favorably toward the promotion-framed message emphasizing the potential environmental benefits of making a donation, whereas individuals having a chronic prevention-focused orientation were more positive toward the prevention-framed message highlighting the potential environmental dangers of not making a donation. Implications of the findings and suggestions for future research are provided.

Telling Compelling Stories for Worthy Causes? A Content Analysis of Philanthropy Ads • Ji Mi Hong, University of Texas at Austin; Wei-Na Lee; Hwanjong Cho, University of Texas at Austin; Chohee Sung, University of Texas at Austin • “As a first step toward understanding non-profit organizations’ communication, this research examined their philanthropy ad messages in terms of four key elements: what the philanthropy goal is (regulatory focus), who the beneficiary is (self-construal), when the fundraising impact is expected (temporal orientation) and how the suggested donations are appraised (efficacy-appraisal). A content analysis was carried out to systematically study philanthropy ads from non-profit organizations on the Philanthropy 400 list. Specifically, the frequency of appearance of each type of message elements and the relationships among them were analyzed. The findings of this research show that most non-profit organizations actively utilized four types of message elements in their philanthropy ads, while mainly focusing on desired, positive donation outcomes (promotion focus), dominantly indicating others as beneficiaries of the support (interdependent self-construal), mostly emphasizing the easy of actions (self-efficacy) and highlighting immediate fundraising effects (present orientation). However, with respect to the combination patterns among message elements, the findings indicated that the current practice did not follow the guidelines suggested by previous literature. In this respect, more research is needed to understand the discrepancy and provide better guidelines for future communication strategies.”

Positive News Are Better Than Negative News in Improving Brand Attitude and Recall for Pre-Roll Ads • Jiachen Yao, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; Zongyuan Wang; Mike Yao, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign • Current study explored how the valence of news headlines (positive vs. negative) and news type (hard vs. soft) influenced participants’ mood, their memory and brand attitude towards the pre-roll video ads. We found that negative news headlines led to lower mood, lower brand attitude and worse brand recall than the positive condition. There was also an interacting effect found of news valence*news type on mood. Implications were given for advertising industry.

Understanding Age Segmentation in Persuasion: The Effects of Experiential and Material Messages • Jing (Taylor) Wen, University of Florida; Naa Amponsah Dodoo, University of Florida; Linwan Wu, University of Florida; Il Young Ju, University of Florida; Sriram Kalyanaraman, University of Florida • Despite the growing significance of message segmentation strategies based on consumers’ age, the psychological effects of age on decision making remain somewhat unexplored. Building on prior studies, this research examined the influence of age on consumers’ responses to different advertising messages. In particular, this study examined whether framing a specific product (automobile) as either material or experiential would influence consumer responses to the product. Experimental results revealed a main effect of message type and interaction between message type and age on attitude toward the ad. Specifically, individuals reported more favorable attitudes toward a material rather than an experiential message type. An interaction effect showed that younger people had more positive attitudes toward the material message while no difference was found for older people. Additionally, younger people had more favorable brand attitudes when exposed to a material rather than an experiential message, while, older people did not exhibit this pattern. The results also revealed the mediating role of ad credibility such that perceived ad credibility mediated the relationship between message type and ad attitude. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

Consumer Attention to and Recall of Information in Prescription Drug Advergames: An Eye-Tracking Study • Jisu Huh, University of Minnesota; Jennifer Lueck, University of Minnesota • This study investigated cognitive effects of advergames on consumers’ attention to and memory of information in a prescription drug advergame. Applying limited cognitive capacity theory as a theoretical framework, consumers’ attention was examined using both self-reported and eye-tracking measures, and the relationships between the two types of attention measures and information memory were tested. The eye-tracking attention measures revealed somewhat different findings than self-reported attention, and the results provide interesting insights regarding advergames’ cognitive effects.

Nudity of Male and Female Characters in Television Advertising Across the Globe: A Comparative Analysis • Jörg Matthes, U of Vienna; Michael Prieler, Hallym University • There is a lack of comparative studies on nudity in television advertising. We sampled N = 1,755 ads from 13 countries. The main characters’ nudity was higher for females compared to males, more likely with decreasing age, and occurred more often for congruent than incongruent products. Multilevel analyses showed that nudity was independent of a country’s gender-indices and preclearance policy. The role of culture for predicting nudity in advertising is thus smaller than commonly thought.

Framing Financial Retirement Advertising: The Effectiveness of Intertemporal Choice • Ken Kim, oklahoma state; Lori McKinnon • The current study was designed to show the effectiveness of retirement financial services advertising (RFSA) in consumer intertemporal choice. The obtained data indicated that people in the loss framing (vs. gain framing) condition had a stronger tendency to choose the earlier investment option over the delay option when an advertisement emphasized how much they need to invest (that is, process framing). In contrast, the advantage of gain framing (vs. loss framing) was found when an advertisement focused on how much they need to retire (that is, outcome framing).

In-Feed Native Advertising on News Websites: Effects of Advertisement on Internet Users’ Reactions • Lijie Zhou, The University of Southern Mississippi; Fei Xue • This study examined viewers’ reactions to in-feed native advertising on news sites. Results showed in-feed native advertising generated stronger brand interest and purchase intention than banner ads. Product involvement moderated effects of advertising format and website reputation on attitude-toward-the-ad, brand interest, and purchase intention. Its moderating power is stronger for low-involvement product, where advertising format and website reputation have served as peripheral cues. Positive correlations between website credibility and ad credibility were also identified. Advertising Division Research Papers Psychological Mechanisms in Narrative Advergaming Lu Zheng; Danny Pimentel Nine side-scrolling advergames were created to examine the potential impact of types of advergames and music tempo on one’s affective (game attitude and brand attitude) and conative responses (product trial and purchase intent) in the context of narrative advergaming. Moreover, three psychological states (flow, transportation and presence) that game players are likely to experience were also investigated. The study demonstrated that neither type of advergames nor music tempo employed in the advergames was significant in influencing one’s affective and conative responses. What remains invariably significant across nine experimental conditions is the positive relationship between the three psychological mechanisms and one’s game attitude, brand attitude, and behavioral intentions. Implications and limitations are also discussed.

The Moderating Role of Age on Behavioral Effects of Product Placements in a Real-World Setting • Maren Birgit Marina Beaufort • This paper provides findings on how product placements influence young children’s selection behavior in real-life viewing and shopping scenarios, showing why realistic settings are superior to laboratory studies in this context. For the first time, kindergarten-aged children were included. Results show a major susceptibility to product placements via implicit persuasion. In contrast to previous laboratory findings, a highly significant age effect is present that is conceivably traceable to the competitive influences in the real-life scenario.

Cultural Adaptation in U.S. and Mexican Beer Ads: The Moderating Effect of Automatic Bias Against Hispanics on Eye-Tracking Measures • Yadira Nieves-Pizarro, Michigan State University; Juan Mundel, Michigan State University; Tao Deng, Michigan State University; Guanxiong Huang, Michigan State University; Duygu Kanver, Michigan State University; Elishia Johnson, Michigan State University; Michael Nelson, Michigan State University; Rashad Timmons; Saleem Alhabash, Michigan State University • With continued growth in advertising and marketing to specific ethnic groups, like Hispanics in the United States, it becomes important to understand the intricacies of cultural adaptation in advertising. The current study investigates the effects of cultural adaptation in branded advertising for domestic (US) and foreign (Mexican) products on visual attention to advertising elements. Using a 2 (country of origin: USA vs. Mexico) x 2 (cultural symbol congruence: congruent vs. incongruent) x 3 (ad repetition) mixed factorial design, participants (White only: N = 83) viewed three ads for either an American or Mexican brand with either congruent or incongruent cultural symbol. Results showed that participants exposed to American brand ads fixated more often (total fixation count) and for a longer period of time (total fixation duration) on the cultural symbol when it was congruent than incongruent, while no differences were detected for Mexican brand ads. Additionally, this effect was moderated by automatic bias against Hispanics. Findings are discussed within the context of tailored approaches to advertising and advertising unintended effects.

Boundaries of Message Framing in Charity Advertising: Effects of Anchor Points and Need for Cognition • Yan Huang, The Pennsylvania State University; Anli Xiao, Penn State University; Denise Bortree, Penn State University • The study examined the persuasiveness of message framing and anchor points in the context of a charitable appeal on social media. A 2 (Framing: loss vs. gain) × 2 (anchor points: presence vs. absence) online between-subjects experiment was conducted (N = 211). Results showed that the influence of message framing was dependent on whether anchor points were provided in the message. When anchor points were present, the gain-framed message resulted in a greater level of cognitive elaboration and donation intention; when they were absent, the loss-framed message triggered more cognitive elaboration on the donation request. Moreover, need for cognition (NFC) moderated the persuasive effect of message framing. The effect was more salient among low NFC participants. The study also revealed a three-way interaction effect between message framing, anchor points, and need for cognition on cognitive elaboration. The theoretical and practical implications for charity advertising are discussed.

Inseparable Duos: The Effects of Message Framing and Presentation on College Students’ Responses to Flu Vaccine Public Service Advertisements • Yen-I Lee, University of Georgia; Yan Jin; Glen Nowak, University of Georgia • Previous research on how message framing affects influenza vaccination attitude and intentions has yielded mixed results. The current study examined the effects of message framing and presentation in flu vaccine public service advertisements (PSAs) using a 2 (gain vs. loss framing) x 2 (image-based vs. text-only presentation) between-subjects experiment with a sample of college students (N = 122) from a large public university in the U.S. The findings indicated that flu vaccine PSAs that utilized a gain-framed image-based message or a loss-framed text-only message elicited positive outcomes, including greater confidence in flu vaccine, positive affect toward the advertisement, and positive attitude toward flu vaccine. In contrast, a loss-framed image-based message and a gain-framed text-only message triggered negative attitudes toward flu vaccine. Implications for strategic health communication theory building and vaccine communication practice are discussed.

Consumer Socialization through Social Media: Antecedents of Acceptance of Native Advertising on Social Networking Sites • Yoo Jin Chung, University of Florida; Eunice Kim, University of Florida • Despite the growing popularity of native advertising in the industry, few studies have examined the factors that influence consumer acceptance of native advertising on SNSs. The present study examined the influences of consumer socialization agents on acceptance of native advertising on SNSs. Findings showed that positive peer communication, social media dependency, and attitude toward social media advertising significantly predicted consumer acceptance. The results further revealed the moderating effects of perceived appropriateness of native advertising.

Interaction Effects of System Generated Information and Consumer Skepticism: An Evaluation of Issue Support Behavior in CSR Twitter Campaigns • Yoon-Joo Lee, Washington State University; Nicole O’Donnell, Washington State University; Stacey Hust • Success of corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives often relies on issue support from consumers. The current study analyzes issues support for an alcohol company’s drunk driving prevention campaign on Twitter. A 2×2 experiment (n = 212) tested how consumers’ skepticism interacts with system generated information (low v. high number of followers). Skepticism on issue support changed significantly depending on the number of Twitter followers. Implications are discussed for attribution theory and CSR skepticism research.

Advertising’s Male Body: A Content Analysis of Male Models in Esquire Magazine Ads from 1955-2005 • Zienab Shoieb; Eric Haley, University of Tennessee • This paper reports a content analysis of portrayals of the male body in ESQUIRE Magazine from 1955 to 2005. Specifically, the study examined male model muscularity and fat in relation to time and product categories. The study is positioned within the literature on media images and body disturbance issues.

Processing Capacity in Visual Search: The Impact of Visual Salience and Involvement on Attention • Zijian Gong, University of Tampa; Glenn Cummins • Despite the long tradition of examining individual factors and aspects of print ad design and execution, the attention allocation process to different ad execution elements has not been specified. This study reconceptualized and examined potential moderators – namely visual salience and involvement– in terms of cognitive load to predict their real-time combined impact on attention and subsequent processing of magazine advertisements. Eye-tracking data indicated automatic bottom-up attention precedes controlled top-down processing when attending to magazine advertisements. Additionally, results revealed that involvement moderated the impact of visual salience on selective attention to ad execution elements, such that insufficient resource allocation to advertisements for low involvement products inhibited consumers’ attention to visually non-salient ad elements compared to advertisements for high involvement products, as indexed by gaze duration. The findings suggested selective attention is not unitarily driven by message properties or individual factors, and both message and individual level factors should be considered to creative effective print advertisements.

Redefining Rational and Emotional Advertising Appeals as Available Processing Resources: Toward an Information Processing Perspective • Zijian Gong, University of Tampa; Glenn Cummins • This paper redefined emotional and rational advertising appeals in terms of changes in cognitive load they place on viewers’ limited capacity processing system, which helped predict how thoroughly advertising messages are processed under high and low personal relevance condition. Results indicated emotional advertisements elicited better message recall than rational advertisements, but the available resources in the emotional and rational condition remained at the same level. The interaction effect between personal relevance and advertising appeal type on available resources was also observed, such that personal relevance exerted a more significant influence on available resources when viewing rational advertisements than emotional advertisements. The findings suggested that when an advertisement has low personal relevance, rational appeals should be used with caution as viewers may withdrawal their attention and stop processing the message. In contrast, the use of emotional appeals may be a way to sustain attention for low relevance products.

Special Topics Papers
Comparing social media advertising attitudes between advertising and non-adverting majors: A situated learning perspective • Anan Wan, University of South Carolina • This study explored whether advertising majors and non-advertising majors hold different attitudes toward advertisements on social media in terms of their advertising education and their social media self-efficacy, based on a pilot study of 20 interviews and a survey study of 165 responses. It provides a look at the current advertising majors’ perceptions of and attitudes toward social media advertising as the insiders and future professionals. The findings from both studies demonstrate that advertising students have more positive attitude than non-advertising majors toward social media advertising. Theoretical of the Situated Learning Theory were discussed.

Message strategies in Korean cosmetic surgery websites • Gawon Kim, University of Tennessee; Ron Taylor, University of Tennesse, Knoxville • The purpose of this study was to investigate message strategies used in South Korean cosmetic surgery websites. The paper uses Taylor’s six-segment message strategy model to analyze the Korean sample websites and conducted a content analysis. The outcome of the content analysis revealed that Informational and Transformational strategy was both equivalently used. Additionally, it found out that ration and ego strategy was the most frequently practiced strategy. Result, implication and limitations will provide more information on this paper’s result and future research.

Snap or Not: Young Consumers’ Interpretation of Snapchat Marketing • Huan Chen, University of Florida • A qualitative research was conducted to explore young consumers’ interpretation of Snapchat and marketing via Snapchat. The themes that emerged regarding those young consumers’ understanding of the photo-and-video-sharing social medium are being intimate, being casual, and being dynamic, and the themes regarding the participants’ interpretation of marketing information on Snapchat include freedom of choice, seamless integration with the social medium, and eventful and festival orientation. Theoretical and practical implications were offered.

The Myth of Big Data: Chinese Advertising Practitioners’ Perspective • Huan Chen, University of Florida; Liling Zhou • A qualitative study was conducted to explore Chinese advertising practitioners’ perceptions and interpretations of big data in Chinese market. 22 in-depth interviews were conducted to collect data. Four overarching themes emerged regarding their perception of Chinese advertising market, definition of big data, application of big data, and future development of big data. Based on the themes, a theoretical model was developed to demonstrate big data’s application and development in Chinese market. Theoretical and practical implications were offered.

Proposing Social Cue as a New Social Media Ad Tactic in Unfamiliar Product Adoption • Hyejin Kim, University of Minnesota – Twin Cities; Keonyoung Park, University of Minnesota Twin Cities; John Eighmey • This study proposed and tested the effect of new social media advertising tactic, a social cue, on unfamiliar product adoption. Findings demonstrated that participants with extremely large social network were particularly susceptible to the socially-cued advertising. Their purchase intention showed an inverted U shape as the number of product purchase predecessors increases. This study is expected to contribute to social media advertising literature by providing proactive insights on simple yet innovative ad tactic.

“The Ultimate Cliffhanger:” Campaign Strategies and Extreme Drinking Rituals for Turning 21 • Joyce Wolburg, Marquette University; Nathan Gilkerson, Marquette University • “This qualitative study examined the drinking ritual of the 21st birthday celebration among college student binge drinkers to gain insights that can lead to more effective campaign strategies. Through depth interviews, a pattern of intense peer pressure emerged, not only for the person turning 21 but also for friends. Because each has a role to play in a ritual that celebrates the “ultimate cliffhanger,” campaign strategies aimed solely at the person turning 21 are not sufficient to change behavior.”

Student Papers
Corporate social responsibility (CSR): the effects of cause-related marketing (CRM) message, cause proximity and cause involvement • Hannah Kang, University of Kansas • This study examined the effects of the type of corporate social responsibility (CSR), cause proximity and cause involvement on attitude toward brand, attitude toward company, attitude toward campaign, and campaign participation intention. This study also examined how CSR type, cause proximity and cause involvement affect individual’s risk perceptions toward a particular risk issue. The experiment was a 2 (CSR type: CSR advertising message with CRM/ CSR advertising message without CRM) X 2 (cause proximity: national/international) X 2 (cause involvement: high/low) between-subjects factorial design. A total of 239 undergraduates participated. This study found that a CSR advertising message with CRM components produced a more positive attitude toward a company, a more positive attitude toward a campaign, and a higher campaign participation intention than a CSR advertising message without CRM components. Moreover, the main effects of cause involvement were found on attitude toward brand, attitude toward company, attitude toward campaign, campaign participation intention as well as risk perception toward a cause and importance of a cause.

Corporate Ethical Branding on YouTube: CSR Communication Strategies and Brand Anthropomorphism • Jing (Taylor) Wen, University of Florida; Baobao Song • Even as ethical branding gain increasing prominence, the effectiveness of specific communication and branding strategies remains somewhat unexplored. A content analysis was conducted to examine Fortune 500 companies’ corporate social responsibility (CSR) advertisements and user comments on YouTube. The results showcase the importance of involvement strategy of CSR communication and brand anthropomorphism on generating positive consumer responses, and a positive correlation between these two strategies. The findings further suggest that the success of ethical branding on social media lies in more interactive and engaging communication as well as branding strategies.

The Younger Maintain, the Older Regulate: The Generational Effects on Sequential Mixed Emotions • Jing (Taylor) Wen, University of Florida; Naa Amponsah Dodoo, University of Florida; Linwan Wu, University of Florida • Ads with mixed emotions can capture audience’s attention and therefore be persuasive. By using Socio-emotional Selectivity Theory as a theoretical framework, this research examines the influence of generations and sequential mixed emotions on persuasion. Findings indicate that Baby Boomers exhibit more favorable evaluation than Millennials when exposed to an appeal with improving mixed emotions (i.e., negative then positive), because Baby Boomers are better at emotion regulation. In contrast, when exposed to declining appeal (i.e., positive then negative), both generations evaluate the ad positively, because both age groups are able to maintain positive emotions. Theoretical and practical implications are also discussed.

Overcoming Skepticism toward Cause-Related Marketing Claims: The Role of Consumers’ Attributions of Company Motives and Consumers’ Perceptions of Company Credibility • Mikyeung Bae • This study examined two situational factors that might interfere with the intended outcome of a cause-related marketing (CRM) ad on social network sites (SNSs): statements about the motivation of the sponsoring company for supporting a social cause and types of appeals (emotional or informational). This study also explored how highly skeptical consumers and consumers with lower levels of skepticism differ in their responses to CRM ads. An online experiment with 409 college students showed that a firm’s acknowledgements of firm-serving motivation as well as of public-serving motivation could be an effective marketing strategy to reduce consumer skepticism about a firm’s motives. Highly skeptical consumers are less doubting about a company’s intention behind its support of social causes when the company honestly states firm-serving benefits as well as public-serving benefits in its CRM ads. The procedure by which a consumer perceives and evaluates the motives of a company determines the effectiveness of the company’s CRM ads. Finally, a consumer’s perception of a company’s credibility has a great impact on the consumer’s intention to join that company’s brand page. This study advances theories about consumers’ defensive mechanisms that can help predict their favorable responses to the brand pages featuring CRM on SNSs.

Animal Crackers in My…Book? Effects of Shared Reading on Parents’ Memory for Product Placement in Children’s Books • Steven Holiday, Texas Tech University • The shared reading of children’s picture books fosters involvement, engagement, and communication, and results in socialization and development of both parents and children. It can also make readers susceptible to product placements used in the medium, a practice that exists despite its notable absence from academic research. Using experimental design and quantitative statistical analysis, this study explores how social and multi-sensory aspects of shared reading positively affect parents’ recollection of product placements in children’s books.

The Golden Touch: How Screen Touches Influence Product Attitude and Purchase Intention • Xiaohan Hu, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign • The widespread usage of touch screen devices such as smartphones and tablets has changed how people interact with mediated information. The physical action of touch is more direct in that people interact with the information on the screen, rather than indirectly via input devices like a mouse or trackpad. The goal of this study is to examine whether different ways of physically interacting with media influence consumers’ attitude and purchase intention in online shopping, and how haptic congruity between specific product and touchscreen may moderate this effect of interaction. The study reported here showed that consumers assigned more value when product information was acquired by touching. However, main effect of physical interaction on attitude and purchase intention, and interaction effect between interaction and haptic congruity were not found.

The Influence of Persuasion Knowledge on Consumer Responses to Celebrity Endorsement in Social Media • Yiran Zhang, University of Minnesota Twin Cities • This paper explores the effects of consumers’ persuasion knowledge of celebrity endorsement in social media on their attitude toward the celebrity and the endorsed brand, and the moderating role of parasocial interaction. Results show that recognition of advertising intent is negatively associated with consumers’ attitude toward the celebrity. Additionally, parasocial interaction strengthens the relationship between attitude toward the celebrity and brand attitude, but doesn’t interfere with persuasion knowledge to influence brand attitude.

Teaching Papers
From Introducing the World Wide Web to Teaching Advertising in the Digital Age: A Content Analysis of the Past Twenty years of the Journal of Advertising Education • Emory Daniel, North Dakota State University; Elizabeth Crawford, North Dakota State University; David Westerman, North Dakota State University • For twenty years, the Journal of Advertising Education (JAE) has “toiled in the vineyards of advertising academé” to become a highly reputable source for advertising scholarship (Johnson, 1996 p.3). For the purposes of this study, we explored the last twenty years of literature in JAE. A content analysis was implemented to uncover patterns in areas such as areas of focus, methodologies, authorship, and Carnegie classifications of the universities represented.

Student-Run Communications Agencies: Providing Students With Real-World Experiences That Impact Their Careers • Lee Bush, Elon University; Daniel Haygood, Elon University; Hal Vincent • This study examined how current industry professionals perceived the benefits of their student agency experiences and how they applied those experiences to their careers. Graduates placed value on the real-world experience gained from student agencies, learning how a professional agency functions, and working with a diverse set of clients and people in team-based settings. Graduates reported that their student agency involvement separated them in job interviews, better preparing them versus their peers for entry-level positions.

What Do Students Need To Know About Technology And Idea Generation: Voices From The Agency • Robyn Blakeman, University of Tennessee, Knoxville; Maureen Taylor, University of Tennessee, Knoxville; Robert Lambert • The advertising field is constantly changing and educators should identify if changes in the industry prompt changes in the classroom. This paper inquires into the most fundamental part of the advertising process: the idea generation stage. Technology has changed the way art directors interact with design. But the extent of that change, and its implications for advertising pedagogy, are still unknown. This study reports the results of a survey of 38 advertising creatives to describe what is happening in conceptualization at advertising agencies around the country. The findings suggest ways forward in advertising pedagogy, especially curricula in the design sequences.

2016 Abstracts

2016 Abstracts

AEJMC 2016 Conference Paper Abstracts
Minneapolis, MN • August 4 to 7

The following AEJMC groups conducted research competitions for the 2016 conference. The accepted paper abstracts are listed within each section.


Interest Groups:


<< AEJMC Abstracts Index

News Engagement Day

Journalism Educators Urge Social Media Platforms to Ensure Ethical Transparency in Curating and Disseminating News

CONTACT: Lori Bergen, University of Colorado at Boulder, 2015-16 President of AEJMC | June 3, 2016

The Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (AEJMC), the oldest and largest association of journalism and mass communication educators in the world, calls upon social media platforms (such as Facebook) to ensure ethical transparency in curating and disseminating news.

Facebook has been accused of liberal bias in its “trending” news section that lists the most popular news stories for the estimated 1.6 billion people in its social network. This accusation is predicated on Facebook’s professed desire to be a trusted platform for users and media partners. Critics are calling Facebook to task for not embracing traditional news values that ostensibly include being immune to biases and remaining impervious to nontransparent influences.

News media’s societal role is to present truth as journalists and their media companies perceive and interpret it in good faith, with accuracy, fairness and attempted-albeit impossible to fully achieve-objectivity.

Beginning in the 1830s Penny Press era, news reportage was considered, not as the dissemination of an ideological message, but as a commodity that could be sold because of its value to all consumers, irrespective of their political or other beliefs. Basic trust in the presentation of news depended upon accuracy, impartiality and professional values that encouraged fairness and objectivity in reportage.

The relatively restricted news media choices resulted in a considerable monopoly of knowledge by news media organizations, but sufficient market competition existed to encourage overall high quality news coverage, and journalism was highly professionalized, with journalists abiding by ethics codes, shared news values and objective reporting methods.

Today’s media platforms and channels of communication have democratized both the dissemination and access to information, including news. Of course, legacy media comprising news media and their professional journalists who embrace professional news values and ethics have earned public trust and use diverse media platforms in their dissemination of news. However, news media must be distinguished from-and held above-other organizations that use or own media platforms.
As a social media platform, Facebook is powerful and undoubtedly influential, and it should exercise ethical transparency in curating and disseminating news.

Certainly, Facebook content, including its “trending” news section, should not be confused with news, as perceived professionally, nor should Facebook be held to the same standards that have encouraged trust in the legacy press. If Facebook is biased or is purposely inaccurate in what news and information it says is “trending,” it should be judged as a social media platform, not as a news media company that embraces the news values that are essential to a free and democratic society.

Media entities enjoy a First Amendment right to publish and disseminate news content, as they deem fit. Editorial discretion forms the critical core of any media company. However, in their emerging role as news providers, social media platforms should exercise ethical transparency in their policies and practices for curating and disseminating news, in conformance to established journalistic practices of informing citizens in our commitment to a democratic society.

The Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (AEJMC) is the oldest and largest “nonprofit, educational association of journalism and mass communication educators, students and media professionals” in the world. The AEJMC’s mission is to promote the highest possible standards for journalism and mass communication education, to cultivate the widest possible range of communication research, to encourage the implementation of a multi-cultural society in the classroom and curriculum, and to defend and maintain freedom of communication in an effort to achieve better professional practice and a better informed public.

For more information about AEJMC, please visit, follow @AEJMC on Twitter or email to

For more information regarding this AEJMC Presidential Statement, please contact Lori Bergen, 2016 President of AEJMC, University of Colorado at Boulder, at


AEJMC Urges State of New York to Reexamine Ethics Guidelines That Encroach on the First Amendment

CONTACT: Lori Bergen, University of Colorado at Boulder, 2015-16 President of AEJMC | April 19, 2016

The Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (AEJMC) applauds the declared intent of the State of New York to help ensure government integrity through transparency in lobbying activities; however, its recent initiative to do so is problematic.

AEJMC, whose mission includes protection of First Amendment rights to free speech and free press, urges the New York State government to re-examine the wisdom and likely consequences of the Jan. 26 advisory opinion of its Joint Commission on Public Ethics (JCOPE). This ruling would broaden the legal definition of lobbying to include an expanded range of activities that AEJMC believes encroaches upon First Amendment rights, including dissemination of information to journalists and discussions with news people. Under this ruling, professional communicators who are paid more than $5,000 a year to engage in these activities would be considered lobbyists and would need to disclose information, such as their compensation and for or against which legislative bills they are advocating.

Journalists and news sources, including public relations practitioners and other professional communicators, have constitutionally protected free-speech rights guaranteed by the First Amendment. The JCOPE ruling would expand the definition of lobbying to include any media interaction whose outcome could result in the introduction, passage or defeat of a legislative bill; which takes a clear position on a bill; or which attempts to influence a public official regarding a legislative bill. JCOPE’s stated intent is to help ensure transparency in the activities of paid media consultants who proactively advance their clients’ interests through the media. JCOPE claims this ruling is not intended to restrict a journalist’s ability to gather information or to seek comments from representatives of advocacy groups. Lobbying in this expanded definition would include communication that addresses specific pending legislation; that takes a position on a legislative issue; or that solicits citizens to contact a public official. Registration as a lobbyist would be required when a communicator is involved in both the content and delivery of a message that seeks to influence legislation, albeit excluding videographers and photographers, website managers, billboards and media outlets. Such professional communicators would be required to file lobbying reports, including the subjects of their efforts, legislative bills that they are trying to influence and these communicators’ pay, expenses and client information, although the reports would not require the names of writers or publications.

AEJMC shares the concerns of professional associations such as the Public Relations Society of America, the Arthur W. Page Society and the PR Council that this broadened definition of lobbying would encompass public relations practices protected by the First Amendment. Furthermore, AEJMC believes such regulation would result in inappropriate and excessive government control that would create a chilling effect on free speech and citizens’ right to petition government officials.
AEJMC agrees with the arguments of public relations firms that have filed a lawsuit in federal court, supported by the New York Civil Liberties Union, to prevent this rule from being put into effect. Lobbying in this expanded definition could refer to attempts to place an editorial for a public relations practitioner’s client or to induce a third party, e.g., the public or the press, to deliver the client’s message to a public official. AEJMC concludes that such disclosure would limit free speech as well as the ability of journalists to engage with relevant sources about issues that are critical to an informed citizenry.

The fundamental concern for AEJMC regards the definition of public relations and of lobbying. AEJMC believes that public relations must be defined broadly, if at all, largely because public relations practitioners as paid professionals do no more than exercise the rights of all citizens under the First Amendment. Conversely, lobbying must be legally defined explicitly, exclusively, narrowly and conservatively -with the burden of a fully reasoned legal defense of what specific communication to government officials should be regulated. The legal definition of lobbying must be disassociated with public relations, and registration and regulation as a lobbyist should be restricted to “direct lobbying,” i.e., a call to action regarding a law or regulation by paid individuals who enter into direct, formal communication with key officials and legislators. What is sometimes called “indirect lobbying,” which includes “grassroots lobbying,” does not entail such a call to action directly aimed at key decision-makers to influence an elected official on a matter of public policy and must remain unregulated.

AEJMC is the largest “nonprofit, educational association of journalism and mass communication educators, students and media professionals” in the world. For more information regarding this AEJMC Presidential Statement, please contact Lori Bergen, 2016 President of AEJMC, University of Colorado at Boulder, at

For more information about AEJMC, please visit, follow @AEJMC on Twitter or email to


Tips from the AEJMC Teaching Committee

Teaching in the Eye of a Storm

Earnest L Perry JrBy Earnest L. Perry Jr.
AEJMC Standing Committee on Teaching
Associate Professor
Coordinator, Doctoral Teaching Program
School of Journalism
University of Missouri


(Article courtesy of AEJMC News, March 2016 issue)

Last August, when I began planning for the upcoming fall semester I worked on how to use the growing social justice movement and the media coverage surrounding it in my undergraduate Cross Cultural Journalism class and my graduate Media and Civil Rights history course. The previous year, students here at Missouri organized in response to the shooting death of Michael Brown in Ferguson, a short, two-hour drive from Columbia. They met with administrators in a series of town hall events to voice their concerns about what they saw as a hostile campus climate for students of color. MU officials assured them that they would address their concerns. There were meetings over the summer, the Faculty Council formed a race relations task force, chaired by a fellow journalism faculty member, but as classes began tensions remained high.

My usual approach to teaching hot-button issues in my undergraduate class is to wait until heightened emotions have subsided so that the conversation can focus on facts not perceptions. I planned to walk my students through the media coverage of Michael Brown, Freddie Gray, the Charleston church shootings and other racially-charged events of the past year. The goal was to teach students the importance providing context, voices, complexity, authenticity and proportionality to tell very difficult stories. At the time, I had no clue the next stop in the fight for social justice would be right outside my office window.

By now I’m sure that many of you reading this article have seen the events that took place on the Missouri campus in November. Those of us teaching at the world’s first journalism school helped guide our students through covering a national event while trying to deal with how it was affecting them personally. For many of us it was the teaching and mentoring challenge of a lifetime. For me personally, there were many sleepless nights and stressful days. However, many of the methods we have developed over the years in Cross Cultural Journalism helped us work through the challenges we faced. Here is an overview of the most effective methods:

It’s not about you! This is a statement we use from day one in the course and our students hear it until they walk across the stage at graduation. I found myself saying this over and over either in my large lecture class or in one-on-one sessions with students. Even when the story is not about something close to you, it’s hard to separate yourself. It becomes next to impossible when it is about you and yours. Many of our students felt they were under attack; some of them received actual threats. However, when they were assigned to cover the story or it came up in class discussions I advised them to remember that the story is about others living the experience and not us the journalists.

Concentrate on listening. This is a trait I wish many in the national media would follow. After getting students to realize that the story was not about them, I pressed them to listen to what they were hearing before making a determination. In other words, don’t listen for confirmation of what you already assume. Listen to gain understanding and knowledge. Don’t feel compelled to get every one of your predetermined questions answered. Listening leads to the authentic story, not the one you had in your head before you arrived. More on this later.

Know your history. Those in journalism education who question the importance of history in our curriculum should spend a week in the midst of a social justice struggle on campus. I spent a lot of time during the crisis educating students, staff, other faculty and national journalists about the long struggle for equality and citizenship. Many of the civil rights struggles in the 1950s and 60s began on college campuses. The current movement may have started on the streets of Ferguson and Baltimore, but it may be sustained within the halls of academia. What happened at Missouri is an evolution, not a singular event. Knowing the history of the struggle provides context and can help inform what could come next.

In the midst of the events I and other faculty and staff spent a lot of time listening to students talk about what they were experiencing and feeling. We heard how difficult it was for our students of color to report on the protest when they wanted to join their friends on the front line. We also heard the frustrations of our white students as they watched the negative images of the school being beamed from satellite trucks positioned in the stadium parking lot. Even though Cross Cultural Journalism has an enrollment of more than 200 students, we have created an open environment where students get to talk about difficult subjects in a way that educates. The goal is to talk to one another, not at one another. Allowing students to share their thoughts and experiences with one another helped prepare them to tell family and friends the authentic story of what took place on campus not only from their lived experience, but from that of their fellow students from all backgrounds.

There is more for us to learn. We are in the process of developing a case study based on the events of last semester that can be used throughout our curriculum. Last fall, I learned a lot about what I don’t know. However, I believe many of the grounding concepts taught in Cross Cultural Journalism helped our students navigate through the personal and professional challenges they faced and continue to face in this current phase in the struggle for citizenship.

Teaching Corner

Krieghbaum Under-40 Award

Nominations for AEJMC’s annual Krieghbaum Under-40 Award are now being accepted.

The award honors AEJMC members under 40 years of age who have shown outstanding achievement and effort in all three AEJMC areas: teaching, research and public service. The late Hillier Krieghbaum, former New York University professor emeritus and 1972 AEJMC president, created and funded the award in 1980.

Nominees must be under 40 at the time of the April 1 deadline. They must also be AEJMC members in good standing at the time of the nomination and during the preceding year.

AEJMC’s three elected standing committee chairs, or other designees, and AEJMC’s executive director (non-voting) serve as the award’s selection committee. Selection of the nominee is based on the content of his/her packet of materials. This award does not require the nominee to duplicate his/her tenure and promotion packet.

The committee reserves the right not to present the award.

Nominations should contain:
• a letter from an AEJMC member (other than the nominee) describing in detail the candidate’s professional record in teaching, research and service;
• one additional letter of support from a colleague (on or off campus) who is also an AEJMC member;
• a full vita.
Additional materials:
• no more than five total of any combination of the following: abstracts of research findings, professional papers or published articles;
• no more than five course outlines or innovative teaching tools;
• no more than five teaching evaluations, citations or other recognitions pertaining to the nominee.

All entries should be submitted by email in several files (PDF or Word formats) by 5 p.m. (Eastern time) on April 1 to Type “Under-40 Award” in the email subject line. For questions, contact Jennifer McGill at the above email address or 803-798-0271.

AEJMC Awards

AEJMC Trailblazers of Diversity – Clint Wilson

AEJMC Trailblazers of Diversity in Journalism Education

Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication

School of Journalism

University of Texas at Austin

The purpose of this index is to mark the themes that have emerged in the interviews conducted so far. From these indexes we will develop an extensive guide of the areas to be covered in the interviewer’s story of the interview subject – and where the viewer/listener can find them.
We ask you watch the interview and give descriptions about what the interview has to say about the issues listed here. We ask you to note any NEW topics that you find in the interview – issues that are not included in this index. YOU MUST INCLUDE COUNTER OR TIMES. At the end of the index you will find a section for your comments of the interviewer in general, the interviewer and your suggestions for improvements in further interviews. We also ask you to give us your opinion on whether this interview is a good subject to be contacted for the second-level interviews.
Lastly, we appreciate feedback on this index so that we can revise future forms.

Interview Subject: Clint Wilson
Interviewer: Dr. Maggie Rivas-Rodriguez
Interview date: 5/7/2014
Number of Recorded Segments: 3
Interview length: 01:37:10
Language: English
Reviewer: Carlos Morales
Date of review for index: 6/20/14

Table of Contents:
Early experiences in journalism (2-3)
Background Questions (3-5)
Diversity awareness (5-8)
Other Experiences (8-9)
Diversity in the newsroom (9-12)
Diversity and academia (12-17)
Media and the Community (17-20)

Early Experiences in Journalism:
0:00 – 1:30 Introductions and preamble
1:46 Clint’s introduction into journalism came from his father who was an editorial political cartoonist.

1:57 His father worked for the black press. For the Los Angeles Sentinel and the California Eagle.

2:09 Clint was an only child and his father worked at home.

2:18 He brought newspapers home and would read to Clint. His father’s interest in newspapers passed onto him.

2:33 He started writing very early. In elementary school he would write stories and share them with classmates.

2:48 He had a pretty good idea that writing is something he might want to do

2:55 Throughout high school and college he started to work on the school papers.

3:07 As a senior at Cal State Los Angeles – what he refers to as the “big awakening” – Clint was offered several positions after college. He said the college had a good track record at finding students jobs post graduation.

4:07 When the department chair talked to him about these opportunities, the first thing he said was “You know, I’ve looked around and nobody wants a colored reporter”

4:11 This set Clint off on a new path.

4:20 He knew he could write well. He had already been doing this professionally for several years.

4:46 This made him wonder, “why would somebody who has the talent not be able to get a job? Why would classmates – who were less accomplished – and not black or Hispanic getting jobs?

5:06 This set a research agenda for Clint.

5:16 The ironic part, Clint says, is that once he started in higher education, suddenly he started getting offers from newspapers. Even broadcast stations.

5:45 But by then he had his career set in education.

5:55 However, Clint would work at some of these places, like AP, during summer session, or he would take a sabbatical

6:10 His career had been established because he had been denied.

Background questions

6:18 Clint went to high school in LA at Fremont high school.

6:24 He graduated in 1961

6:31 At Fremont at that time, Clint’s graduating class had 640-something students, 70 percent African American, 25 percent Latino and the rest white.

7:02 Clint says, Fremont had a decade earlier, been an all-White school. But “the flight took place” and minorities, Clint says, became the primary population at that school.

7:25 While there Clint says he had a number of Latino friends and they all saw themselves in the same boat.

7:58 He had an “inborn affinity for an understanding of that [Latino] culture”

8:20 It was an excellent preparation for when Clint would meet Felix Gutierrez.

8:50 Clint says his parents rarely talked about the status of African Americans in the United States because “a lot of it was obvious.”

9:00 Clint read the black press – he knew the issues and what was going on.

9:10 His father encouraged him to get involved at an early age.

9:14 His father told him to make sure he voted and even took him to the polls

9:24 That, Clint says, was his introduction into the political side of things.

9:33 His father, as a cartoonist in the black press was tackling those issues

9:37 Prior to the Watt’s riots, the relationship between the African American community and the Los Angeles police department was tense.

10:08 Even now, Clint says, events like the Trayvon Martin case is reminiscent of the times he grew up in (“It’s not a lot different”)

10:19 Clint says it’s interesting that someone like him who came from a middle-class background, had never been in trouble, but was still “hassled by the police.”

10:41 One time in high school, Clint remembers, he started working at the Herald Examiner in LA. He was working late one night and on his way home he was pulled over and asked to get out of the car.

11:27 In college, Clint was pulled over and the officer told him racial epithets.

11:47 These weren’t isolated events. Clint says a lot don’t understand that this happens.

12:03 When the Watt’s riots occurred, Clint didn’t participate but he understood the frustrations.

12:14 You’re aware of the oppression, Clint says, just because you live in that community.

12:35 At the time, Clint’s mother was a union seamstress. She worked downtown in the garment district.

12:48 His father worked at a bank in the evenings, because he couldn’t make enough income solely as a cartoonist.

Awareness of Diversity

13:19 Clint says his family was active in NCAAP, active in church, and grew up in the club scouts. These organizations he said were to hopefully socialize one into a “midstream.”

13:54 At no time, Clint says, did it occur to him that high school was the end of his education.

14:09 It struck him that a large number of students at Fremont high school did not go to college.

14:23 Clint knew that his classmates were capable of going to college.

14:38 At that time there was tracking. Clint was placed in the college prep group.

14:47 Out of that group all of Clint’s classmates went to college.

14:55 The key moment, Clint recalls, was in middle school. Before moving to Fremont, Clint met with a counselor at his middle school to discuss the curriculum he would take.

15:30 -16:30 Pause in story due to background noise

16:29 The counselor tells Clint if he’d prefer woodshop, electric shop, the automotive program

17:12 Clint says he didn’t mind working with wood and he’d do that.

17:22 But when his parents found out they went to the school and asked why they were placing him in these vocational areas. With his test scores and other indications, Clint’s parents said he’d be able to do well in the college prep.

17:45 The counselor’s changed Clint’s curriculum.

17:51 As a kid, Clint thought woodshop would be an easier way out.

18:06 That was the nature of the schools at that time, Clint recalled.

18:12 Even if you had the intellectual capacity to do something beyond vocational tracks, you would be steered in that direction.

18:34 He never really thought about this moment until he was older and reflected on this time and how things were.

18:44 Growing up, Clint’s family didn’t have a lot of money. But there were options he said, like community college for little and work your way up. So Clint went to community college at LA City College

19:03 After LA City College he transferred to Cal State LA.

19:09 At LA City College he became a journalism major and worked his way up.

19:20 His last year there, elections for editor were held. He and another student – a white candidate – were the two running for the position.

19:52 His classmates told him that he’ll be the next editor.

20:04 On election day, Clint said that the next editor would be revealed by 1 o’clock during a staff meeting.

20:31 The meeting ended up starting late. The Chair of the department said it was a close election and that Clint’s opponent would be the next editor.

21:04 But Clint had reservations. He felt the chair’s wording was weird and that it was strange that the staff meeting was delayed.

21:10 The other students, according to Clint, were baffled, wondering how this happened.

21:18 In Clint’s mind, this was “racism at its best.” He was the only black student in his class and this was his first experience in a predominantly white environment.

21:38 The students were saying one thing, but the outcome was different.

21:53 The Chair said that since the election was so close that they would make Clint the managing editor. Normally, the editor-in-chief picks the staffs.

22:06 Years later, as Clint is working on his doctorate, he’s teaching at Cal State LA. One of his colleagues on the faculty had formerly been on the faculty at LA City College.

22:40 During lunch with Clint, his colleague revealed that he’ll “never forget how they kept him from being editor.”

23:00 The colleague goes on to tell Clint that the department had a faculty meeting and that the chairwoman told the faculty that Clint had won in a landslide. However, she was determined that there wouldn’t be an African-American editor as long as she chaired that department.

23:29 Clint never knew that, although he had his suspicions.

23:48 It’s an interesting area of study, Clint says.

24:00 He clears this up, adding: “Communication is so important. It can marginalize communities. If you don’t have a voice and you can’t acquire it in a mainstream environment, then you’re subject to whatever news they’re going to report about your community.”

24:38 The highest level of educational attainment for both of his parents was high school.

24:56 Clint didn’t concentrate on stories about African Americans.

25:05 This is because, Clint says, to be a well-rounded reporter you need to cover a lot of different topics.

25:13 So he started in sports.

25:24 There are events in sports, Clint says, that help you sharpen your journalistic skills.

25:39 Early on, Clint covered campus affairs, educational issues, etc.

25:58 A memorable story: Clint went to report on a lecture by a scientist from the jet propulsion lab. The scientist was discussing the lunar landing module.

26:15 On the blackboard were symbols, Clint knew he “was in trouble.”

(clip break)

­Other Experiences

26:41 At a conference in Houston, Texas during the late 70s, Clint received a note from the head of operation Breadbasket in Houston.

27:20 He wanted to talk to Clint because he had seen some of his research.

27:55 This man needed someone to come up with a program and asked Clint to join their board of directors.

28:16 This takes place over the period of a years

28:22   Clint was introduced and told them what initiatives and research.

29:14 All of tis happened in the 1980s during the Regan administration.

29:32 Before that time, Clint wasn’t a member of the Black Media Coalition

29:54 Black Media Coalition was a national group but it was based in Houston

30:16 The NABJ starts around 1975.

30:25 NABJ was inevitable, Clint says. Following a report, the mainstream media started hiring African-Americans into the newsroom. In doing so, they raided the black press

31:01 They were lured away with higher salaries and the opportunity to speak with a larger audience.

31:29 Clint describes this as a double-edged sword: this integration of African-Americans into white media was a major blow to the black press

32:31 The development of NABJ developed because of this integration. Black journalists were limited in the stories they’d cover, or they weren’t being promoted like their white colleagues were.

33:28 Although there was a larger number of African-American reporters, Clint said that insensitivity to these issues still continued.

33:29 This created friction amongst colleagues

34:06 NABJ became an institution in which those individual journalists could address those concerns in a collective kind of way.

34:36 At the same time the Kerner Commision asked higher education folks to put some people of color “in the pipeline.”

35:16 Everybody believed that integration was a good idea (in these higher education organizations) but no one was doing anything, Clint said.

35:26 At the local level, Clint was a founder of the BJA of Southern California, an NABJ chapter.

35:45 He was teaching at Cal State during this time. He began meeting with his black friends from area media like the LA Times and discussing these issues.

36:14 Three of them decided to start the organization.

36:20 (break)

36:36 The founders of the organization were Valerie (Clint can’t remember last name), she was a writer for the style section at the La Times; Bill Luis, a black cameraman at NBC – the 3 of them started talking and things developed from there.

37:18 They were able to get the organization started successfully and then applied to be apart of the national group. It still exists today.

Diversity and the newsroom

38:05 Clint remembers certain stories that advanced the cause of diversity in a negative way.

38:39 At the LA Times there was a black woman, and her colleagues made sexual comments about her.

39:02 Clint’s colleagues knew he wouldn’t partake in these jokes and stopped talking to him about it.

39:11 Another example, Clint says, happened at the times, too.

39:27 A story came across Clint’s desk. His story was about a shooting in South-Central LA. It was full of language implying this was gang related. But the facts, to Clint, didn’t seem to suggest this wasn’t the case.

40:18 There was one source, a cop, who believed this was gang-related violence.

40:32 Clint removed that graph from the article. The next day the reporter was livid.

41:16 Another instance, Clint recalls, occurred during a summer he worked at AP.

41:31 This occurred during the 1980s while Clint was at USC teaching.

41:38 A news advisory came across the wire saying that the LA county health department is going to have a news conference to discuss the deaths of 5 hispanics in East LA.

42:06 It didn’t suggest violence, Clint says. He then passed it on to the Editor’s desk saying this needed to be covered.

42:28 They didn’t do anything, however.

42:42 Later that day, they saw on TV, that the lead story was about these deaths, which were caused by tainted cheese found in this community.

43:24 They came to Wilson, who was on the desk at the time, and asked why this wasn’t covered.

43:33 They later recognized that they blew that story

43:49 They key thing here, Clint says, is that this happened in East LA. Any time 5 people die – for whatever reason – it needs to be covered. That’s news 101.

44:14 Days later they apologized to Clint, saying that they dropped the ball.

44:24 This mentality amazes Clint.

44:43 That experience, specifically, was very instructive because it showed Clint how things worked and why certain things are covered and certain things are not.

45:00 He hopes things are better now, but he says he doesn’t believe the Trayvon Martin story is an isolated event.

45:16 Clint mentions a movie, Fruitdale Station. It’s about a young man that’s kill by the police in that area. These events aren’t infrequent, Clint says.

45:30 Clint says that the notion that people in 2013 think this is an isolated event is mindboggling

45:57 His family didn’t talk about civil rights per se, but Clint was always told that when a cop approaches you don’t give them any hassle.

46:30 “You grow up that way – if you want to survive”

46:53 Clint says that younger colleagues were more observant of his role and status at the newspaper. Older ones, were resentful of Clint’s position.

47:23 There was a diversity role that needed to be filled, Clint says. Whether or not his boss at paper was sincere in his decision remains to be seen.

48:05 The reception generally among his colleagues wasn’t too warm, Clint says.

48:29 The Times wrote a series of stories about black criminal gangs leaving Watts to commit crimes.

49:38 The first headline read: “Marauders from South L.A. Invade”

49:47 Clint was shocked.

49:52 He says the Times spent a lot of money setting up a dummy storefront across the street from the neighborhood these reported gang members lived in.

50:08 Reporters hid inside. The idea was to notice people leaving, presumably getting on this freeway (which was referred to in print as “Nairobi highway”) to commit crimes elsewhere.

50:38 Clint wrote a letter to the editor about this, while he was still working the desk.

50:51 Clint says he was ostracized.

50:55 If something came across his desk, his colleagues would say “Clint wouldn’t want to deal with this ‘cause he thinks we’re all a bunch of racists.” These are the types of comments he received.

51:39 These kinds of stories, Clint hopes, are isolated now.

51:48 This whole thing has been a gradual process.

51:52 Clint is worried that as we get to the point where newspapers are declining in revenue and circulation, there will be fewer and fewer voices for underrepresented communities.

52:14 (quick pause due to noise)

52:29 Clint says there are fewer and fewer people of color that are representing those communities. There’s even a dearth of whites who are sensitive to these issues.

53:04 As these communities are becoming a larger part of the demographics of the United States, at the same time we see the media becoming less representative of those voices.

53:26 The interest in doing this kind of thing has peaked and we’re going down again. We’re loosing people right and left in the industry, Clint says.

Diversity and Academia

53:40 Clint got his Ph.D from USC.

54:24 For many years, Clint ran the summer programs for minority students. He started at Cal State LA.

54:45 For about 10 years he did this program. And were mainly funded by the Wall Street Journal.

54:53 They – Clint and Feliex – started with the multicultural group and as the program got larger they continued to get grants for their efforts.

55:30 The idea was to give these kids a start early.

55:33 The other issue was the de-emphasis of journalism in high school.

55:40 They were trying to fill that void at that level.

55:54 When you talk to educators, they say the main problem is there were pressures put on the curriculum to do other things.

56:09 Also, these programs were expensive. The equipment, how to print a paper – the costs added up.

56:25 At Fremont High School, Clint says they had their own print shop.

56:33 Their journalism program wrote the articles and the print shop printed the articles and the paper came out, Clint said.

56:44 The students, at the beginning of every school year had the option of subscribing to the paper – it was a means of making revenue.

57:08 The benefit for the print shop is they were teaching this craft so it all made sense, Clint said.

57:10 But not many high schools have print shops on campus so they had to find other means of printing.

57:29 That was only true in certain areas, Clint adds. “If you were in a more affluent area, you did have access to those things.”

57:55 Although there is the internet, Clint says students still need to be taught journalistic ethics, reportorial skills, what’s worth reporting and what’s not, etc.

58:05 (Break in recording)

58:19 Clint’s book is now in its 4th edition.

58:28 He’s not sure how many books have been sold, but it’s done very well.

58:43 Last he’s heard, more than 100 colleges and universities use it.

59:07 Clint says it’s rewarding because it laid the groundwork for that field of endeavors.

59:17 That helps people to publish in this area and build their portfolios.

59:32 It’s the combination, Clint says, of having a diversity standard and accreditation.

1:00:08 The first piece Clint wrote academically came out in Journalism Educator.

1:00:14 He was at Cal State LA. Clint’s research was on black journalism students. The research, Clint says reflected his experience: You have these people graduating but they’re not being hired.

1:00:53 In Clint’s research he found that students that are active on the campus newspaper had the best opportunities of getting jobs upon graduation

1:01:10 Those with internships also fared a better chance

1:01:16 But a look at the student body revealed that there were very few minorities

1:01:32 The faculty, Clint says, has a large part in that. They’re not pushing for recruitment, retention, or finding students employment post graduation.

1:01:49 Part of that, Clint believes, has to do with the fact that they’re white. “You look out for your own”, he says.

1:02:00 It occurred to Clint that they needed to get more people of color and women on these faculties.

1:02:10 There have been inroads, but it’s a work in progress.

1:02:20 That was around the time that Clint started going to AEJMC

1:02:35 Here, he met people, who were seeing the same issues in journalism he was.

1:02:48 Clint previously served on the centennial commission.

1:03:13 Armistead Pride was the chair at Lincoln University in Missouri, the prominent journalism university for African Americans

1:03:36 Pride was the first African-American faculty member in AEJ.

1:03:39 Clint read Pride’s book on the history of AEJ and wanted to include it in the centennial book (which never came out).

1:04:06 AEJ has had women almost from the beginning, but not many.

1:04:19 Multiculturalism needed to be a huge component of that book, Clint says.

1:04:38 Clint pushed for its inclusion. Others thought it was weak.

1:05:05 Clint believes there could’ve been a more concerted effort to track this information and the development of faculty of color down.

1:05:33 In 1978, there was a study of the faculty and the researcher found that as late of 1978 there 98 percent of the faculty were white males.

1:06:04 That was an astonishing realization, Clint says. The Kerner report had been out for 10 years by that point.

1:06:15 This is something that Lionel Barrel was addressing from the beginning.

1:06:23 Clint isn’t sure whether he was the second-ever black person at AEJ, but he was one of the firsts.

1:06:45 As we begin to discuss these issues of race in America, we look at the industry and point the finger, Clint says

1:07:00 Clint brings up an anecdote. He was reading an article in the Washington Post. The lead, he says, was essentially that as President Obama walks into a room to discuss race in America, all the reporters covering it are white.

1:07:28 When he comes into the room to discuss immigration, all the reporters are white, Clint says. There are no Hispanics in the room to ask questions or illuminate this issue.

1:07:52 Clint brings up this anecdote, because it’s still a problem still in the industry, but

1:07:57 Clint wonders what kind of innovative ways, if any, are being applied to bring in young, diverse people into the academy.

1:08:39 Clint uses another anecdote to illustrate a point.

1:08:48 His student, a doctoral graduate, recently got his degree. He’s an assistant professor

1:09:37 Clint was also weary of the fact that you have to do these things in the academy if you’re to succeed. Is this issue being taken seriously enough?

1:09:50 If they really want to get a diverse faculty, Clint says, extra effort will have to be made.

1:10:00 He suggests lightening the teaching load, or extra mentoring to make sure that these professors don’t get lost in the system.

1:10:22 It’s really no different than the industry’s situation, Clint says.

1:10:29 “It’s not enough to just give lip service to it”, Clint says. You can’t just hire a person and then put extra expectations on them that nobody in the organization has to address.

1:10:55 This takes extraordinary effort on the part of those in power, Clint says.

1:11:04 It won’t happen on its own, Clint says. “What incentive is there for somebody to go through all this when there’s no real commitment.”

1:11:40 These are bright people with options, Clint says.

1:12:14 These faculty members are “precious jewel”, Clint says. “You need to nurture this and help this person along.”

1:12:30 Clint’s graduate students often ask him if there will be a job for them

1:12:49 There are pressures on these students/faculty members, and Clint believes the academy needs to realize that.

1:13:05 While in graduate school, Clint didn’t have to get many loans. He could afford the tuition at Cal state and then used the GI bill to get his Master’s and doctorate at USC.

1:13:42 He was the only black student in the program. At both the Master’s level and doctorate level.

1:14:36 At Cal State LA his curriculum didn’t really center on diversity.

1:14:41 He taught news writing and reporting, history of media,

1:15:16 One of the things that attracted Clint to teach history was the fact that every history course he took never covered colored people.

1:15:41 The message, Clint says, is that these people are not important.

1:16:02 Additionally, he’s taught mass communication,

1:16:20 You have a certain student body, Clint says, and he felt it was important that they know something about their history in the industry.

1:16:33 At USC, he started his own course. The textbook, minorities in the media, became the basis for the course at USC.

1:16:47 This move was approved by the faculty. It became an elective course.

1:16:57 He also taught introductory mass communication course.

1:17:13 In this class Clint would introduce a unit on people of color in the media.

1:17:25 It was generally well received, he said. But there was always a handful of students questioning its merit.

1:17:41 At Howard, there was more of a background for teaching about people of color in communications.

1:17:57 There was already a course there called “History of the Black and White press.”

1:18:09 When Clint took that course over, he refined it to include the history of multicultural media. He wanted to be as inclusive as possible.

1:18:38 The cultural mix, at Howard, is greater than people think

1:19:03 Every couple of years, Clint teaches, an undergraduate course, but his focus has mainly been on graduate courses.

1:19:30 He has a course on the Black Press, specifically. The other courses he teaches are on pop culture and mass media

1:19:53 He also teaches a sports and media culture course

1:21:11 Clint is often interviewed by established news media, primarily around Black History Month.

1:21:25 Clint served several years on the board of the NAPA, the black press. He was the board of directors on their foundation.

1:21:47 A number of publishers will go to Clint, inquiring about the history of their paper, or if he’ll write a history of their paper.

1:22:10 He’s done a couple of NPR interviews

1:22:17 People in the community don’t really seek out Clint.

1:22:23 At USC he did more community engagement.

1:22:36 He had a couple of seminars for the community on how to deal with the media. For example, a church group would ask how they get positive messages about the community out.

The Media and the community

1:23:20 There is a distrust, Clint says, of general-audience media in the community.

1:23:33 The summer Clint worked at AP, one of the anniversaries of the Watt’s riot came up. “Wilson, that would be a good assignment for you.”

1:23:50 In doing that story, he found there was a lot of distrust, because he was representing AP.

1:24:05 It takes a while to talk to people and show them your sincerity, Clint says.

1:24:25 “I may work for the enemy, but I’m representing you”

1:23:53 Clint thinks it’s all about the readership because anything he does “is filtered through my cultural experience.”

1:25:19 There’s no question that either an editor or as a reporter, Clint decides the content that’s in there.

1:25:35 If something seems too stereotypical, Clint avoids it. He want readers to see causal things, how did things get to be this way?

1:26:09 It’s the responsibility of all reporters to be accurate

1:26:19 Years ago, Clint wrote about his belief that in many instances many well-meaning white reporters are unaware. “When they go into our communities it’s like going into a foreign venue.”

1:26:45 It’s almost like sending an American reporter, who doesn’t know any background information, to Afghanistan, and starts writing away.

1:27:02 A lot of that is subtle, but to Clint it’s fundamental reporting that his job is to present the truth as he sees it. And when you only have a part of the truth, your reporting is affected.

1:27:43 Much of the reporting is the truth, but not the whole truth.

1:28:00 That kind of perspective is the absolute epitome of solid reporting. We don’t get that if we don’t have a cultural understanding, Clint says.

1:28:38 Clint has no problem telling a source the quote he’ll use because he wants to be as accurate as possible.

1:29:03 He likes to think that almost all our reporters of color and women see things through another lens. There’s a sense of obligation to be accurate.

1:29:37 Without the Kernner Commision report, Clint believes we’d still be where we are today.

1:29:50 Clint doesn’t see any particular allegiance to the report.

1:30:01 He thinks that within 10 years of the report it became passé

1:30:16 He believes there have been other forces that have been more important, socio-cultural events that have made a difference.

1:30:33 Specifically, the movements, gay rights, issues with respect to reproductive rights. Clint says there’s been a shift in society.

1:30:58 Changes in demographics have also had profound influence.

1:31:15 There’s been – in some instances – better reporting by whites, Clint says

1:31:22 The Kerner report brought it to our consciousness, but that’s it

1:31:42 Clint uses an anecdote to illustrate his point

1:31:42 A professor once told him that ‘Americans can’t concentrate any one issue for too long. They may seem gung-ho about it, but something else will happen and draw their attention away.”

1:32:16 When Clint thinks about the Kerner report he sees it in a similar vein. It was something that struck at the communication industry, but the general population has no idea what this report means or its implications.

1:32:34 Clint believes that the initial reaction was one of embarrassment

1:33:32 It had the collective attention for a few years, Clint says, but there was no commitment.

1:33:40 The first couple of years were an attempt to fix that initial embarrassment

1:34:00 Clint wonders why summer programs for minority journalists stopped. “Are we suggesting this problem has been resolved?”

1:34:13 Clint says that some use the recession or state of the newspaper industry as an excuse: “how can we hire more people?” The irony of that, Clint says, is that some papers could’ve survived had they taken note of the demographic shift

1:34:30 In an article Clint co-wrote, Otis Chandler, publisher of the LA Times, said when African-Americans, Latinos and Asians get sophisticated enough they will become readers of the LA Times and when they become readers then our advertisers will jump on board

1:35:07 Clint doesn’t agree. “Advertisers have no allegiance to the media, only to those who can deliver the audience.

1:35:19 “If you’re sitting in the middle of Los Angeles in a sea of black, brown, yellow – all kinds of faces – and you’re not addressing the needs of those communities, you are going to die.”

1:35:50 Clint believes that if diversity “takes a back seat” then our society will be in trouble.

1:36:00 Corporate America will be the first to take notice the demographic shift, because their livelihood depends on extracting dollars from the consumers

1:36:46 Media that doesn’t change will be in trouble.

1:36:51 Clint’s concern right now is that digital media operations are as interested in multiculturalism as they should be

AEJMC Trailblazers of Diversity

AEJMC Trailblazers of Diversity – Reginald Stuart

AEJMC Trailblazers of Diversity in Journalism Education

Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication

School of Journalism

University of Texas at Austin

The purpose of this index is to mark the themes that have emerged in the interviews conducted so far. From these indexes we will develop an extensive guide of the areas to be covered in the interviewer’s story of the interview subject – and where the viewer/listener can find them.
We ask you watch the interview and give descriptions about what the interview has to say about the issues listed here. We ask you to note any NEW topics that you find in the interview – issues that are not included in this index. YOU MUST INCLUDE COUNTER OR TIMES. At the end of the index you will find a section for your comments of the interviewer in general, the interviewer and your suggestions for improvements in further interviews. We also ask you to give us your opinion on whether this interview is a good subject to be contacted for the second-level interviews.
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Interview Subject: Reginald Stuart
Interviewer: Martin do Nascimento
Interview date: 3/30/2014
Number of Recorded Segments: 1
Interview length: 01:13:51
Language: English
Reviewer: Carlos Morales
Date of review for index: 7/1/2014

Table of Contents:
Early Experiences in Journalism (3-7)
Diversity in the Newsroom (7-11)
Journalism education (11-14)
The News Industry Today (14-15)

0:00 – 3:15 Introduction and preamble
Early experiences in journalism
3:16 Stuart’s first experience with journalism dates back to his childhood. He had
3:22 He had a newspaper when he was a kid, around 10-12-years-old.

3:30 The major daily newspaper in his hometown of Nashville did a story about two competing neighborhood editors, Stuart and a kid from down the street.

3:57 When they interviewed Stuart for the article they asked him what he wanted to do when he grew up. He told them that he wanted to own the paper – their paper.

4:05 Stuart says they were amused.

4:16 When he went to college he majored in sociology.

4:24 After he graduated he went looking for a job and decided not to go into sociology. He went by the newspaper and applied for a job.

4:33 In those days, Stuart says, it’s a lot easier than it is today.

4:42 They told Stuart that there wasn’t an immediate job opening but he could apply and they’d let him know when positions became available.

4:48 The newspaper remembered Stuart from the childhood story that was written about him.

4:54 They said, “He’s the kid that wanted to buy the paper, right?” and hired him.

4:58 The newspaper called Stuart about a week before graduating college and offered him a job.

5:06 The position was a starting reporter.

5:23 The managing editor – although Stuart had wanted to take the summer off before working – said he needed Stuart to beging work the Monday after graduation.

5:28 He told Stuart that if he couldn’t take it the job would be gone. Stuart took the offer.

5:36 “I went to work like a week after I graduated and I haven’t stopped work since and that was more than 40 years ago.”

5:47 Stuart says that he loves what newspaper do now and he loved what they did then as a child.

6:10 Stuart grew up in a “city where news is very important to all people”

6:19 There were weekly papers, there were the two major daily papers. Those weren’t papers for kids, though, Stuart says.

6:27 Stuart says that he wanted to have a paper not because the other papers were for adults, but because he wanted to be involved in “this enterprise of gathering information.”

6:50 The idea, Stuart says, was to be the first to know about things in his neighborhood.

6:57 The inspiration, Stuart says, was the desire to get the news first and disseminate it.

7:07 Stuart shortly realized that despite how good the local papers were, there was still news that they couldn’t cover.

7:17 They didn’t have enough people, time, or they just didn’t know about things.

7:25 Stuart wrote about the things he thought should be in the paper.

7:37 He had news stories in it, he had a friend make cartoons for the editorial page, entertainment news, a gossip column, a music column – it was hyper-local news, focusing on his street.

8:13 Stuart did that for 3 years and it evolved into a really good following.

8:23 Stuart’s rival editor, who lived at the end of the street, took care of his end of the neighborhood.

8:30 “It was growing on an innate feeling that there’s more news out there and I want to tell about it.”

8:45 Stuart gives an example of the kind of stories he’d write. The hospital in his neighborhood was going to expand and build a new wing – he wrote about that.

8:51 There were back-to-school stories.

9:01 He had a fire-prevention week story.

9:06 It was “nice stuff”, Stuart says, that he found interesting as a young person.

9:37 His early endeavor was “ a reflection of what was going on around the neighborhood – it was important.”

9:45 Stuart called it “The Neighborhood Times”.

9:50 He named nicknamed the paper “TNT” – after the explosive material, a reference to the Cold War Era, Stuart says.

10:26 Stuart wrote some of the stories, but he also relied on his neighborhood for help. Older people in the area helped Stuart with cooking columns or secretarial tips columns and kids his age wrote the gossip and music column.

11:10 Whenever these people didn’t have time to write, Stuart would write it.

11:18 He would then type it up on stencils and would have it printed at printing department at the hospital, who Stuart had befriended.

11:33 He would charge Stuart a dollar or so for 100 sheets of paper

11:38 Stuart would write for a couple days, sell ads for a couple days, then print on a Thursday or Friday and distribute the paper.

11:50 Stuart says that at some point his paper gained popularity and he reached “national circulation”

11:59 “National circulation” included all of Stuart’s relatives across the country.

12:43 Stuart says his innate feeling to cover and disseminate the news was because he “must’ve been nosey”

12:47 “I liked reading the paper…I just thought that newspapers were cool because they talked about stuff and I liked to talk about stuff.”

13:10 Stuart read many newspapers growing up, including The National Tennessean, The Banner, Life Magazine.

13:40 Stuart got these at the library. He was a paperboy and “threw” the Banner so he kept a copy for himself.

14:04 Stuart goes on to list several more newspapers and magazines that he read and that were available to him.

14:48 The main thing, Stuart says, is that they all had something new and different.

15:14 There wasn’t a particular theme or topic that Stuart enjoyed the most. He “liked it all”

15:30 A lot of things, Stuart says, you learned as you went. “You started off saying I want to know what’s in there, and then you start picking and choosing.”

15:46 For Stuart some of his disinterests included sports. He liked science, and politics. He wasn’t a big culinary enthusiast, he adds.

16:25 There were things that were important, Stuart says, that he may not have had an interest in, but others did.

16:42 Stuart says he learned a lot about the importance of the skillsets that were described in his columns, such as cooking and typing.

17:22 Stuart’s mother was a “big reader”, his dad read Western fiction and the paper. But they weren’t “consumed with reading” – it was jut a part of their routine.

17:56 Radio news was marginal in those days, Stuart says.

18:07 Television was a half hour a day. No noontime newscast, or evening news. Stuart said he had 3 stations: NBC, ABC, CBS.

18:30 Stuart says that the 30-minute newscast only allowed for so much. The news generally included sports, weather, and regular news.

18:46 Eventually, Stuart says, more and more stations began having newscasts, what they called “rip and read”

18:55 Stuart says they were called this because on the FCC mandates you have 5 minutes of news every hour if you were a certain category of station.

19:05 According to Stuart, everyone had news. They might be “ripping and reading” Stuart says, but they had news.

19:14 That’s important, he continues, because you grew up in an environment of being informed.

19:41 Stuart says you couldn’t listen to one station all day long. “You had to get some information on which to make decisions about things. And that was cool.”

20:04 Stuart says that he learned that “gossip is valuable”

20:15 “Even the smallest information you have – that’s a story.

20:25 You also learn, Stuart adds, that as a newspaper editor or publisher you have a lot of power, you have a lot of responsibility.

20:52 In TV you learn the same thing, Stuart said.

20:54 “You’re reaching thousands of people at one time. It’s a very delicate and fragile responsibility.”

21:48 Stuart says that when you have only a certain number of people on the staff you can’t cover everything.

22:24 A lot of publications couldn’t cover everything because they didn’t have the manpower, Stuart says.

22:33 Another reason is that as a news organization you make a judgment about what’s important and what needs covering.

22:42 A lot of times you make a judgment that reflects your history, what your interests are, etc.

23:05 This is why, Stuart says, that broadening the ranks of newsmakers became so important.

23:15 News organizations soon realized that they weren’t covering the whole community; they weren’t covering people of color, they weren’t covering poor people, women, etc.

23:28 As these organizations open their mind to what’s important, Stuart says, then you’ll start seeing things that weren’t being covered.

24:30 Stuart says he was too young to recognize that they local papers weren’t covering these issues.

24:40 There were a lot of social changes between when Stuart was a kid and when he began working.

24:52 It’s then, he says, that he realized what the issues were

25:13 Stuart offers an example of how he understood news as a kid and as an adult

25:17 Nashville had a lot of colleges and the paper had a “vibrant” sports section

25:43 You realized after a while, Stuart says, that some of the black colleges were only getting a couple paragraphs worth of coverage – even in their winning season.

26:05 Clip abruptly cuts

26:33 Stuart says that American Airlines – the major airline servicing Nashville – had a strike coming up. This kept him busy
26:44 One time, he went to the airport and noticed a factory that was making the wings for what was then a type of plane, the jumbo jet.

27:14 This inspired Stuart and he went back to the paper saying that he’s found his beat: “a combination of transportation and aviation”

27:29 Although reluctant at first, the paper allowed Stuart to work this beat. He ended up writing at least 2 front-page articles a week for the next several months.

27:50 Stuart says he had to learn how to write newspaper style first and had to find his niche. “You had to figure out a niche, this is yours, aviation and transportation were mine.”

28:13 “Those little things,” Stuart adds, “were important, teach-ful moments that helped me get focused as a journalist.”’

Diversity in the Newsroom

28:53 Stuart was the first full-time black news reporter. There was a part-time black religion writer and one full-time black person running the photo lab.

29:12 “It was a diverse as you were going to get in 1968”

29:33 Stuart says there weren’t any problems that came up in the newspaper

29:38 The problems that Stuart had were “external.”

29:47 Stuart had a problem with the police department. He realized that the speech they used when talking over the radio was antiquated, “they were stuck in the 50s and before.

30:29 Stuart went to the Police chief and asked them if they still used the term “colored.”

30:40 By then, Stuart adds, they were being called “negroes.”

30:50 The police chief was hesitant to believe Stuart, asking if he had research to back up the claim that they didn’t want to be called “colored.” So Stuart started a survey.

31:09 Stuart then did a survey, asking members of city council and civic leaders of the black neighborhood.

31:18 He took the survey back to the chief. But Stuart doesn’t think it every changed anything.

31:35 Stuart says that the paper was very supportive.

31:38 What the paper wanted, Stuart said, was people – regardless of sex or color – who were in to journalism, who had spark, who could go out and do things.

32:06 “What I also learned was that if they gave anybody hell, they gave everybody hell.”

32:26 It didn’t matter who you were, Stuart said. “If your stuff was bad, your stuff was bad”

32:32 When Stuart realized that the structure of checks and balances on people wasn’t limited to race or sex, he saw that the newspaper had a high standard of productivity and expectation.

32:57 The newspapers commitment to journalism was greater than any discriminatory practices.

33:16 Stuart watched a couple people who got one-day dismissals because they weren’t reporting well.

33:46 “It wasn’t a double standard or triple standard or a black standard or a white standard – it was a standard for journalism and you had to be good at it.”

New York Times?

35:44 At the times, Stuart says, there was a high standard as well. What you didn’t know you had to learn fast

36:21 They were a superbly edited newspaper, Stuart adds. “If you work with them, they worked with you.”

36:57 The level of diversity at the Times was about the same as the Tennessean

36:59 Stuart says this is because newspapers were two mindsets 1) they were going to find journalists or 2) they were going to find untrained people and teach them journalism skills.

37:36 No one is really qualified, Stuart said, adding, “the question is are you ready for the challenge?”

37:46 Stuart says that news organizations were going to have much more luck in finding a successful reporter if they looked for spark and drive – not color or sex.

38:09 The Times was looking for people ready for the challenge.

39:08 Stuart, however, does say that there were plenty of times when diversity needed to be addressed in the newsroom.

39:13 There were two lawsuits against the New York Times, Stuart says, both about hiring women and minorities.

39:22 Both lawsuits looked at the number of people being hired and salary discrepancy.

39:36 “They were at points in time for the Times that you could use that boost of attention to keep doing progressive things – not because it was the law, but because it was the right thing to do.”

40:14 You don’t find many people saying that today, Stuart says.

40:28 When Stuart got in the business he says there was a passion to change things.

41:01 Stuart says that could be said of all the places he worked. “In that era it was the time to do the right thing.”

41:29 You had degrees of moving forward

41:41 You could identify the different paper’s ideologies, Stuart says, by reading them for a couple weeks. What are they covering? What are the editorials saying? What kind of columnists do they have?

42:25 Stuart says that to “you wanted to make sure you had a complete report” when reporting.

42:36 His report would be diverse when it needed to be. He didn’t ignore anything.

42:50 “You got to remember there’s a lot of discrimination that’s active and there’s discrimination that’s passive.”

42:55 He says that a lot of discrimination that was before his generation was passive.

43:02 A lot of discrimination was active, too. Stuart says that you could find a lot of newspapers – primarily in the south – that actively didn’t cover.

42:19 “That was a reflection of who they were as an institution”, Stuart says.

42:25 Stuart saw influencing diversity as part of his job. “My job was not to go out and make sure the race news got covered, my job was to make sure that the news we covered was inclusive.”

43:38 Stuart says that it’s a sematic difference, but that it’s a very important one.

43:41 There are some things, Stuart says, that he would find that he would want to be covered that wouldn’t be normally.

43:55 Stuart gives example

43:55 Stuart says that if he’s writing a story about the demise of the old military-related retiree clubs, historically you would write about the white club. But he says he would find the Black club and include the two American Legion Clubs together.

44:23 It’s a subtle shift in what you’re doing, Stuart says, but you’re still writing about the same topic.

44:46 Across the South, Stuart says that there were a couple of teacher associations. There was the white one and there was the black one.

45:12 De-segregation happens and these two organizations dissolve and unite into one. But the merger occurred differently on both sides, Stuart says.

45:25 In some of them “all the black structure would disappear” and blacks would just be members they wouldn’t be leaders.

45:35 In others you would find that blacks were merging as leaders or in some higher capacity.

45:41 In writing about this simulation, Stuart says, you would focus on the shortcomings of the mergers, e.g. people aren’t paying dues. Race, Stuart says, adds “a whole new layer of discussion.”

Journalism education

47:20 Stuart first got started with journalism education in the 1970s. At this time, he says, there was still an effort to accelerate the pace at which they were bringing people of color into the newsrooms.

47:39 Several programs emerged out of these efforts. One was by the Ford Foundation out of Cornell University in New York. It eventually moved to UC Berkley.

47:55 It was called the Summer Program for Minorities in Journalism

47:57 Stuart says you would recruit about 15-20 college graduates who wanted to be journalists and you would bring professionals in to mentor them about 6 days a week, 8 hours a day.

48:18 The idea was to teach the students in about 8-10 weeks what they would normally learn in 1 year in a newsroom.

48:25 This is where Stuart got started in journalism education.

48:46 By this point, Stuart had 12 years experience in journalism.

49:07 The mentors would teach how to structure a story, how to report it, what the ups and downs are of doing so, ethics, writing style, etc.

50:01 These students, Stuart said, needed to figure out what a reporter does. Which he says is to find people, go to situations, and get them to talk. The second part is to write it.

50:42 Nowadays, he adds, you find that too many reporters – particularly television reporters – you find that you’re told what a source says, but never hear from them.

50:56 “Your job, truthfully, is to facilitate people telling the story.”

51:19 You need to tell their story effectively, coherently – in either long form or briefly. Stuart says that a lot of what the students wanted to know is how to do that.

51:30 “You got to ask questions”

52:39 Stuart says that the program taught these students how to report and in the process of good reporting “the adjectives will provide themselves”

53:24 We’d also teach them to learn that “they’re not important, the story is”

54:18 It’s the philosophy of being inclusive. You can’t just say you’re looking for the truth, Stuart says, you need to be looking for the facts – the truth will emerge.

55:50 Stuart says that the questions that the program’s students asked (about diversity) were generally expected.

55:55 “’I’m going into an all-white newsroom. What do I do?’ and my answer is pretty stupid, ‘be a reporter.’”

56:02 Stuart says he doesn’t want to inject more skepticism, or self-intimidation into your thinking before you get there.
56:20 If you’re not productive, if you’re not good, they’re going to target you, Stuart says.

56:25 Stuart says that thinking that they’re picking on you because you’re black is the wrong thinking.

56:35 He says that’s because your work may be sloppy. “There’s a lot of reasons they don’t like you and race is not the main one.”

56:50 Stuart says he’s worked with people who were racists.

57:14 Stuart says that sometimes when you can overcome the other reasons that they’re picking on you, the race factor will disappear.

57:41 “You can’t play the race card over and over again when you’re not producing up to speed, when you’re not carrying your part of the load.”

59:19 Stuart says that the main thing you need to understand about teaching journalism is that the people you’re teaching aren’t dumb just because they don’t know what you know.

59:32 By the same token, Stuart says, you need to understand that people that have been here longer than you know more.

59:46 Stuart says he was interviewing a student who wanted to be a sports writer. He gave him a name-recognition quiz, tailored for sports. The student failed it.

1:00:14 “That doesn’t mean he’s dumb, that doesn’t mean he’s stupid – it does mean he’s not qualified, but he’s ready for the challenge.”

1:00:29 Stuart says that if he spends time working with this student on his knowledge gap then he’ll be ready in a couple years.

1:01:06 “So when you’re teaching you have to understand that you’re going to wind up with a mixture of people who just really are late. There’s lots that they don’t have.”

1:01:26 If you can find someone who wants to learn, then share your knowledge with them, Stuart says.

1:02:14 Stuart tells an anecdote of a graduate student.

1:02:25 This student had to take a math class. And she said in the middle of class, “I’m not here to learn math, I’m here to cover politics and government.”
1:02:47 Stuart says she missed the whole point. “Wherever you are – politics, entertainment, science, health – it’s money.”

1:03:19 Stuart says that this student was too narrow in her thinking of what a journalist does.

1:03:40 Stuart says that he meets a lot of people in college that want to be entertainment writers.

1:04:00 But, Stuart says, what happens if they star gets in trouble? You need to know how to write a court story, follow their arrest procedure, etc.

1:04:41 “Will you lose the story once it goes to page 1?”

1:05:52 “It’s so important to write about the whole story. We’re talking about inclusiveness – that’s the whole story.”

(switching SD cards)

The News Industry Today

1:07:06 Stuart says that overall the role of diversity in newsrooms has cooled off. The economy, Stuart adds, has also contributed to this

1:07:26 The enthusiasm of journalism is not present today, Stuart says.

1:07:40 People still say the right thing, but we don’t see them doing the right thing, Stuart says.

1:07:55 In that respect, Stuart says, diversity may be important, but how important it is to the people has come down a few notches.

1:08:09 There’s no one making noise about it, Stuart says.

1:08:18 The consequence of this is that the newsrooms will regress to where they were years ago.

1:08:30 Newsrooms that were once making progress in bringing diversity to their ranks and no longer doing that.

1:08:49 You don’t want this to be a fluke decade or era, Stuart says, in regards to diversity efforts, but that’s what it’s become.

1:09:52 Media owners still have a lot of money left, Stuart says, and they need to invest in people of color.

1:10:06 There are a lot more companies now moving online and social media, Stuart says. And he hasn’t seen a serious effort there to bring emerging people of color into these areas

1:10:44 “The same effort you had for print and broadcast 30 years ago, 40 years ago, you need to have that same presence today for emerging media – and I don’t see it.”

1:11:43 Stuart says that we need to be straightforward in asking for more people of color.

1:12:01 We want a broad array of meaningful programing aimed at a broad audience.

1:12:10 If we don’t get the consumer giving us feedback, Stuart says, then the people “running it” don’t realize that they’re missing anything.

1:12:32 If you hear more people complaining, then you’re going to hear it, Stuart says.

1:13:06 The reader, the public may need to wake up, Stuart says, and say something and the newsrooms will respond and “get their act together”

1:13:15 Stuart says that the news industry is unfortunately “trailing off” in that area.

AEJMC Trailblazers of Diversity

AEJMC Trailblazers of Diversity – Federico Subveri

AEJMC Trailblazers of Diversity in Journalism Education

Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication

School of Journalism

University of Texas at Austin

The purpose of this index is to mark the themes that have emerged in the interviews conducted so far. From these indexes we will develop an extensive guide of the areas to be covered in the interviewer’s story of the interview subject – and where the viewer/listener can find them.
We ask you watch the interview and give descriptions about what the interview has to say about the issues listed here. We ask you to note any NEW topics that you find in the interview – issues that are not included in this index. YOU MUST INCLUDE COUNTER OR TIMES. At the end of the index you will find a section for your comments of the interviewer in general, the interviewer and your suggestions for improvements in further interviews. We also ask you to give us your opinion on whether this interview is a good subject to be contacted for the second-level interviews.
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Interview Subject: Federico Subveri
Interviewer: Martin Do Nascimento
Interview date: 5/7/2014
Number of Recorded Segments: 3
Interview length: 01:16:37
Language: English
Reviewer: Carlos Morales
Date of review for index: 6/12/14

Table of Contents:
Early Experience in Journalism (3)
Federico’s studies (4-5)
Diversity in Academia (5-10)
AEJMC (11-13)

Early Experiences in Journalism:

2:33 Says the interesting part of his personal story was he intended – since high school and throughout some of college – to be an aeronautical engineer.

2:56 interest in math didn’t “match up” once he got to college.

3:05 He witnessed protests to Vietnam War at University of Puerto Rico and what he saw personally differed from the media accounts.

3:25 These differences caused him to say: “There’s something wrong here – why?”

3:37: He excelled in the area of social sciences and decided to explore media

3:52 During his last year of college, the university introduced the master’s degree in public communication.

4:05 He was one of the first 33 students to enroll in the program at the University of Puerto Rico

4:15 At this point he wanted to be a journalist, he wanted to write about journalism.

4:17 He worked at the San Juan Star as a copy boy. Because of this position he was able to do some freelance work for the SJ Star.

4: 29 Here he also witnessed the lifestyle of journalists in the newsroom and realized that wasn’t him.

4:43 At the end of his master’s degree he started weighing the options of a Ph.D in communication because he wanted to do research about media.

4:48 He was admitted to the University of Wisconsin at Madison

5:09 His work has been a “social science approach to the field”

5:54: As a Puerto Rican in Puerto Rico, he was the majority; only minority in political beliefs.

6:10 He wasn’t aware of being a “Latino or Hispanic” until he had to fill out forms and felt “that’s the closest category – I’m just a puertoriqueño.”

6:35 (more on Vietnam protests): The experience of the protests and then reading the newspapers the next day is one that told him there was something wrong with the system and how stories are covered, their political meaning.

7:33 Until that point he was apolitical, but those contradictions alerted him and urged him to study that.

His Studies

8:00 His studies at Wisconsin were directed with his desire “to understand the political economy of the media system of Puerto Rico.”

8:13 He wanted to understand the decision why the decision makers in Puerto Rico, in terms of news construction, did what they did.

8:42 Expanded his research to include the political economy of not only Puerto Rico but Latin America.

8:48 Another turning point in his decision to continue his communication studies was an international conference in San Jose, Costa Rica, where “the most progressive minds of media in Latin America” were meeting.

9:45 He was beginning to understand how media, politics and the economics work together.

10:01 At Wisconsin, his studies were a challenge because the university was very much a social science empirical oriented university and school of journalism

10:16 He did the coding for a study on Hispanics in Chicago and was allowed to do studies on this data, which would eventually become the basis for his dissertation.

11:44 The body of his research was new and pioneering – he was supported to continue his efforts.

12:12 His first job was at the University of California Santa Barbara where he learned what it meant to be a professor. By 1992 he began work at UT Austin.

12:20 At the time he had no intention to stay as a professor in the United States.

12:29 He wanted to go back to Puerto Rico because part of his studies had been funded by the University of Puerto Rico presidential system.

12:42 As he finished his studies and began working, the political power in Puerto Rico shifted form center to right wing. The president of the university system, Federico found out years later, didn’t want any more pro-independence professors in the school of communication.

13:11 As much as he applied and tried to get back to Puerto Rico, he never got a positive response from any university in any system in the country.

13:29 While at UT he did the first study on the political economy of the media system of Puerto Rico.

12:45 He continued his interest in Puerto Rico and developed the study of Latinos in media in the United States in all branches, children, politics, etc.

13:58: The third branch of his interests became race and media relations in Brazil. He performed these studies with support from the LLilas office (Lozano Long Institute of Latin American Studies).

15:52 While at Wisconsin, he realized that there were two emerging tracks on Latino Media studies were: The ownership and history of Spanish media in the United States and

16:33 Overall there were very few studies on Latinos and media.

16:56 There were hardly any studies, Federico recalls, that connected the use of media and political knowledge and opinions and behaviors among Latinos.

17:17 There had been studies about the use of media and politics, but the research wasn’t quite aligned with Federico’s overall research goals.

17:59 Still as of today, there are a lot of studies that look at history, ownership, use of media, and now there’s content analysis of films, TV shows and print

18:26 There’s still a sizeable gap in terms of survey research that connects use of media and knowledge.

18:44 An area he’s developed is emergency communication, how people who are not English-speakers understand there’s an emergency.

18:55 There’s a huge gap in terms of policy, knowledge and implementation for Latinos who are primarily Spanish-speakers.

19:09 Federico had to find the gaps that had not been developed and then explore them – at Wisconsin it was all beginning. Now there’s an explosion of literature.

Diversity at Wisconsin

20:11 At Wisconsin he had the blessing of open-minded professors who allowed him to engage in the field of work he was interested in, but there wasn’t a professor who could teach him what he learned about in Latinos and media.

20:41 Diversity at the time meant Blacks and Whites. 

20:44 There was a sense of awareness, but not as much as it is today, recognizing changing demographics and the growth of Latino populations and their media.

20:53 Some of his professors at Wisconsin weren’t aware of these populations and their media.

21:07 There were, however, professors that guided him to literature.

21:12 While at Wisconsin, he was supported to engage in this fledgling field

22:44 In the time he’s taught, there’s been a dramatic change in the field of communication. There’s recognition now of the demographic shift.

22:54 There’s a need to embrace research in these arenas.

22:57 One of the contributions to the change has been the recent graduates who became professors and studied in this field.

23:49 These graduates have populated this area, doing research and engage in teaching others.

23:57 What is still lacking is the institutional higher level decision makers who validate and support this work.

24:11 Even at UT Austin, the school of journalism has Latino professors but there isn’t a whole track dedicated to the research of getting a Ph.D in Latinos in Media.

24:31 The department of radio-television-film had an interdisciplinary concentration of diversity and media. But didn’t have the research to go with it.

24:42 The college of communication has not had, developed and promoted an integrated Masters and doctoral program to attract, train and prepare future researchers in the social science of communication.

25:08 That is missing still.

25: 10 In these 30 years, the studies, the content analysis, the history of these works is growing.

25:25 Kent Wilkinson – not a Latino – has branched off and done similar studies and is now a director at Texas Tech.

25:50 It’s not just a privy for Latinos or other minorities it’s still a lack of institutional recognition of the value of these programs.
26:08 At the undergraduate levels there are courses here and there but there isn’t an institution dedicated to this research.

26:56 A Senior professor at UC Santa Barbara told Federico’s student that here Latino studies was a dead end.

27:17 This, Federico says, implies that not only were this student’s efforts not worthwhile, but neither was Federico’s.

27:23 UC Santa Barbara has yet to hire another Latino professor who can engage in these studies, Federico says.

27:55 The decision makers there haven’t recognized the need for it.

28:03 The institutional, high-level effort to make change is not there.

28:11 At UT, the environment was more supportive.

28:21 Federico left to New York temporarily, returned to UT, and was told by the key decision maker of the radio-television-film chair department that “that Latino stuff you do is not a priority here anymore, so I’m not going to hire you.”

29:24 He then moved to Texas State University.

29:35 Within a few months he developed a program that became the Center for the Study of Latino Media and Markets. It flourished for 5 years.

30:01 Support dwindled and wasn’t as strong as it needed to be for the center to survive and to keep him there.

30:10 Now at Kent State University

30:26 In 1992, he proposed to school director at UT a program – for the college – to develop Latinos and media issues. The dean at the time told him, “that’s not relevant here.”

31:07 When he moved to Texas State, he updated the proposal and within a year he had the center.

31:20 It depends on the decision makers, he says, who are either open minded or not.

32:16 Some of these decision makers don’t have the capacity to value these programs because they were educated in a narrow field, in which Latinos weren’t a topic.

33:00 It’s not part of their radar, of their value system. It’s other.

33:15 Federico says, in 30 years the demographics have changed, the media have changed, the political power of Latinos has been demonstrated and there is a different mindset.

33:42 Given the changes, the need for a professor who can teach the social science of Latinos in communications isn’t a priority, he says.

34:15 The perspective may be that what they’re doing is good enough.

34:54 The one university that comes close to having these programs/institutions is the University of Urbana- Champaign.

35:21 There’s still the need to enhance – at the college level, at the university level – an integrated effort to study these populations, their media and their effects.

37:01 Federico has seen that 1/3 or more of the applicants – people who have earned or are about to earn their Ph.Ds – are people with Asian backgrounds in their names.

37:26 Federico hardly finds a Latino name.

37:40 He says we haven’t done a good enough job to develop, at the high school and undergraduate level, degree programs and interest in Latino media studies. The same goes, he says for other ethnicities.

38:10 Even though there are Latinos engaged in graduate-level education, they are not in the social science and statistical analysis.

38:43 Statistical skills are a necessity for this field, which may not available to many Latinos.

39:15 Federico says he believes that those – namely Latinos and African-Americas – who lack these skills are encouraged to become teaching assistants.

40:03 What’s missing, Federico says, is the need to purposely recruit and train the minorities that don’t have those skills but have to be trained to get that knowledge and go into the research field.

40:49 It’s a cycle that can only be broken by training these specific students who are underprivileged or understudied.

41:00 They then can become future publishers and do training and recruiting for future generations.

41:31 He wants to emphasis that there are individual efforts; there are people who recognize the need to understand Latino/African-American populations.

41:53 Rarely will you find an institution that will incorporate this as part of its flagship.

42:35 We need doctoral-level classes that teach the research on the political economy, history, on the uses, on the content analysis, on the effects of media on diverse populations.

42:48 We need more than just a “catch-all course.”

43:00 (Siren in the background, interview stopped for several seconds) (ask maggie about this part)

44:58 The interesting thing about studying race in Brazil is that the leading scholar is a white Italian (heritage) Brazilian woman.

45:34 This professor’s students, who have graduates, are now the ones teaching these issues in Brazil and teaching the next generation.

45:45 They are, however, behind in the national recognition for the need to enhance and teach these issues. It’s an incremental process as it is here.

46:20 Most of the studies he’s familiar with in Brazil are content analysis on how the media has treated race issues.

46:56 The reason for Brazil being behind in is there’s an ideology that there is no racial differences. The reality, however, is that there are major differences, Federico says.

47:33 Still we have a gap in people who are trained and can train others to engage in research in this arena.

47:51 For too many years, Federico says, it was assumed that racial issues were minority issues in passing.

48:02 Some of the first academics writing about this assumed that minorities emigrated with very little knowledge of the U.S., learned about it and left their old cultural values behind – which Federico says is old hat.

48:30 Latinos – and other groups – hardly ever assimilate, they adapt. It’s a sum game. These groups learn about U.S. culture and learn about their heritage.

48:54 The term Federico uses to describe this is situational ethnicity

49:21 It’s not a linear process of leaving behind old culture, taking on new culture.

51:06 Some recognize that there’s a problem.

51:56 Study after study makes it evident that there is a problem in the underrepresentation and the misrepresentation of Afro-brasileros in their media.

52:16 Federico wants to aim bring this research to the decision makers to press the need for change.

52:44 He doesn’t think there’s a need for that much individual research in Brazil to figure out that need.

52:58 Negative images cause harm to the stereotyped individual and to the general population that assumes incorrectly who and what those “others” are.

53:13 If we can get that research to decision makers in advertisement, in television – there will be a great leap forward, Federico says.

53:51 It’s not just enough to say there’s a need bring minorities into the school of journalism, there needs to be a systematic effort.

54:03 This is related to the quotas in Brazil, Federico says.

54:08 Federico explains that kids aren’t given the same advantages as others. He uses analogy of kids running a race, some have shoes, some have been coached and others have had neither.

55:00 He says the same applies to journalism schools and mass communication.

55:06 Years of undertraining – not lack of skill – is what hinders some students. It’s important to recognize that.

56:19 People will act when they’re pressured to do so. But part of that process to be convinced requires more background, understanding of the situation, Federico says.

56:39 Too many decision makers don’t have that background

56:58 Major decisions require money, Federico says, and money then is directed to those who they see in their experiences that are pressuring them.

57:17 One of the most recent programs that was developed form the Dean’s level is at Cal-State Fullerton. The dean recruited and developed their center, specifically to teach about Latinos and media.

57:54 There were some reluctant members of the faculty.

58:07 At this institution, dean was proponent. At others, there’s usually more support from faculty but not from decision makers.

59:00 He hopes that there’s more higher-level decision making processes, given the change in demographics.

59:25 It’s imperative for major efforts to be directed at Latino populations and media, the uses and the effects on this population and general population and other ethnic minorities.


1:00:29 Federico says that it was through support from AEJMC that he gained validation for the work he was doing

1:00:36 His first AEJMC conference was in 1976.

1:00:39 That year it took place at Wisconsin.

1:01:01He attended the conventions, became a member, and started to receive the journals.

1:02:05 Federico says the support he received from AEJMC members was widespread – but he wasn’t receiving this kind of support from his faculty, professors at Santa Barbara.

1:02:35 Federico was either a graduate student or a young professor when he was recruited to be apart of the minorities in communication division.

1:02:47 He was then nominated a position within that division, became a chair, and was recruited to the commission.

1:03:03 During those years of participation, Federico says two things happened: He received validation for his work and he was able to talk to (and be listened to) about the value of diversity.

1:03:27 Whether it was panel opportunities, involvement, research, it helped him on the way to get a foothold with the organization.

1:04:24 The value of AEJMC for diversity issues is twofold.

1:04:28 With its minorities in communication division, anyone that does diversity issues has an opportunity to get their work evaluated even if it’s not accepted for a convention.

1:04:49 The work is evaluated and given feedback that can contribute to the enhancement of that research.

1:05:00 For those whose paper is accepted, the conference is a place where they have full support – they don’t have to justify, Federico says, it’s a given that it is valued.

1:05:16 This networking contributes to the enhancement of the scholarship of minority issues in communication.

1:05:44 As students and scholars present their work in these other divisions (not just the minorities in communication division), then diversity is acknowledged and valued and expanded into those other divisions as well, Federico says.

1:06:29 One of the projects that AEJMC had was the journalism leadership institute for diversity (JLID). This brought together a number of minority faculty, women and minority. Federico says it often went to white women who learn leadership skills for being department chairs and deans.

1:07:22 Some applied, Federico says, and were not ready for those positions.

1:07:26 That program wasn’t funded after a time. Federico is unsure why.

1:07:49 The effort, Federico says, was directed towards anybody, but not purposefully towards those who didn’t have the preparation (“running shoes” as Federico says, referring to his earlier analogy.)

1:08:29 AEJMC should return to the JLID program and make it more sophisticated.

1:08:40 They could also then express the importance to other faculties across different universities of diversifying their faculty.

1:08:56 From there, Federico says, it’s important to also teach the maintenance, the training needed to retain diverse faculty.

1:09:55 AEJMC has changed dramatically its gender diversity.

1:10:45 In terms of recruitment of more outreach to diversity it lags behind, Federico says.

1:10:57 AEJMC has done a great job in the gender disparity that used to exist, from when it started to today.

1:11:06 In a study, Federico says, we noticed that more than half of the leadership of AEJMC has been female in the divisions and at the presidency.

01:11:34 The leadership on the gender side, primarily white women and some African Americans, has improved, Federico says. But at the “rank and file” AEJMC is “decades” behind.

01:11:59 AEJMC is way behind in terms of recruitment and retention of Latinos.

01:12:17 Federico says he would recommend a JLID program specifically for Latinos for AEJMC.

01:12:40 There needs to be a similar effort, Federico says, for other underrepresented groups as there are really way behind.

01:13:50 It’s well document that the portrayals of Latinos in the media are not what they should be. Federico points to some of his research for support.

1:14:07 Federico points to a controversy with MSNBC that’s currently going on.

1:14:18 Federico mentions member of MSNBC who dressed up with a sombrero and maracas and some liquor for a “cinco de mayo” segment.

1:14:44 The decision makers in these institutions should do better. The problem has been documented, Federico says, but they haven’t changed their mindset.

01:14:54 It should fall upon the schools of journalism, the decision makers at the schools of journalism, the scholars at the schools of journalism to bring to the decision makers in the news media the imperative for better, more diverse images.

01:15:18 Federico hopes that the decisions of these schools create substantial change and influence.

1:15:46 Now it’s time for change in the content and representation of these groups.

1:15:53 There should not be the continued stereotyping of these groups, or the ignoring of them as it has been the case.

AEJMC Trailblazers of Diversity