Communication Technology 2014 Abstracts

Faculty Papers

Multiple uses. Diverse effects? The impact of mobile phone usage on social capital and subjective well-being • Michael Chan, Chinese University of Hong Kong • The number of mobile phone subscriptions worldwide has reached almost 7 billion in 2013. Therefore, the social and psychological consequences of the technology are of great interest to new media scholars and policy makers. Adopting an affordance-based approach, this study examines how different uses of the mobile phone are related to individuals’ subjective well-being and social capital. Findings from a national survey showed that both voice and online communication with the mobile phone is positively related to various indicators of subjective well-being and bonding and bridging capital. Moreover, both bonding and bridging capital mediated the relationship between mobile phone use and subjective well-being. On the other hand, non-communicative uses such as information seeking activities were negatively related to positive affect and passing time activities were positively related to negative affect. Implications of the findings are discussed.

The Extended iSelf: The Impact of iPhone Separation on Cognition, Emotion, and Physiology During Cognitive Tasks • Russell Clayton, University of Missouri; Glenn Leshner, University of Missouri • This study uniquely examined the impacts on self, cognition, anxiety, and physiology when iPhone users are unable to answer their iPhone while performing cognitive tasks. A 2 x 2 within-subjects experiment was conducted. Participants (N = 40 iPhone users) completed two word search puzzles. Among the key findings from this study were that when iPhone users were unable to answer their ringing iPhone during a word search puzzle, heart rate and blood pressure increased, self-reported feelings of anxiety and unpleasantness increased, and self-reported extended self and cognition decreased. These findings suggest that negative psychological and physiological outcomes are associated with iPhone separation and the inability to answer one’s ringing iPhone during cognitive tasks. Implications of findings are discussed.

Navigating through the Bulls and Bears on the Web: Balancing Information Literacy Skills and Self-Efficacy • Bo Ren Ang; Zhao Yao Lam; Jion Chun Teo; Pamela Ting Jun Chan; Debbie Goh, Nanyang Technological University • Young investors increasingly turn to the Internet for financial information. Through a cross-sectional study of young investors in Singapore, the empirical components of information literacy skills and self-efficacy in information use were analysed and compared on using quality financial information online. The components were examined across demographics, financial literacy, digital skills, and investing experience. This study fills the literature gap by proposing a balance of high information literacy skills with a strong sense of self-efficacy.

Building Brand-Consumer Relationships on Facebook: Effects of Socialness in Brand Communication and The Control on Consumer Feedback • Jin Hammick, Flagler College • Grounded in relationship marketing theory and social response theory, this study investigates the potential of Facebook as a brand-consumer relationship channel in two ways: socialness in brand communication and brand’s control on consumer feedback. A 2×2 experimental study revealed that socialness and feedback control are essential predictors for consumers’ perception on brand trustworthiness, relationship commitment and brand attitude. Interaction effects were found on commitment and brand trust.

News Informatics: Engaging Individuals with Data-Rich News Content through Interactivity in Source, Medium, and Message • S. Shyam Sundar, The Pennsylvania State University; Haiyan Jia, The Pennsylvania State University; Saraswathi Bellur; Jeeyun Oh, Robert Morris University; Hyang-Sook Kim, St. Norbert College • This paper introduces the concept of “news informatics” to refer to journalistic presentation of big data in online sites. It argues that for users to be engaged with data-driven public information, sites ought to incorporate interactive tools so that users can extract personally relevant information. Three different kinds of interactivity proposed by Sundar (2007) are empirically tested in a 2 (modality) × 3 (source) × 2 (message) field experiment (N =166) with a data-rich site.

Senior Citizens on Facebook: How do they Interact and Why? • Eun-Hwa Jung, The Pennsylvania State University; S. Shyam Sundar, The Pennsylvania State University • This study investigated why senior citizens use Facebook and how they participate in specific activities on Facebook in order to gratify their needs. A survey of 440 seniors revealed four primary motivations: social bonding, social bridging, curiosity, and responding to family-member requests. Regression analyses indicate that social bonding is a major motivation, which leads to more activities on Facebook, greater Facebook use and higher satisfaction with using Facebook. Message-interactivity features lead to greater Facebook use.

Mobile Communication for Human Needs: A Comparison of Smartphone Use between the US and Korea • Seok Kang, University of Texas at San Antonio; Jaemin Jung • This study deals with two studies that develop and compare a measure and model of hierarchical needs of smartphone use from U.S. and Korean users. The first study examines the dimensionality of measure by conducting an exploratory factor analysis on 398 U.S. and 331 Korean college students. Results identified five constructs of the smartphone basic needs (SBN) scale from the two samples: physiological, safety, belongingness, self-esteem, and self-actualization. The second study examines the relationships between the SBN and use behavior, which leads to life satisfaction. The relationship of the constructs was theoretically synthesized and tested. Results indicate that both samples believe that the smartphone fulfills the needs of safety and self-actualization that predict smartphone use and life satisfaction. Theoretical and cross-cultural implications are discussed.

Look, Where I am! Examining the Relationship between Motivations of Mobile Check-ins and User Privacy Concerns • Hyang-Sook Kim, St. Norbert College; Nichole Wierzba • Given the popularity of checking in at a location via mobile phone, little research has examined germane motivations tied to check-in as a form of in-group electronic word-of-mouth, and related concern of privacy. A survey with 174 college students found mixed relationships between motivations of location check-in and students’ privacy concerns online. Students’ competence and involvement with mobile phone showed mixed relationships with check-in motivations as well. Details of the findings and implications were discussed.

Predicting Retweet Behavior in Breast Cancer Social Networks: Network and Content Characteristics • Eunkyung Kim, University of Georgia; Jiran Hou; Jeong-Yeob Han, University of Georgia; Itai Himelboim, University of Georgia • The study explores how social media, especially Twitter, serves as a viable place for communicating about cancer on Twitter cancer community. Using a two-step analytic method that combines social network analysis and computer-aided content analysis, this study investigates 1) how different types of network structure explain a retweeting behavior, and 2) what type of tweet is retweeted and why some messages attract more interactions among users. The analysis has revealed that messages written by users who have a higher number of followers, a higher level of personal influence over the interaction, and closer relationships and similarities with other users were retweeted. In addition, a tweet message with higher level of positive emotion was retweeted, while a tweet message with higher level of tentative words was not retweeted.

When Scientists Talk to the ‘Rest of Us’: Using the Technology Acceptance Model to Explain Scientists’ Use of New Media to Communicate with the Public • Anthony Dudo, University of Texas at Austin; Allison Lazard, University of Texas at Austin; Lee Ann Kahlor, UT Austin; Niveen AbiGhannam, University of Texas at Austin; Ming-Ching Liang • This study provides an examination of scientists’ adoption of new media for public communication. Using a sample of research scientists and the Technology Acceptance Model to specify a structural model that explicates scientists’ online public communication behavior, we found support for 30% of the variance in our dependent variable. Our analysis fills a gap in the science communication literature and provides actionable insights for practitioners seeking to improve scientists’ public communication abilities.

Who Put Their Best Face Forward on Facebook? : Positive Self-Presentation in Online Social Networking and the Role of Self-Consciousness, Actual-to-Total Friends Ratio, and Culture • Jong-Eun Roselyn Lee, Ohio State University; Minsun Shim, Inha University; Yeon Kyoung Joo, Stanford University; Sung Gwan Park, Department of Communication, Seoul National University • This study investigated the roles of self-consciousness, actual-to-total Friends ratio, and culture on positive self-presentation on Facebook. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with Facebook users in the U.S. (n = 183) and South Korea (n = 137). The results showed that U.S. participants, compared with South Koreans, engaged in positive self-presentation to a greater extent. The data further demonstrated that culture significantly moderated the effects of public self-consciousness and actual-to-total Friends ratio on positive self-presentation.

What Makes Us Click “Like” On Social Media? Examining Psychological, Technological, And Motivational Factors On Virtual Endorsement • Shu-Yueh Lee, Department of Journalism, University of Wisconsin Oshkosh; Sara Steffes Hansen, Department of Journalism, University of Wisconsin Oshkosh; Jin Kyun Lee, Hongik University • This study examines motives for virtually endorsing others on social media, focusing on the Facebook “like” function. Motives are studied in terms of Uses and Gratifications, Theory of Reasoned Action, and personality and technology factors. Data from an online survey of 213 respondents were examined using factor- and hierarchical-regression analyses. Findings showed enjoyment and interpersonal relationship as most salient motives. Two types of user profiles emerged. Those with higher self-esteem, more diligence, more emotional stability, and less subjective norm clicked “like” to express enjoyment. Those with lower self-esteem, less diligence, less emotional stability, and higher subjective norm clicked “like” for pleasing others.

Internet Alternative Media Usage and Oppositional Knowledge • Francis L. F. Lee, Chinese University of Hong Kong • The Internet has been regarded as an important platform through which citizens can get informed about politics and public affairs. Different types of websites or content, however, may convey different types of political knowledge. This study focuses on the impact of Internet alternative media on audience’s levels of oppositional knowledge, defined as knowledge about facts and concepts that are instrumental in the formation critical attitudes toward dominant power and generating support or participation in oppositional actions. The empirical analysis examines three types of oppositional knowledge: factual information about oppositional groups and figures, negatively valenced cognitions about dominant power, and understanding of the concept of civil disobedience. Analysis of survey data from Hong Kong shows that Internet alternative media usage relates positively to factual information about movement groups and activists and understanding of civil disobedience, while it has only very limited relationship with traditional and non-oppositional forms of political knowledge. Oppositional knowledge also mediates the impact of Internet alternative media on support for a planned civil disobedience campaign and general protest participation.

Participatory Expressions in Blogs and Microblogs: A content analysis of bloggers’ posts in two Chinese news portals • Xigen Li; Jing Xia • Informed by adaptive structuration theory, this study examines to what degree bloggers in China adapt to the new communication structure, and use blog and microblog for participatory expression on public welfare, and social and political issues. The results offer insights into the changes brought by communication technology and the adaptive structuration process of bloggers in their transfer from blog to microblog. The findings highlight the stronger function of microblog in participatory expression compared to blog.

Media Doxxing as Invasion of Privacy: An analysis of online comments • Jasmine McNealy • Doxxing is the revelation of personally identifiable information on the Internet. And it is not solely nefarious Internet hackers who disclose information; news organizations, too, have engaged in doxxing. This case study examines the reaction to a media doxxing by conducting a qualitative content analysis of the comments left on the online article. In particular, this study explores whether the comments thought the doxxing was an invasion of privacy.

Gaming social capital: Finding civic value in multiplayer video games • Logan Molyneux, University of Texas; Krishnan Vasudevan, The University of Texas at Austin; Homero Gil de Zuniga, University of Vienna • Previous research suggests that social interactions in video games may lead to the development of community bonding and pro-social attitudes. Results from a national survey of U.S. adults finds that gamers who develop ties with a community of fellow gamers possess gaming social capital, a new gaming-related community construct that is shown to be a positive antecedent in predicting both face-to-face social capital and civic participation.

Diffusion of Social Media Campaign Effects: Moderating Roles of Social Capital in Anti-Smoking Campaign Communications • Kang Namkoong, University of Kentucky; Seungahn Nah, University of Kentucky; Stephanie Van Stee, University of Missouri – St. Louis; Rachael Record, University of Kentucky • This study examined the effects of a social media campaign on persuasive intentions to encourage others to stop smoking and comply with anti-smoking policy as well as the roles of social trust and community life satisfaction. Our 201 subjects were randomly assigned to an experimental condition: ‘campaign message reception only’ or ‘message reception and expression.’ Social trust and community life satisfaction interacted with treatment condition to positively affect persuasive intentions, but in different ways.

The possibilities of proximity: Mobile effects on a traditional news factor • Brett Oppegaard; Michael Rabby, Washington State University • Proximity, or geographical nearness, of the audience to the news event has been a fundamental factor for determining localized media content for generations. Practitioners and scholars generally understand that the closer a person is to the place of the news happening, the more interested that person might be in the information. Mobile technologies, with location- / spatial- / contextual-awareness capabilities, have raised many related issues about the potential for journalism to make better connections to contemporary audiences through the customization of content based on issues of place. In terms of such tailoring, mobile devices allow novel kinds of news connections, based on the nearness to a physical stimulus. To examine these phenomena, an app was developed around The Old Apple Tree, the matriarch of Washington state’s apple industry. The mobile content – providing service-journalism context to connect the tree, the industry, the annual festivities, and the place – then was shared with people in the presence of The Old Apple Tree during the festival, as well as at a holiday festival a half-mile away and a couple of months later. The results show a significant difference in the responses by the audiences, based on proximity. Proximity therefore could be a key consideration in the generation of new forms of mobile news.

Explicating Net Diversity in Longitudinal Assessment • Yong Jin Park, Howard University • This study tracks the increasing supply of Internet access and the diversity of Internet use by analyzing data from the three waves of a survey conducted in the U.K. in 2005, 2007, and 2009. Data on Internet access and three dimensions of online use (civic/governmental, economic, and news/information) reveal that Internet offers a promise of diversity, but also presents systematic divides in which the increase in benefits (of Internet capacities and actual consumed) does not uniformly occur, while the impacts of social disparities remain constant over time. Our discussion addresses how characteristics of social backgrounds are salient in harnessing types of Internet use.

Online vs. Face-to-Face Self-Disclosure among AA Members • Stephen Perry, Illinois State University; David Jackiewicz, Kellogg Community College • Self-disclosure is an important part of the recovery process articulated in the Alcoholics Anonymous literature. Some studies of online support groups have shown greater social support and propensity for self-disclosure through attendance in online meetings than in face-to-face meetings, a concept that seemed to be supported by hyperpersonal communication theory. This study chose to investigate whether self-disclosure is enacted and perceived differently for AA members based on their predominant type of meeting attendance. Survey findings indicate that participants are more willing to disclose during face-to-face meetings than they are online in both the honesty and depth self-disclosure dimensions. Only reciprocity was statistically unchanged across the meeting types.

News Recommendations from Social Media Opinion Leaders: Effects on Media Trust and Information Seeking • Jason Turcotte; Chance York, Louisiana State University; Jacob M. Irving, LSU; Rosanne Scholl, LSU; Ray Pingree, Louisiana State University • In today’s polarized news environment, social media offers a forum for both diverse viewpoints and an exchange of opinions. This experiment found that a recommendation for a news article made by a real-life Facebook friend increased trust of and reliance on the news outlet where the article appeared, but only if the friend was perceived as an opinion leader. The reverse was true for recommendations from poor opinion leaders. Implications for democracy and the news business are discussed.

Applying the Theory of Reasoned Action to Student-Teacher Relationships on Facebook • Pavica Sheldon, University of Alabama – Huntsville • The purpose of this study was to investigate professors’ and students’ intentions to add each other as friends on Facebook. Participants were 160 college professors and 249 students from different American universities. Consistent with theory of reasoned action, intention was the strongest predictor of them adding each other as Facebook friends. However, among faculty members, a personal attitude was the most significant predictor of the intention to add students as friends. For students, subjective norm was the most significant predictor of the intention to friend professors. Overall, students had positive beliefs about other people’s approval of their Facebook friendships with professors – while faculty had slightly negative beliefs about what others would think of them being Facebook friends with students.

Cyberbullying YouTube videos: What makes them different and what makes them viral? • Karen Smreker, Michigan State University; Tegan Smischney, Michigan State University; Saleem Alhabash, Michigan State University • The phenomenon of cyberbullying is ever growing with the increasing sophistication of information communication technologies. Victims and aggressors have used social media platforms to discuss this issue. The current study analyzed 315 YouTube videos dealing with cyberbullying and explored differences among source attributes and content attributes. Additionally, the study explored how source and content attributes predict the virality of cyberbullying YouTube videos (views, likes, and comments). Findings showed that the number of views, likes, and dislikes differed significantly as a function of the type of source featured in the YouTube videos. Findings are discussed within the framework of advancing our understanding of cyberbullying and in relation to creating more effective campaigns to curb the prevalence and effects of cyberbullying.

Is a “sticker” worth a thousand words? The effect of Line character sticker use on relational intimacy • Shaojung Sharon Wang, National Sun Yat-sen University; Cai-Wei Peng, National Sun Yat-sen University, Taiwan • This study investigated how Line character sticker use may contribute to the perception of intimate experience and ultimately enhance relationship satisfaction in both positive and negative emotion situations. A 2 (situation valance: positive emotion, negative emotion)×3 (response style: text, sticker, text, & sticker) ×3(scenario: career, romance, education) factorial experiment was employed. The results revealed significant main effects of situation valance and response type on intimate experience. Specifically, a partner’s supportive response during positive event disclosure can better predict the sense of intimate experience. Findings here suggest that the intimacy model in the FtF situation can still effectively explain how intimacy is fostered in the mobile communication environment. The hyperpersonal model is further extended to the effect of nonverbal cues in creating intimacy.

Why do we Pin? New Gratifications explain Unique Activities in Pinterest • Ruoxu Wang, The Pennsylvania State University; Fan Yang; Saijing Zheng; S. Shyam Sundar, The Pennsylvania State University • Pinterest is now the third most popular SNS after Facebook and LinkedIn. An online survey (N=113) was conducted to explore the relationships between 23 affordance-based gratifications derived from MAIN model (Sundar, 2008) and ten different Pinterest behaviors. Our study revealed that a brand new set of gratifications (specific to digital media) predicted a whole lot of user behaviors in Pinterest. As we analyzed the data, four findings were especially interesting: 1) People who felt that they had a higher degree of ownership from their curating activity were more likely to be frequent pinners; 2) Those who perceived Pinterest as being cool were likely to be more frequent browsers; 3) Those who thought that they were the source of Pinterest content were more likely to create boards frequently; and 4) Those inclined to browse freely in Pinterest were less likely to invite others to pin the boards they created. Theoretical and design implications were discussed.

Attacks by “Anons”: A Content Analysis of Status Negotiations in Aggressive Posts, Victim Responses, and Bystander Interventions on a Social Media Site • Rachel Young, University of Iowa; Stephanie Miles, University of Iowa • Though the incidence of cyberbullying is far outpaced by incidence of bullying face-to-face, the experience of perceived online victimization is relatively common among adolescents. The affordances of social media sites, such as anonymity and asynchronicity, inform status negotiations among online aggressors, victims, and supportive bystanders. This quantitative content analysis investigates more than 1,000 question-answer dyads from 78 social media profiles to determine which rhetorical strategies are used most frequently and how strategies vary by roles within an online encounter. We found that victims and bystanders as well as aggressors used the anonymity affordance to demonstrate social strength. In addition, most profile owners received at least one supportive comment, and certain responses from victims determined the nature of subsequent comments, be they neutral, supportive, or aggressive. This exploratory research suggests many areas for future study that will inform interventions to encourage effective victim and bystander responses in cyberbullying.

Open Competition

Understanding Generational Differences in the Relationship Between Online Banking and Online Security • Saleem Alhabash, Michigan State University; Shelia Cotten, Michigan State University; Hsin-yi Tsai; Nora Rifon, Michigan State University; Robert LaRose, Michigan State University • Age differences in the use of communication technologies are often noted as barriers to adoption. However, age in itself is not necessarily a barrier when the communication technology in question offers benefits to older adult users and when the associated risks are manageable. The present research integrates online safety and online banking research to examine generational differences in the acceptance of communication technology in the presence of financial risk to the user. Diverse Mechanical Turk samples of Millennial, Baby Boomer, and older (Silent and GI) generation adults were surveyed. Multiple regression analyses of online banking adoption intentions showed that trust in online banking providers and coping self-efficacy were variables that distinguished the generations.

I thought you would like to know: Exploring motivations for sharing sports news on Twitter • Jan Boehmer, Michigan State University; Edson Tandoc, Nanyang Technological University • The present study explores motivations of content sharing on Twitter in the context of sports news employing a two-step text-based analysis combining qualitative and quantitative approaches. First, a grounded theory approach is used to create a typology of motivations from open ended survey-questions. Categories are then used to classify all responses and compute a regression model predicting individuals’ intentions to share. Main motivations include the informativeness of the tweet and considerations about the perceived audience.

Revisiting the Contact Hypothesis in Computer-Mediated Communication: Effects of Different CMC modes and Attitude Strengths on Intergroup Relationships • Bolin CAO; Wan-Ying Lin • This study applies the contact hypothesis in the computer-mediated communication (CMC) situation and examines whether intergroup contacts would facilitate intergroup relationships. The effectiveness of different CMC modes, particularly text-based and video-based, was investigated. Participants (N=60) interacted with a confederate from the conflicting outgroup via either text-based CMC or video-based CMC. The results revealed that video-based CMC exerted more influence in improving participants’ attitudes towards the targeted outgroup member than did text-based CMC. Nevertheless, neither text-based nor video-based CMC helped promote positive attitudes towards the outgroup as a whole. On the other hand, prior attitude strengths significantly predicted individuals’ attitude change towards the outgroup. The role of social identity model of deindividuation effects (SIDE) in intergroup contacts was discussed.

Factors Affecting Internet Diffusion in China: A Multivariate Time Series Analysis • Guangchao Feng, Jinan University • Based on previous studies and theories, a framework called EPIC (Economy-Policy-Infrastructure-Content) was proposed and a multivariate time series analysis was performed to examine the relationships between Internet diffusion and these factors. The growth of Internet penetration was found to be mainly driven by Internet access cost and content, and yet GDP per capita and telecommunications infrastructure failed to play roles. The implications were discussed at last.

Entertain me now, later and when I want: The Uses and Gratifications of College Students’ Consumption of Current Events on Social Media • Jack Karlis, Buffalo State College • Social media is a dominant news source among the college students. This study examines the “what” or different dimensions of news and the “why” or uses and gratifications that college students use current events on social media. This study adds to the existing body of uses and gratification literature. This study found five gratifications (information seeking, surveillance/guidance, voyeurism and social interaction), including one unique to current events on social media, perpetual entertainment. This study also looked at the predictors of recall and general use from current events on social media by college students.

TV takes in Social: Psychological predictors of social TV viewing motivations and audience activity on SNSs • Hongjin Shim; Yeonkyung Lee, University of S. Korea; Hyunjin Song • This paper investigates the relationships between motivations, audience activity, and psychological traits of 442 social TV drama viewers. Audience activity on SNSs were identified as dissemination and reception and, during such activities, the respondents’ motivations for Social TV use were driven by co-viewing, engagement, and passing time. While co-viewing and engagement were relevant to either reception or engagement, passing time was related to both activities. Psychological traits also predicted the motivations: innovativeness and BAS were significantly associated with all motivations but BIS. Results suggest that social TV viewers would attempt to transform conventional ways of audience activity into new practices on new media influenced by their psychological traits reflecting motivations.

Old Programs, New Channels: A Uses and Gratifications Approach To Internet Television • Nai-Se Li, Mindshare; Jay Newell, Iowa State University • Television shows once available only on conventional TV in homes on specific days and times are now available via Internet TV in nearly any location, 24 hours a day. While some shows may be the same on conventional TV and Internet TV, the motivations for viewing may be different for each platform. This study employs a uses and gratification approach to compare audience rationales for watching program-length content on conventional TV to watching the same content type on Internet TV.

Revisiting group size effects: group size and member participation in an online community • TAE JOON MOON, University of Wisconsin – Madison; Ming-Yuan Chih, University of Kentucky; Dhavan Shah, University of Wisconsin – Madison; David Gustafson, University of Wisconsin – Madison • This study investigates how group size influences the patterns of member participation and attachment in an online community. Reconciling competing views on group size effects, this study suggests that the effects of group size can be understood as a non-linear fashion and adopts a two-step analysis (i.e., multiple-curve estimation procedure and confirmatory hierarchical regression analysis) to determine the optimal models which best explains the relationships between group size and member participation/attachment. By analyzing 236 members’ use behavior in an online support community during 48-month period, the present study found a negative logarithmic relationship between group size and participation; member participation sharply decreased at the initial stage as group size increased, yet the rate of decrease kept decelerating. The relationship between group size and member attachment was best explained by a quadratic curve model; member attachment decreased at the earlier stage until group size reached a certain threshold (around 250 in this study) but turned to increase thereafter as the group grew. Given the observed curvilinear relationships, a desirable group size to alleviate negative effects and increase positive effects of group size is further discussed.

Impression formation on social media from the viewer perspectives • Yi Mou; Mike Miller • The question of how impression is formed online – especially on social media – has triggered a lot of research interest. While traditional impression formation literature mainly looks at this issue from the source perspective, little attention is paid from the viewer or audience perspective. As anecdotal evidence and scientific inquiry accumulated, viewer’s identity is called into the question of how and why a certain impression is formed. Under the guideline of self-categorization theory, this study aims to provide some insights on impression formation from a viewer perspective. An online experiment was conducted based on a 2 (microblog post topic: personal vs. professional) X 2 (fans count: few vs. many) between-subjects factorial design. Under each condition, a mock-up microblog page of a fictitious college professor was presented to respondents before they were asked to evaluate this “professor”. The results indicate that teacher respondents and student respondents rate the likability and credibility of this professor differently. Theoretical implications are discussed.

Who said that? A persuasion knowledge perspective for understanding the effect of social distance and source expertise on social networking sites (SNS) • Yoon Hi Sung; Chang-Hoan Cho; Young Woong Shin • This study explored the effect of social distance and source expertise on the effectiveness of brand message on social networking sites (SNS) based on persuasion knowledge model. A 2 (social distance: close vs. distant) x 2 (source expertise: expert vs. non-expert) x 2 (product types; search goods vs. experience goods) experimental study was conducted. The structural equation modeling was used.

Break it to me gently: Twitter bypasses traditional media for breaking news, but where does it lead people next? • Edson Tandoc, Nanyang Technological University; Erika Johnson, University of Missouri • This study sought to determine the news consumption pattern of college students by asking where respondents get breaking news and where this source leads them next. Guided by the framework of niche theory and theory of relative constancy, we predicted that social media, particularly Twitter, is displacing traditional news media at least for the gratification of learning about the news first. The findings based on an online survey (N=224) supported this general assumption.

Issue-Specific Engagement: How Facebook Contributes to Opinion Leadership and Efficacy on Energy and Climate Issues • Emily Vraga, George Mason University; Ashley Anderson, Department of Journalism & Technical Communication; John Kotcher, George Mason University; Edward Maibach, George Mason University • While social media are increasingly studied for their political impact, not enough is known about how distinct forms of Facebook activity – such as general news consumption and expression vs. issue-specific activism – explain attitudes towards a particular issue. Using a Republican sample, we demonstrate that only issue-specific advocacy on Facebook is associated with a greater sense of personal influence on the issue of climate change, suggesting distinguishing between types of Facebook activity is important.

Can You See Me? Teenagers’ Self-Disclosure on Social Network Site, Regret of Posting, and Social Capital • Wenjing Xie; Cheeyoun Kang, Southern Illinois University Carbondale • Self-disclosure is popular on social networking site. Using survey data from Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project, this study tries to provide an overall picture of teenagers’ self-disclosure on SNS. We further examine how demographic variables, SNS use, different types of friends, trust, and privacy control behavior influence self-disclosure, regret of posting on SNS, and social capital. We find that though teenagers reveal moderately high level of personal information on SNS, they don’t disclose all types of personal information equally. Hierarchical regression analysis shows that demographic variables and anecdotal factors such as SNS use frequency, network size, SNS friend type, trust, and privacy control behavior are related to self-disclosure on SNS and regret of posting. Self-disclosure and privacy control behavior also predict teenagers’ social capital.

How Public Relations Practitioners Perceive Social Media Platforms? A Media Richness Perspective • Ana Isabel Gonzalez Michel, Albertus Magnus College; Thomas E. Ruggiero, The University of Texas at El Paso; Kenneth “C.C.” Yang, The University of Texas at El Paso • Prior studies on the use of social media by public relations professionals lacked the theoretical framework to fully evaluate the richness of this emerging communication platform. On the basis of Media Richness Theory, the researchers assessed the perceptions of 162 PR professionals from a national sample to identify emerging media richness dimensions that are not the same as those in the previous media richness theory. This study suggests that social media not simply be compared to traditional media, but demonstrates a unique medium characteristics. Both theoretical and managerial implications are discussed.

Take a break: Examining College Students’ Multitasking Activities During a Study- or Work-Related Task • Shupei Yuan, Michigan State University; Anastasia Kononova, Michigan State University • The survey explored how frequently college students engage in multitasking with social media, texting/instant messaging (IM), and music while studying/working and what motivates them to multitask. Checking Facebook, texting/IM, and listening to music were the most popular activities. Five media differed by strongest multitasking motivations. Habit was the dominant motivation predicting frequency of using media during a work- or study-related task. Passing time, escape, socialization, and efficiency predicted the extent of multitasking on different instances.

A Review of the Scholarly Literature on the Role of Social Media in Social Capital • Weiwu Zhang, Texas Tech University; Alan Abitbol • This paper attempts to provide a critical review of the growing empirical literature on the influence of social network sites on social capital (2004-2014). It summarizes the major findings, identifies the thematic patterns of influences of SNSs on social capital in such diverse areas as trust, civic and political participation, bridging and bonding social capital, campaigns and mobilizing and negative outcomes, locates gaps in the current literature, and provides suggestions for future studies.

Student Papers

Nature and Effectiveness of Online Social Support for Intercultural Adaptation of Mainland Chinese Overseas Students • Liang Chen, Nanyang Technological University; Xiaodong Yang, Nanyang Technological University • Mainland Chinese students have been flocking to universities or colleges in Singapore. Inevitably, these students have encountered difficulty in adapting to their new life. An online social support group called Living in Singapore Group (LSg), a sub-forum of the most popular forum on Chinese overseas study created in April 2000, provides various types of social support messages for Mainland Chinese students in Singapore. This research explores the nature and effectiveness of these messages. A directed qualitative content analysis was applied in Study 1 to analyze 1,736 posted messages collected from July 6, 2012 to February 6, 2013.The results suggest that social support messages can be categorized into subcategories of the three existing main categories, namely, informational, instrumental, and emotional, as well as the new category called network support. In-depth interviews were conducted with 21 LSg members in Study 2. The results demonstrate that social support messages provided by this group have effectively helped Mainland Chinese overseas students in intercultural adaptation, especially in the early cross-cultural adaptive phase.

The displacement effect between competing social network services: Examining uses-and-gratifications of WeChat and Weibo in China • Di Cui; Guangsheng Huang • The worldwide proliferation of social network services necessitates a move beyond studying the adoption of any single social network service. However, little research has discussed the competition between different social network services. Taking the uses-and-gratification perspective, this study explores the potential displacement effect between two most popular social network services in China: WeChat and Weibo. Adopting both the media-centric and user-centric approaches, we attempted to explain the displacement effect by examining gratification-opportunities of and gratifications-obtained from WeChat and Weibo respectively. Based on an online survey (N = 395), we found that WeChat was displacing Weibo among young users. The growing preference on WeChat was driven by its instant messaging as gratification opportunity and sociability, entertainment and peer approval as gratifications obtained. Our analysis meanwhile reveals that the user-centered approach is more effective in explaining the displacement between similar social network services in competition.

Understanding the Behavior of Abstaining from Contributing to Product Reviews on the Web: Motivational and Attitudinal Approaches • Youngsun Kwak, University at Buffalo; Amanda Damiano, University at Buffalo; Ji Hye Choi, University at Buffalo • There are endless reviews one can read online about products. While many studies have examined a contributor’s side of product reviews, research is limited because only a small number of people write comments about products. This study evaluates those who abstain from contributing to product-reviewing on the web; specifically by employing motivational theories as well as attitudinal theories. Focus group interviews were undertaken as a way to gauge thoughts, opinions, and feelings of non-contributors. It was determined that there may be several reasons why people do not contribute to online product reviews, including lack of autonomy, feelings of having less competence, a weak sense of belonging, as well as a negative attitude toward product reviews in general. These findings serve as an important step in developing a questionnaire for future research. Furthermore, this information serves a practical use in providing the creators of these products with insightful consumer thoughts.

How Does the Audience Respond to Cancer Videos? A Content Analysis of YouTube Comments • Jingjing Han, Indiana University • This exploratory study examined how YouTube users respond to cancer knowledge-based videos. Language analysis was applied to understand the audience’s emotions, the way to process information and their most concerned themes. There are 3,453 comments on YouTube were analyzed in sentiment analysis and Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count Analysis (LIWC), while 200 comments were manually categorized into the fourteen themes. Results show that there are four top themes that are salient among the comments, i.e. giving cancer medical/treatment information, giving basic cancer knowledge, asking intelligent support about cancer, and appreciation for others’ support /video content. Furthermore, the audience processes the videos more emotionally than cognitively, and there are more negative responses to the videos. Interestingly, the positive valence of the message is positively correlated with the negative valence. Interpretations and implications were discussed.

Who use more emoticons? Who anthropomorphize more?: Cultural and Gender Differences in Emoticons Use on IM • Soyoung Jung, Syracuse University; Joon Kyung Kim, Syracuse University; Li Chen, Syracuse University • An online survey (N=110) examined how IM users use emotions when they are chatting through IM based on cultural and gender differences. Drawing on culture dimension theory and high- versus low-context culture theory, two independent variables were examined; the tendency to individualism/collectivism, and masculinity/femininity. Based on two popular platforms (Facebook Messenger and KakaoTalk), the results showed that there is a correlation between cultural/gender difference and emoticons use satisfaction, especially anthropomorphism tendency toward the emotions. The results showed that there is a correlation between cultural/gender difference and emoticons use satisfaction, especially Anthropomorphism. People who have the tendency towards collectivism showed greater satisfaction than those who have the tendency towards individualism. In addition, people who have the tendency towards femininity exhibited more satisfaction with emoticon use than those who have the tendency towards masculinity. As a result, the findings of this study suggest that individuals’ tendency to individualism/collectivism and masculinity/femininity has the correlation with their satisfaction with emoticon use in IM.

Examination of Perception and Evaluation for Smartphone Addiction during a Communication Blackout • Chang Sup Park • The smartphone, through its small size, ease of use, proliferation of free or cheap apps, and constant connectivity, changes our life in a way that goes well beyond what we experienced with previous media. This study examined smartphone users’ self-perception and evaluation for their addictive behaviors during a communication blackout that lasted six hours in recent South Korea. Based on the interview of 20 smartphone users, this study distinguished heavy smartphone users into two groups – people who depend on their smartphone emotionally and people who depend on it functionally. The current study found that the former group was more reluctant in acknowledge negative aspects of the smartphone than the latter group. In addition, functionally-dependent users were more willing to change their addictive behaviors than emotionally-dependent people. Heavy smartphone users, regardless of their type of overdependence, denied that they were addicted to the smartphone. Implications of the study are discussed.

Who Sets the News Agenda on Twitter? Journalists’ Posts During the 2013 Government Shutdown • Frank Michael Russell, University of Missouri/Missouri School of Journalism; Marina Hendricks; Heesook Choi; Elizabeth Conner Stephens • This study examines how journalists use Twitter, specifically whether any difference exists in linking and attribution behavior between journalists for traditional and online news organizations. An analysis was conducted of 40 journalists’ tweets during the 2013 government shutdown. When they were not linking to their own news organizations, journalists were more likely to link to traditional than online news sites. They also were found to prefer a politics frame over an impact frame.

Predictors of Male Players’ Harassment Behavior in Online Video Games • Wai Yen Tang, Ohio State University; Jesse Fox, Ohio State University • Online video game play affords connectivity and social interaction among players from around the world. This connectivity also brings undesirable behaviors, however, and online harassment is becoming a pervasive issue in the gaming community. In this study, we sought to determine what personality traits and game-related variables predicted harassment behaviors in online video games. Male players of online video games (N = 439) were invited to participate in an anonymous online survey. Similar to previous research on harassment in other domains, social dominance orientation and hostile sexism predicted higher levels of both sexual harassment and general harassment in online games. Game involvement and weekly play time were additional predictors for general harassment. Implications for the social gaming environment are discussed.

Journalists and Bloggers. Social media interpretive community in Nicaragua • Emilia Yang • This paper is an analysis of how journalists and bloggers of Nicaragua—a country where independent journalists are constantly harassed for trying to do their work—use social media to develop an interpretive community online. Debates and discussions within the community of journalists and bloggers created a virtual public sphere, and were analyzed through online observation, interviews, and a survey. The key findings are that social media have replaced analog forms of interaction among this community and are gradually creating cohesion among journalists and bloggers in Nicaragua. Respondents cited Twitter as the most useful social media platform for conversations about journalistic practices, common struggles, and other subjects related to the national news agenda. Social media are especially useful for discussing current political topics, most importantly, cases of governmental repression against journalists. The research infers that the online discourse among journalists and bloggers has created a sense of community and solidarity within the group, even creating feelings of a shared responsibility to add content and engage in online debates about current events.

The Implications of Social Capital for SNS Use: A New Trend with Moderating Effect of Communication Anxiety • Pei Zheng, University of Texas at Austin; Xiaoqian Li, University of Texas, Austin • This study suggests a new trend of how social capital would actually affect use of social networking sites (SNSs). Using the data from 568 college students in China, regression results show that both bridging and bonding social capital are positively associated with intensity of SNS use after controlling for key demographic factors. Moreover, communication anxiety is found to moderate the effect of social capital (bridging and bonding) on intensity of SNS use. Specifically, for students with lower communication anxiety, the relationships between bonding and bridging social capital and intensity of SNS use are stronger than do those with higher communication anxiety. Taken together, this study contributes to the literature of social capital and SNS use by examining the possible impact of social capital on SNS use. Also, the moderation effect of communication anxiety on the association between social capital and SNS use may be better explained when taking into account the collectivism cultural context of China. Connection and relationship is a central idea in Chinese society, therefore people regard social capital as interdependence even in the online environment. As a consequence, people who are more anxious in communication would be more concerned and careful in managing their online relationship than people who are less communication anxious, which lead to a weakened interaction between social capital and SNS use.

2014 Abstracts

Communicating Science, Health, Environment, and Risk 2014 Abstracts

Expectancies and Motivations to Attend an Informal Lecture Series • Niveen AbiGhannam, University of Texas at Austin; Ming-Ching Liang; Lee Ann Kahlor, UT Austin; Anthony Dudo, University of Texas at Austin • We interviewed the audience of an informal science lecture series at a college campus. We used self-determination theory to understand what motivates audiences to attend the talks and social cognitive theory to determine the outcome expectancies that people hope to get out of attending those talks. Intrinsic motivations were found to be the main drivers for attending the talks. Audiences, however, were also found to also hold outcome and efficacy expectations to attend the talks.

“Drunk in Love”: The Portrayal of Risk Behavior in Music Lyrics • Christina Anderson, Coastal Carolina University; Kyle J. Holody, Coastal Carolina University; Mark Flynn, Coastal Carolina University; Clay Craig, Coastal Carolina University • The current study investigates the portrayal of risk behavior in Rap, R&B/Hip Hop, Adult Contemporary, Rock, Country, and Pop lyrics by conducting a content analysis of top 20 Billboard songs from each category from 2009-2013. Using the theoretical framework of the Social Cognitive Theory (Bandura, 2009), this study discusses normative behaviors of music genres, as well as the potential implications of vicarious learning and modeling for consumers of music lyrics. Findings suggest alcohol consumption and sexual behaviors are the most frequently mentioned risk behaviors in lyrics, particularly within Rap and R&B/Hip-Hop lyrics. Results also suggest risk behavior is often associated with positive emotions and a disregard for consequences. Media literacy for adolescents and young adults, who are the greatest consumers of music, is emphasized as a possible solution. Further investigation into the impact of exposure to risk behavior in music lyrics upon consumers is warranted.

Integrating Self-Affirmation into Health-Risk Messages: Effects on Message Response and Behavioral Intent • Laura Arpan, Florida State University; Young Sun Lee, Florida State University; Zihan Wang, Florida State University • The current study tested a new method of using Self-Affirmation Theory to increase adaptive responses to health-risk messages. Participants’ self-concepts were affirmed via text incorporated into messages rather than by more cumbersome, less practical methods used in previous studies. College students (N=342) who reported high or low level of personal relevance of three behaviors (wearing flip-flops, drinking bottled water, or drinking caffeinated beverages) were exposed to either affirming or non-affirming Public Service Announcements about the risky behavior and its health outcomes. Affirmed participants reported more positive attitudes toward the message, greater self-efficacy, and increased behavioral intent to reduce risky behavior than non-affirmed participants, and this effect was stable for participants in both high- and low- relevance groups. However, affirmed participants rated the risk-associated threat as less severe than non-affirmed participants. Perceptions of threat susceptibility were not influenced by affirming vs. non-affirming messages.

Predicting employee responses to an energy-saving intervention and descriptive versus moral norms framing of educational messages • Laura Arpan, Florida State University; Prabir Barooah, University of Florida, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering; Rahul Subramany, Lutron Electronics • This study examined energy savings, air-quality changes, and employee responses associated with an energy-efficiency pilot program in a university building. Effects of two educational message frames (descriptive vs. moral norms cues) were also tested. Employees’ personal moral norm to conserve energy most consistently predicted positive responses. The two message frames had roughly equivalent effects on behavioral responses, although employees who received the descriptive-norms message were somewhat more likely to say they might complain about the program.

Resonance of a Media-Based Social Norms Health Campaign to Students in a College Greek System • Erica Austin, Washington State University; Stacey J.T. Hust, The Edward R. Murrow College of Communication, Washington State University; Bruce Pinkleton, Washington State University Murrow Center for Media & Health Promotion; Jason Wheeler, Washington State University; Anna Wheatley, Washington State University • A posttest-only field experiment with randomized assignment to control and treatment groups tested the role of resonance in a media-based campaign for alcohol abuse and risk prevention within a college Greek community. Gender-targeted, descriptive and injunctive norms-based e-zine messages especially resonated among higher-risk students. Resonance predicted efficacy for safer behavior and smaller collective norms misperceptions. The results indicated the intervention strategies successfully reached high-risk students and that beneficial effects depended on receptivity, not just exposure.

Stay Active: The Effect of a Social Media Community on Exercise Adherence Motivation • Justin Barnes, University of Idaho; Yong-Chae Rhee, Washington State University • The purpose of this study was to provide information regarding a venue for exercise adherence motivation toward physical activity via social media support. The five themes identified that positively affected participants’ intrinsic and extrinsic motivation to adhere to exercise through a social media fitness application were: accountability matters; support is crucial for a sedentary population beginning exercise; recognition of gains positively affects motivation; social media creates positive fitness competition; and fitness is a lifestyle.

Functions of Family Support in Elderly Chinese Singaporean Women’s Health Behavior • Iccha Basnyat; Leanne Chang, National University of Singapore • This study sought to investigate how family support functions in the lives of elderly Chinese Singaporean woman and how it guides elderly women’s management of day-to-day health and well-being. Thirty-eight semi-structured interviews were conducted to explore elderly women’s understanding of family support in their lives and its influence on their health behavior. Results of thematic analysis show that family support was carried out through intergenerational communication of health information from the past and provision of physical assistance in the present. Together, the intangible information support and the tangible physical support serve a function of encouraging elderly women to engage in positive health behavior rooted in both traditional practices and Western medical treatments. Findings from this study provide insights into how health behavior is communicated, and supported in a local cultural context.

Commercial Sex Worker’s Articulations of Agency and Survival: Implications for Health Intervention Strategies • Iccha Basnyat • Lived experiences of female commercial sex workers illustrate that sex work is a manifestation of limited access to education, resources, and jobs due to violence, oppression, and patriarchy. However, Nepalese female commercial sex workers reconstitute sex work as a viable form of work that provides food and shelter for their families and allows fulfillment of their duties as mothers. Through a culture-centered approach to research, which emphasis voices of the marginalized and their own articulations of how marginalized spaces are negotiated, this article offers an entry point to locating commercial sex workers as active participants in their day-to-day living. Thirty-five in-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with street-based female commercial sex workers. Thematic analysis revealed the following three themes: (a) surviving through sex work; (b) financial security in sex work; and (c) surviving sex work stigma. These findings have implications for health promotion targeted to this population. Lived experiences illustrate the need to move away from traditional, top-down, linear behavior-change health campaigns to reconstitute health interventions with a participatory bottom-up approach that includes the voices of the cultural participants and are situated within their own needs and context.

Predictors of Perceptions of Scientists: Comparing 2001 and 2012 • John Besley, Michigan State University • The 2001 and 2012 National Science Foundation surveys of public attitudes and knowledge about science were used to model perceptions of scientists and explore whether the predictors of such perceptions have changed over time. The available data indicate that the relative impact of the available predictors changed somewhat between the two time periods. Key predictors of views about scientists include age, gender, and scientific knowledge, regardless of time period. Science museum attendance and primary source of science news were also sometimes important. A key limitation of the modeling is that the available predictors do a relatively poor job predicting both positive and negative views about scientists. This may suggest the need for a reconsideration what questions get included in the biennial NSF science and technology survey, particularly when it comes to communication variables.

Visual Attention to and Memory for Humorous Versus Threating Advisories • Hannah Sikora; Mary Brooks, Texas Tech University; Zijian Gong, Texas Tech University; Glenn Cummins, Texas Tech University • Based on the looming threat of threat-inducing graphic advisories in cigarette advertising and packaging, advertising researchers have begun to explore the impact of graphic images incorporated in advisory labels as a means of eliciting attention and improving memory. However, some research has shown that such messages can also lead to selective avoidance among smokers. This study used the tenets of the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM) and eye tracking to test the utility of humorous appeals within graphic advisory labels for both smokers and nonsmokers. Compared to threat-inducing graphic advisories, humorous appeals garnered greater attention and unaided recall. However, advisory type had no impact on attitudes toward cigarette advertisements, and these effects were uniform for both smokers and non-smokers.

Expert Interviews with Science Communicators: Identifying News Values and Perceptions of Audience Values • Paige Brown, Louisiana State University • Science communicators are a key link between scientists and lay readers, navigating both the values of science and the values of audiences, using professionally shared news factors and ideas about the role of science communication in society to select and produce stories. And yet we know little about the motivations and assumptions of audience values that underlie professionally shared news factors in science communication. Interviews with 14 science communicators in various areas of communication reveal that both their personal motivations and their perceptions of audience values influence whether and how scientific research is translated into story.

Opposing ends of the spectrum: Predicting trust in scientific and religious authorities • Michael Cacciatore, University of Georgia; Nicholas Browning, University of Georgia; Dietram Scheufele; Dominique Brossard; Michael Xenos; Elizabeth Corley • Given the ethical questions that surround many emerging technologies, the present study is interested in exploring public trust in two potentially opposing institutions for information about the risks and benefits of science: scientific authorities and religious organizations. We find that Evangelicals are less trusting of scientific institutions and more trusting of religious authorities than their non-Evangelical counterparts and that they use mediated information differently in forming their trust evaluations. Implications of the findings are discussed.

Pilot Evaluation of a UV Monitoring-Enhanced Skin Cancer Prevention Among Farm Youth in Rural Virginia • Yvonnes Chen, University of Kansas; Donatus Ohanehi; Kerry Redican; Robert Grisso; John Perumpral; Steve Feldman; J. Dan Swafford; John Burton • Due to higher levels of UV exposure, rural farm youth are at higher risk for skin cancer than non-farm youth. This pilot study assessed how a UV monitoring-enhanced intervention decreased UV exposure among youth. Using a one-group pretest-posttest design, we found participants’ skin cancer knowledge, skin protection attitude and likelihood of engaging in protection practices significantly increased. Participants were satisfied with the functions of the monitoring device. This tailored intervention was effective for rural youth.

Sources of information influencing the state-of-the-science gap in hormone therapy usage • Fiona Chew, Syracuse University • “Medical reviews and research comprise a key information source for news media stories on medical therapies and innovations as well as for physicians in updating their practice. The present study examines medical review journal articles, physician surveys and news media coverage of HT to assess the relationship between the three information sources and whether/if they contributed to a state-of-the-science gap (a condition when the evaluation of a medical condition or therapy ascertained by the highest standards of investigation is incongruent with the science-in-practice such as physician recommendations and patient actions). We meta-analyzed 156 randomly sampled medical reviews on hormone therapy (HT) and all surveys of US physicians’ HT recommendations between 2002 and 2009. Next, we content analyzed HT news valence in three major TV networks, newspapers and magazines/internet sites in 2002 and 2009. Medical reviews yielded a mixed picture about HT while most physicians were pro-HT. Newspaper and television coverage reflected a pro and con balance while magazine stories were more positive in 2009. Implications are discussed. Implications are discussed.”

One Does Not Fit All: Health Audience Segmentation and Prediction of Health Behaviors • myounggi chon; Hyojung Park, Louisiana State University • This study sought to propose a Health Belief Model-based (HBM) approach to segmenting health audiences in order to improve targeting of cancer prevention efforts. The segmentation variables included HBM variables (perceived susceptibility and self-efficacy), information trust, health literacy, perceived determinants of health, and other modifying variables, such as demographics. This study also examined how the identified health segments would differ in cancer prevention behaviors, including diet and exercise. Data from the 3,630 respondents in the mail portion of the 2013 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) were used for health audience segmentation. A cluster analysis resulted in three distinct health audience groups: (a) Health Aware, (b) Health At Risk, and (c) Health In Confidence. MANOVA tests indicate that these segments significantly differ regarding healthy diet and exercise. The findings from this study can help health practitioners to design more effective cancer prevention campaigns and to promote health behaviors among various audiences.

Linking Evidentiary Balance, Uncertainty, and Health Attitudes in the Context of Vaccine Risk • Christopher Clarke, George Mason University; Brooke McKeever; Avery Holton, University of Utah; Graham Dixon, Cornell University • This article extends research on using ‘evidentiary balance’ to communicate risk-related uncertainty. Participants (n=181) read news articles with/without evidentiary balance rejecting an autism-vaccine link. The impact of such information on post-exposure certainty that vaccines are safe, effective, and not connected to autism was not contingent on pre-exposure certainty. However, it was associated with positive vaccine attitudes indirectly, via a perceived divide among scientists regarding a link and post-exposure certainty. We discuss theoretical and practical implications.

Immersion in Video Games, Creative Self-Efficacy, and Political Participation • Francis Dalisay, University of Hawaii at Manoa; Matthew Kushin, Shepherd University; Jinhee Kim; Clarissa David, University of the Philippines-Diliman; Lilnabeth Somera, University of Guam; Amy Forbes, James Cook University • A survey (N = 801) was conducted in Australia, Guam, the Philippines, South Korea, and the U.S. to explore the relationships between the discovery, role-play, and customization motivations of video game play (Yee, 2006), creative self-efficacy, and political participation. Findings reveal role-play and creative self-efficacy are positively associated with political participation; discovery and role-play are positively associated with creative self-efficacy. Discovery and role-play had small indirect effects on political participation via creative self-efficacy.

Representations of the Environment on Television, and Their Effects • James Shanahan; Katherine McComas, Cornell University; Mary Beth Deline, Cornell University • This study revisits research begun in the 1990s, examining representations of the environment on American entertainment television. We collected new data to assess change between 2012 and the 1990s. Using a cultural indicators and cultivation approach, the study finds that: 1) the environment is still rarely represented; and 2) heavier TV viewers are likelier to sublimate their environmental beliefs. These findings have implications for better understanding the social and policy environment where environmental decisions occur.”

Affective arousal as a mechanism of exemplification effects: An experiment on two-sided message recall and risk perception • Graham Dixon, Cornell University • To test the effect of emotional visuals in two-sided message recall and risk perception, participants (n=516) were randomly assigned to an article presenting conflicting risk arguments with either an image exemplifying an action-risk argument, an image exemplifying an inaction-risk argument, or no image. Significant main effects on recall and risk perception were observed for readers in the action-risk exemplar condition. Negative affect mediated these effects, lending support to the affect heuristic.

Scientists’ prioritization of goals for online public communication • Anthony Dudo, University of Texas at Austin; John Besley, Michigan State University • This study examines scientists’ strategic communication sensibilities, specifically in terms of their valuation of five goals for online public communication. These goals include informing the public about science, exciting the public about science, strengthening the public’s trust in science, tailoring messages about science, and defending science from misinformation. We use insights from extant research, the Theory of Planned Behavior, and procedural justice theory to identify likely predictors of scientists’ views about these communication goals. Results show that scientists most value communication designed to defend science from misinformation. Regression analyses reveal factors associated with valuing each of these specific communication goals.

The Threat, Self- External- and Response- Efficacy Model: Examining Climate Change Coverage in Leading U.S. Newspapers • Lauren Feldman, Rutgers University; P. Sol Hart, University of Michigan; Tijana Milosevic, American University • Drawing from the Extended Parallel Processing Model and political science concepts of efficacy, this study proposes the Threat, Self-, External-, and Response- (TSER) efficacy model for communicating about risks, such as climate change, that have a political component. We applied this model to a content analysis of news and opinion stories about climate change in The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, The Washington Post, and USA Today between 2006-2011. The results indicate that U.S. newspapers represent the threat of climate change and efficacy for actions to address climate change in ways that are suboptimal for public engagement, and this is particularly true in The Wall Street Journal. Implications for public engagement and ideological polarization are discussed.

“It’s natural and healthy, but I don’t want to see it” The impact of entertainment television on breastfeeding attitudes • Katie Foss, Middle Tennessee State University; Ken Blake • This study examined entertainment television’s effect on breastfeeding attitudes. Based on results of a randomized-group experiment involving 364 students, this study finds that while participants generally held positive attitudes, exposing them to clips of prime-time fictional television depictions of breastfeeding negatively affected their attitudes, particularly after viewing an older child breastfeeding. Furthermore, watching a clip in which a breastfeeding woman is harassed in a restaurant seemed to improve comfort with viewing breastfeeding. Qualitative responses indicated that many participants held mixed feelings about the clips ranging from positive reactions to describing the breastfeeding videos as awkward, amusing, or irrelevant to their lives. The study concludes that entertainment television can affect attitudes toward breastfeeding, even in a population with few parents. It also speculates that pro-breastfeeding images in media could help normalize breastfeeding, creating a climate conducive to breastfeeding success.

Dr. Joel Fuhrman’s Health Immersion Conference and Its Effects on Diet and Health Behavior Change: An Extension of the Health Belief Model • Desiree Markham, Texas Tech University; Liz Gardner, Texas Tech University • Surveys were conducted with attendees of a Health Immersion Conference to assess effectiveness of this diet-focused intervention and examine Health Belief Model tenets. Surveys assessed how likelihood to change diet practices following the conference, types of intended diet changes, and perceived obstacles to change. Findings illustrate the effectiveness of this health intervention and also consider the influence of benefits promoted via a cue to action and perceived susceptibility in predicting intentions to change health behavior.

On Pins and Needles: How Vaccines Are Portrayed on Pinterest • Jeanine Guidry, Virginia Commonwealth University • Vaccination is an effective public health measure that has been instrumental in greatly reducing the morbidity and mortality due to infectious diseases. However, increasing numbers of parents question the safety of vaccines or refuse to vaccinate their children outright. The Internet is playing a significant role in this burgeoning anti-vaccination movement, since a growing number of people use the Internet to obtain health information, including information about vaccines. Given the role the Internet and specifically social media play in providing vaccination-related communication, and the fact that limited research that has been done to address this area, this study focused on the social media platform Pinterest and analyzed a total of 800 vaccine-related pins through a quantitative content analysis. The majority of the pins were anti-vaccine, and most were original posts as opposed to repins. Concerns about vaccine safety and side effects were an oft-repeated theme, as was the concept of conspiracy theory. Pro-vaccine pins elicited consistently more engagement than anti-vaccine pins. Health educators and public health organizations should be aware of these dynamics, since a successful health communication campaign should start with an understanding of what and how others communicate about the topic at hand.

Framing Climate Change: A Content Analysis of Chinese Mainstream Media from 2005 to 2012 • Jingjing Han, Indiana University; Shaojing Sun, Fudan University • As the largest greenhouse gas emitter and the second-largest economy, China is of great importance in global climate change mitigation. This study investigated the state of affairs of Chinese media coverage on climate change. Focusing on the period from 2005 to 2012, we analyzed a total of 874 news articles from five mainstream Chinese newspapers such as People’ s Daily, Xinhua Daily Telegraph, and Southern Metropolis Daily. In reference to media framing analysis, we identified six major frames that are prominent in reports regarding climate change, including conflict, collaboration, human interest, attribution of responsibility, science, and leadership. Results showed that the frequencies of frame usage varied significantly across the Chinese newspapers. Furthermore, the use of certain frames (e.g. conflict, collaboration) is associated with the employment of different information sources, among which government officials are the most frequently cited. This study also suggested that the Chinese media are more likely to frame climate change from a political perspective, rather than a scientific and environmental one.

Extending the impacts of hostile media perceptions: Influences on discussion and opinion polarization. • P. Sol Hart, University of Michigan; Lauren Feldman, Rutgers University; Connie Roser-Renouf, George Mason University; Anthony Leiserowitz, Yale University; Edward Maibach, George Mason University • Researchers recently have begun to examine how hostile media perceptions (HMP) may promote discursive activities aimed at correcting the media’s perceived negative influence. Extending this line of research, we examine how discussion, promoted by HMP, influences ideological polarization on the issue of climate change. Using nationally representative survey data , we test a moderated-mediation model which finds that HMP significantly impact support for climate mitigation policies through the mediator of discussion, and that the link between discussion and policy support is moderated in a three-way interaction with network heterogeneity and political ideology. Specifically, discussion in homogeneous networks increases opinion polarization by intensifying conservatives’ opinions, whereas discussion in heterogeneous networks decreases polarization by moderating liberals’ opinions. HMP also directly influences polarization.

The Role of Mass Media Related Risk Factors in Predicting Adolescents’ Risky Sexual Behaviors • Madhurima Sarkar, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children’s Hospital; Gary Heald, Florida State University • Numerous studies have documented the importance of risk factors in predicting adolescents’ sexual behaviors. This study examines the utility of mass media-related risk factors, as well as traditional risk factors, in predicting these behaviors. The integrated model in this study details the role of mass media exposure and perceptions of media messages when predicting both adolescents’ intentions to engage in sexual behaviors and their actual risky sexual behaviors.

The Cognitive Mediation Model: Communication, Information Processing, and Public Knowledge about Climate Change • Xianghong Peh, Nanyang Technological University; Shirley Ho, Nanyang Technological University • This study advances the cognitive mediation model by examining the factors influencing Singaporeans’ knowledge about climate change. Based on a nationwide RDD telephone survey of adult Singaporeans (N = 1,083), results showed that attention to newspapers was positively associated with elaboration but not selective scanning, attention to Internet news was positively associated with elaboration and selective scanning, and attention to television news was not associated with the two information processing strategies. Elaboration, in turn, was positively associated with knowledge but not selective scanning. Interpersonal discussion had a direct negative relationship with knowledge but an indirect positive relationship with knowledge via elaboration. Overall, our results support the model and offer a more nuanced understanding of the learning process in the context of climate change.

First-Person Effects of Emotional and Informational Messages in Strategic Environmental Communications Campaigns • Jennifer Hoewe, The Pennsylvania State University; Lee Ahern, Penn State • This study examined the first- and third-person effects of emotional and informational messages, particularly relating to the critical issue areas of energy, the environment, and global warming. Due to intense political polarization on such issues, it also explored the role of political party identification. The results of an experiment indicate that informational messages about the environment produce third-person effects, while environmental advertisements meant to evoke emotion caused first-person effects. Moreover, emotional environmental advertisements appealed more to Republicans and those who did not support a political party. As such, indirect, emotional messages appear to represent an opportunity for strategic environmental communicators to design campaigns that resonate with potentially unreceptive audiences.

Developing Effective Alcohol Abuse Prevention Campaign Messages for Fraternity Men and Sorority Women: Gender Differences in the Descriptive and Injunctive Norms Used in Media-Based Health Campaigns • Stacey J.T. Hust, The Edward R. Murrow College of Communication, Washington State University; Erica Austin, Washington State University; Bruce Pinkleton, Washington State University Murrow Center for Media & Health Promotion; Anna Wheatley, Washington State University; Jason Wheeler, Washington State University • An important risk factor for heavy drinking and its consequences within college student populations is involvement in a fraternity or sorority (Bartholow et al., 2003). Fraternity and sorority members drink more frequently, more heavily, and experience more alcohol-related problems during college than their non-Greek peers (e.g. Borsari & Carey, 1999). The current study used a survey to explore fraternity men’s and sorority women’s behaviors and beliefs about alcohol consumption, to help develop appeals used in health-promotion campaigns. It further identifies the degree to which estimations of an in-group reference group is associated with members’ personal behaviors and beliefs associated with alcohol use. Our findings indicate fraternity men and sorority women similarly engage in negative behaviors related to alcohol use, and they are influenced by their perceptions of their peers’ behaviors and beliefs. Given this population is at great risk for alcohol abuse, there is significant need to develop prevention programs that are effective with this community.

The impacts of message framing and risk type in skin cancer prevention messages • Moon Lee; Hannah Kang, University of Florida • We explored how the effects of message framing and risk type interact with individuals’ prior experience and compared how these effects are different based on different types of advocated behaviors (i.e. avoiding tanning beds/sunbathing or using sunscreen). Through two experiments, we found three-way interactions among framing, risk type, and prior experience. The effects of message framing and risk type were different based on types of advocated behaviors.

The Corporate Medicine Show • Hyosun Kim, University of North Carolina -CH • Pharmaceutical advertising is everywhere and Direct-to-Consumer advertising of prescription drugs perceived as controversial issue in pharmaceutical market, for policy makers and for communication scholars. However, DTC advertising of pharmaceuticals is not a new phenomenon. Drug manufacturers have directly advertised their medications to consumers since the beginning of medicine. The FDA began to regulate drug advertising to protect consumers from misleading promotions, and their role has been expanded with the growth of pharmaceutical market. This study traces the history of pharmaceutical advertising in the 1930s when the 1938 Act expanded the scope of federal regulations and chaos still existed in the market. Benefit claims that drug manufacturers made were puffery and medications were portrayed as breakthrough in the ads. Also, none of the ads analyzed were not present risk information. The pharmaceutical advertisements in 1930 represent the FDA’s concerns in 1930.

Factors influencing risk perceptions of science issues: Comparing college students in the U.S. and South Korea • Hwalbin Kim, University of South Carolina; Robert McKeever, University of South Carolina; Jeong-Heon JC Chang, Korea University; Ju-Yong Ha, Inha University • This study examines the role of the media, interpersonal communication, and elaborative processing in shaping participants’ risk perception of nuclear and genetically modified organisms (GMO) technology in the United States and South Korea. The findings indicate that attentions to science television news and elaborative processing are positively related to risk perception of science issues. The effect of newspaper readership on risk perception about scientific issues was moderated by elaborative processing.

Attributions of Obesity Stigmas and News Source in Two Leading Newspapers in the United States and South Korea • Hyang-Sook Kim, St. Norbert College; Emily Gear, St. Norbert College; Mun-Young Chung; Hyunjin Kang, Penn State University • The worldwide increase in obesity rates calls for research about a potential contagion of obesity stigmas via newspapers. A content analysis of two leading newspapers in the United States and South Korea found more stories with obesity stigma in the American newspaper than in Korean. Obesity-stigma news included attributions of obesity for both societal and personal levels in both newspapers. Health expert sources cancelled out obesity stigma in news stories in the Korean newspaper only.

Barriers to Clinical Trial Participation: Comparing Perceptions and Knowledge of African American and White South Carolinians • Sei-Hill Kim; Andrea Tanner, University of South Carolina; Daniela Friedman; Caroline Foster, College of Charleston; Caroline Bergeron • Analyzing data from a survey of South Carolinians, this study examines how to better promote clinical trial participation specifically among African Americans. Findings revealed that African Americans were significantly less willing than whites to participate in a clinical trial. African Americans also had lower subjective and factual knowledge about clinical trials and perceived greater risk of participating in a clinical trial. Lack of subjective knowledge and perceived risk were significant predictors of African Americans’ willingness to participate.

Need for Affect and Cognition as Precursors to Risk Perception, Information Processing, and Behavioral Intent on the Use of Sunscreen with Nanoparticles • Se-Jin Kim, Colorado State University • The use of sunscreen with nanoparticles involves risks that are not yet fully known or verified. More importantly, behavioral attitude/intention of this behavior has not been investigated in the context of any theoretical model that includes personality attributes such as need for affect and need for cognition. This paper introduces and develops a hybrid theoretical model of risk-based behavioral attitude/intention based on the Theory of Reasoned Action, Dual Process Risk Perception, the Heuristic Systematic Model, and need for affect/need for cognition. The hybrid model proposes that personality attributes (need for affect/need for cognition), the Heuristic Systematic Model, Dual Processing Risk Perception (Affective- and Cognitive-Risk Perception) are antecedents to dependent variables from the Theory of Reasoned Action (attitude and behavioral intention towards sunscreen use). This study suggests a series of hypotheses and research questions using the topic of sunscreen with nanoparticles. The findings of the study indicate that the proposed model is adequately fit to what was suggested in the hypotheses and research questions.

Social Media, Risk Perception, and the Third Person Effect: The Case of Fukushima Radiation • Ji Won Kim, Syracuse University; Makana Chock, Syracuse University; Myojung Chung; Soyoung Jung, Syracuse University • This study examined the effects of social media context on perceptions of risk message. We investigated how reading news stories of the radioactive risk of Japanese fishes in the social media site would affect risk perception and third-person effect. A 2 (Facebook vs. news site) x 2 (narrative vs. factual) between-subjects experiment (N= 90) was conducted. Results showed that social media context increased personal risk perception and reduced 3PE.

Medialization of Science as a Predictor for Scientists’ Participation in Public Engagement • Eun Jeong Koh, Department of Life Sciences Communication, University of Wisconsin-Madison; Linda Pfeiffer, Mass Communication and Environmental Resources, University of Wisconsin-Madison; Sharon Dunwoody, University of Wisconsin-Madison; Dominique Brossard; Hans Peter Peters • An international mail survey of biomedical scientists shows that factors previously found to influence scientists’ participation in mediated science communication also are predictors of participation in direct public engagement activities. We analyze perceptions of “medialization of science,” which refers to the increasing orientation towards (and adaptation to) media criteria by scientists (Weingart, 1998). The effect of medialization on scientists’ participation in direct public engagement was significantly greater than on scientists’ participation in mediated communication.

Testing an Alternative to False Balance in Media Coverage of Controversial Science • Patrice Kohl; Soo Yun Kim, University of Wisconsin-Madison; Yilang Peng; Sharon Dunwoody, University of Wisconsin-Madison; Eun Jeong Koh, Department of Life Sciences Communication, University of Wisconsin-Madison • Controversy in science news accounts attracts audiences and draws public attention to important science issues. But when competing truth claims are given equal space in a news story despite the likelihood that one claim is more valid than others, this can result in a narrative structure known as “false balance.” Falsely balanced stories may unnecessarily heighten audience perceptions of uncertainty. In this study, we look at whether highlighting the preponderance of evidence bolstering one truth claim over others—a strategy we identify as “weight-of-evidence reporting”—might attenuate this effect. In comparing the impact of a weight-of-evidence narrative with the false balance story, our results suggest weight of evidence can play a role in reducing some of the uncertainty audiences may perceive, while false balance is linked with greater perceived scientific uncertainty.

The Perceived Familiarity Gap Hypothesis: Examining How Media Attention and Reflective Integration Relate to Perceived Familiarity of Nanotechnology in Singapore • Edmund Lee; Shirley Ho, Nanyang Technological University • The original knowledge gap hypothesis posits differential knowledge gains between people in the higher and lower socioeconomic status (SES) groups. This study put forth the notion of “perceived familiarity” as another dimension of knowledge and proposes a complementary model—the “perceived familiarity gap hypothesis”—that examines how media attention and reflective integration are associated with gaps in familiarity between the higher and lower SES groups in the context of nanotechnology in Singapore. Significant three way-and two-way interactions between education, attention to media and reflective integration were found—higher television usage closed the perceived familiarity gap between the higher and lower SES groups and for individuals who engaged in higher elaborative processing and more interpersonal discussion. Newspaper attention on the other hand widened the perceived familiarity gap between the higher and lower SES groups among those who engaged more in elaborative processing. Theoretical and practical implications were discussed.

Social Influence on Soda Consumption Behaviors among International Students Residing in the United States • Xuan Zhu, University of minnesota; Lauren Gray, University of Minnesota; Jiyoon Lee, University of Minnesota • Despite media propagation of the deleterious health effects of soda consumption, the U.S. still has one of the world’s highest soda consumption rates. Peer modeling and normative behavior theories are used to examine the relationship between soda consumption and student status (U.S. or U.S.-residing international). Our survey-based research reveals differences between the two groups in actual and perceived soda consumption. Perceived norms are shown to contribute to the increase in soda consumption.

The Influence of Socio-Cultural Factors on Social Stigma of Suicide • HANNAH LEE, Ewha Womans University • The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of socio-cultural characteristics on stigma of suicide. The results indicated that exposure to suicide prevention information was associated with low level of stigma, while exposure to news coverage of suicidal events was associated with high level of stigma. In particular, cultural characteristics were closely connected to the stigma of suicide. These findings have important implications for suicide prevention and also for developing culturally appropriate interventions.

Seeking and Learning: Examining Selective Exposure to Media Coverage of A Controversial Scientific Issue • Xuan Liang; Heather Akin, University of Wisconsin-Madison • This study explores the causal relationship between information seeking and knowledge about nanotechnology. Using a two-wave dataset from a nationwide online panel survey, we find reciprocal relationships between information seeking behavior and knowledge. Specifically, we find that seeking counter-attitudinal information conducive to knowledge gain but seeking information consistent with pre-existing attitudes suppresses knowledge levels. Participants with lower levels of knowledge about nanotechnology tend to be more engaged in information seeking. Different media, including the use of television, social media and other online websites, also impact factual knowledge and information seeking behavior.

From Education to Communication: Influences on Health • Ming-Ching Liang • Using the 2009 Annenberg National Health Communication Survey (ANHCS 2009) data, the roles of social network, print media use, and health information seeking behavior (HISB) in predicting health were examined. Controlling for education, social network and HISB exhibit positive associations with health status, but negative associations with diet and perceived quality of care (PQC). Print media use is a positive contributor to PQC and health, but has an insignificant relationship with dietary practices.

Beyond Gory or Happy Sensation on Facebook: Effects of Emotionality in Anti-drunk Driving PSAs on College Students’ Drunk-driving Attitudes and Behavioral Intentions • Chen Lou, Michigan State University; Saleem Alhabash, Michigan State University • Driving under the influence of alcohol presents a growing public health concern. With increasing investment in alcohol marketing via social media, the current study uses a 3 (emotional tone: positive vs. negative vs. coactive) x 3 (message repetition) within-subject factorial design to investigate the effects of exposure to anti-drunk driving messages shared via Facebook on drunk driving attitudes and behavioral intentions. More specifically the study investigated how emotional tone affects attitudes toward the PSAs, the issue of drunk driving, and intentions to drive while tipsy and while drunk. Furthermore, the study explored how attitudes (toward the PSA and drunk driving), descriptive and injunctive norms, and past drinking behaviors predict intentions to drive while tipsy and drunk. Results showed that PSAs with negative tone was most effective in eliciting unfavorable attitude toward PSAs and drunk driving, and lowest likelihood to drive while feeling tipsy or drunk in near future. Findings are discussed in relation to behavioral change models in light of anti-drunk-driving social media interventions.

Traversing Psychological Distance: Climate Change Framing, Emotions and Support for Policies • Hang Lu, Cornell University • The climate-change-as-distant issue has been of concern for many communicators and policy makers. This study applied the Construal Level Theory of Psychological Distance to examining what types of messages might be more effective in augmenting intentions to adopt pro-environmental behaviors and support climate change mitigation policies. A 2 (Temporal: Distant vs. Proximal) x 2 (Spatial: Distant vs. Proximal) x 2 (Social: Distant vs. Proximal) quasi-experiment was conducted among 483 participants. The results indicate significant interaction effects between temporal and social dimensions on pro-environmental behaviors and significant main effects of temporal dimension on support for mitigation policies. In addition, three discrete emotions, worry, sympathy and anxiety, were found to fully mediate some of these relationships. Limitations and future implications are also discussed.

Framing Climate Change in Psychological Distance Terms: A Content Analysis of National and Local U.S. Newspapers • Hang Lu, Cornell University; Naa Amponsah Dodoo, University of Florida • The concern around many Americans’ perception that climate change is a distant issue has been soaring in recent years. Although research on media coverage of climate change has been well-documented and varied in a wide range of topics, few studies have tried to look at media coverage of climate change from the perspective of psychological distance. This study employed content analysis as the primary technique to examine the portrayal of climate change in relation to psychological distance dimensions in two national and thirty-six local newspapers over a 13-month period. The results indicate that climate change is most likely to be presented as to pose impacts in a very distant or unspecified future, at the globe-level or unspecified locations, and with high certainty. Temporal, spatial and social dimensions of climate change frames were positively correlated. There was a negative association between changes in climate change frames and changes in public perceptions of climate change. Implications and limitations are also discussed.

Evaluating Food Labels and Food Messages: An Experimental Study of the Impact of Message Format and Product Type on Evaluations of Magazine Food Advertisements • Yongick Jeong, Louisiana State University; Lisa Lundy • Using a 2 (gain vs. loss frame) X 3 (organic, non-GMO, and antibiotics free products) mixed-repeated-measures design, this study examines how message format and product type influenced the effectiveness of food labels in magazine food advertisements. Results indicate that product type and food labels were more influential than message format (gain/loss frame). Overall, participants viewed organic foods more favorably than non-GMO or antibiotics free foods. Theoretical and marketing implications are discussed.

Tracking a healthy lifestyle: College students’ attitudes toward the adoption of health and fitness mobile applications • Paige Madsen, University of Iowa; Melissa Kampa; Melissa Zimdars • To encourage the development and maintenance of healthy among college students, Student Health Services at a large Midwestern university implemented a health and wellness program that was poorly utilized by students. The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the viability and student interest in a health-related mobile phone app that could be used in conjunction with a university Student Health Services program to give students easy access to track their health and fitness goals using their cell phones. This study used intercept interviews to explore current mobile app use, attitudes toward the use and functions of health and fitness apps, perceived barriers to their use, and perceptions a health app sponsored by the university. Results indicated that 80% of the sample used a smart device, and nearly half were using some type of health app. Participants indicated that they were interested in app functions that would allow them to connect directly to the recreation center on campus – to either see fitness class schedules or gym equipment availability. Participants were less interested in apps that would connect them to others via social media or apps intended to help manage mental health. Student concerns included privacy and the cost of apps. This exploratory study suggests that apps are a good option for universities to encourage the adoption of healthy lifestyles among students, and for students to efficiently manage their own health and fitness goals.

Setting The Nutritional Agenda: An Analysis of Nutrition Blog Sourcing • Shana Meganck • This research study analyzed the sources of nutrition blog information in order to increase understanding of how our nutritional agenda is set by bloggers. Focusing on 20 nutrition blogs, the study content analyzed 3,156 posts, and conducted in-depth interviews with the bloggers. The findings showed that nutrition bloggers are sourcing half of the time, citing a variety of sources, and finding and choosing sources in various ways.

Understanding the Effect of Affective Priming on Health News Processing and Health Information Seeking Intention Over Time • Alexandra Merceron, University of Connecticut; Yi Wang, University of Connecticut; Dana Rogers; Christina DeVoss • This quantitative experiment (N=236) builds on recent research on media priming effects to explore the impact of primed affective responses on reader’s assessments of the credibility of health journalism, and subsequent health information seeking intentions and behavior. Potential mediating and moderating factors, such as type of affect elicited from priming (positive or negative), content evaluation (topic interest, prior knowledge, news discussion), and health self-efficacy were also measured to further explain the relationship between affective priming and health information seeking related attitudes and behavior.

Framing Climate Change: An Examination of Environmental Agency Websites in Costa Rica, Norway, the United States and China • Jill Capotosto, Elon University; Barbara Miller, Elon University • This study examined the framing of climate change on the environmental agency websites of countries with vastly different environmental performance scores—Costa Rica, Norway, the U.S., and China. The depth with which the sites covered climate change sources varied greatly, as did the level of action (individual, national or international) emphasized to mitigate and adapt to climate change impacts. This study sheds light on communication that reflects and/or encourages environmentally progressive agendas.

Marketplace advocacy by the fossil fuel industries: Issues of identity and influence in environmental policy • Barbara Miller, Elon University; T. Kenn Gaither, Elon University • Through the lens of the cultural-economic model of public relations, this study used a semiological approach to examine strategic communication by the industry trade groups representing the energy industries of coal (American Coalition for Clean Coal Electricity) and petroleum (American Petroleum Institute). The study identified four prominent identities created by mass media advertisements from the ACCCE and API to enhance public support while reducing concern for climate change initiatives.

The effects of survivors’ social support on psycho-social adjustment of newly-diagnosed breast cancer patients in an online social support group • TAE JOON MOON, University of Wisconsin – Madison; Woohyun Yoo, University of Wisconsin – Madison; Ming-Yuan Chih, University of Kentucky; Dhavan Shah, University of Wisconsin – Madison; David Gustafson, University of Wisconsin – Madison • This study delineates (1) which types of social support BC survivors provide to newly-diagnosed BC patients in an online social support group and (2) how the survivors’ support is different from that of newly-diagnosed breast cancer patients by using a systematic computer-aided content analysis. The present study further investigates (3) how the survivors’ support contributes to a psycho-social adjustment of newly-diagnosed patients. The results indicate that, compared to newly diagnosed patients, BC survivors provided emotional support more frequently. However, there is no difference in provision of information support between survivors and new patients. Survivors’ emotional support contributes to improvement of new patients’ psycho-social outcomes (e.g., BC related concern, perceived social support, depression), whereas both emotional and informational support provided by new patients are not associated with the psycho-social adjustment of newly-diagnosed patients.

Hope and the hyperlink: Drivers of message sharing in a Twitter cancer network • Jessica Myrick, Indiana University; Avery Holton, University of Utah; Itai Himelboim, University of Georgia; Brad Love • Social networking sites (SNSs) such as Twitter have become an important part of health communication, providing a means for increased awareness and knowledge for a number of conditions. Cancer ranks among the most salient health topics on Twitter with thousands of individuals and organizations creating accounts, lists, and hashtag communities to share information and provide social support. Yet, research has thus far focused on the use of social media in public discourses and community building surrounding specific forms of cancer rather than support networks set up for cancer more broadly. This study extends such work by examining how users of a general cancer network on Twitter offer social support and link to resources. This study also analyzes how Twitter content might drive message sharing within the cancer network, a key determinant of online community stability and growth. The results indicate that cancer-focused communities on Twitter may foster information sharing and messages of hope, sadness, and encouragement while frequently linking to grassroots efforts, health professionals, news media, and advocacy resources. Social support in the form of hope and the inclusion of hyperlinks to advocacy websites were the greatest drivers of message sharing in the sample studied here. These findings help advance current theoretical considerations pertaining to health communication and social media while also providing critical insights for health and health communication practitioners.

The Partisan Brain: How Dissonant Science Messages Lead Conservatives and Liberals to (Dis)trust science • Erik Nisbet; Kathryn Cooper; R. Kelly Garrett • There has been deepening concern about political polarization in public attitudes toward the scientific community. The “intrinsic thesis” attributes this polarization to psychological deficiencies among conservatives as compared to liberals. The “contextual thesis” makes no such claims about inherent psychological differences between conservatives and liberals, but rather points to interacting institutional and psychological factors as the forces driving polarization. We evaluate the evidence for both theses in the context of developing and testing a theoretical model of audience response to dissonant science communication. Conducting a national online experiment (N=1500), we examined audience reactions to both conservative-dissonant and liberal-dissonant science messages and consequences for institutional trust in the scientific community. Our results suggest liberals and conservatives alike react negatively to dissonant science communication with resulting diminished trust in the scientific community. We discuss how our findings link to the larger debate about political polarization of science and implication for science communicators.

Causal Attribution of Health Status: Media Trust, Information Seeking, and Optimism • Hyun Jee Oh; Hyehyun Hong • This study employed 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) data to examine antecedents and consequences of causal attribution of health status. Attribution theory was used as a theoretical framework. When applied to health communication, the theory suggests people have a tendency to attribute either internal (individual) or external (social) causes to health status. The study results indicated that personal cancer history and media trust antecede internal attribution of health status. Internal attribution then positively affected optimism about cancer and information-seeking and healthy lifestyle behaviors. Structuring equation modeling showed that all three path models from media trust to attribution to three consequences of attribution (optimism, information-seeking, and healthy behavior) were significant. This shows that media can encourage internal attribution by increasing trust in health information they provide. Providing quality health information that meets public needs and wants is therefore imperative. Other practical and theoretical implications are further discussed.

How Fear-Arousing News Messages Affect Risk Perceptions and Intention to Talk about Risk • Hye-Jin Paek, Hanyang University; SANG-HWA OH; Thomas Hove, Hanyang University • Applying the impersonal/differential-impact hypotheses and fear theories, this study demonstrates how fear-arousing media messages about risk can affect personal- and societal level risk perception, as well as intention to talk with family and friends. Analysis of a survey of Korean adults indicates that fear-arousing media messages about carcinogenic hazards and mad cow disease affected both personal- and societal-level risk perceptions and interpersonal communication directly and indirectly through risk perceptions.

Informing the Publics during Health Disaster: A Crisis Management Approach to News Media Responses to Flu Pandemic • Po-Lin Pan, Arkansas State University; Juan Meng, University of Georgia • Dividing crisis management process into three macrostages, this content analysis examined how news media responded to health disaster in terms of (1) news frames, (2) mortality subjects, (3) vaccine problems, (4) evaluation approaches to risk magnitudes, and (5) news sources in three crisis management stages. Results showed that news media used various framing strategies to inform the publics in different stages. The frames of health risk, societal problems, political/legal issues, and prevention and health education were more frequently used in the pre-crisis stage, while the medical/scientific frame was regularly used in the post-crisis stage to highlight medical treatment and scientific research in dealing with the health disaster. Evaluation approaches were also employed differently in three stages. Qualitative approach was mostly used in the pre-crisis stage, while quantitative approach and statistical approach were commonly used in the post-crisis stage. Health professionals were widely used as news sources in all stages to increase the publics’ awareness of health crisis severity, while government officials and politicians could repeatedly appear to function strategically toward the achievement of public-institution effectiveness in the pre-crisis stage.

Motivating Citizens: An Assessment of Individual Motivation to Share Warning Messages through Social Networking Sites • Mimi Perreault, University of Missouri; Seoyeon Hong, University of Missouri School of Journalism; Grace Park, University of Missouri School of Journalism • The current experiment investigated how individual motivations in psychological process (Self-Determination Theory) and personality tendency (Motivation Activation Measures) predict their likelihood to broadcast warnings through social networking sites during disasters (e.g., natural disasters, or gun shooting). Not only individuals differ in responses to disasters based on their motivational reactivity but also intrinsic motivation and relativism are explaining the variance of warning intentions. Interestingly, level of defensive system activation is associated intrinsic motivation while appetitive system score is associated with extrinsic motivation. Findings of the current study provide meaningful contributions for risk communication researchers and practitioners (e.g., FEMA) who intend to develop targeted campaign messages in disasters.

Opinion toward Nuclear Energy Use and Constructions of Health and Environmental Risks in Post-Fukushima News. • David J. Park, FIU-SJMC; Juliet Pinto, FIU-SJMC; Weirui Wang, Florida International University • This paper analyzes constructions of opinion toward nuclear energy use, as well as environmental and health risk in international news coverage of the 2011 Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster between the German Sueddeutsche Zeitung (SZ), the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (FAZ), and the U.S. New York Times. Our results indicate the German newspapers used more diverse sources including opinionated and anti-nuclear sources than the U.S. paper. In addition, our results also noted that environmental risk was rarely mentioned in either newspaper regardless of the source’s opinion. The lack of sources covering environmental risks may be influenced by journalistic routines, news values and lack of access to information by Japanese officials. Opinion toward nuclear energy made a difference if health risk was mentioned within the New York Times, while the sources’ opinion in the German sample did not influence whether health risk was mentioned. Pro-nuclear energy use sources did not mention health risk compared with sources with other opinions. The variance may also suggest the sources and the newspapers place a hierarchy on human risk versus environmental risk. Findings are discussed in terms of implications for policy outcomes.

Defining a Medical Condition: A Qualitative Framing Analysis of Magazine Coverage of Fibromyalgia, 1980-2011 • Joy Rodgers, University of Florida • Recent marketing efforts for fibromyalgia drugs have renewed the debate on the medical classification of the pain condition. Framing studies have shown media coverage of certain topics to affect public attitudes. This study breaks new ground by identifying the dominant framing of fibromyalgia in 30 years of magazine coverage. Little to no shift was found in the framing of fibromyalgia, signaling a need for media and scientists to work together in providing service to patients.

Temporal framing and motivated reasoning: Can temporal cues moderate backlash toward worldview-incongruent environmental messages? • Sungjong Roh, Cornell University; Katherine McComas, Cornell University; Laura Rickard, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry; Daniel Decker, Cornell University • This study investigated how temporal distance frames increase or decrease boomerang effects of value-incongruent environmental messages by changing behavioral intentions to engage in conservation. Results from two randomized experiments show that a temporally distal frame for an emerging wildlife could reduce backfire effects on conservation intentions for people low in biocentric values when exposed to messages emphasizing human attribution of responsibility—namely, value-incongruent information—whereas a temporally proximal frame exacerbated a backlash against such messages.

Exploring Health Literacy, its Measurement and Predictors among African American College Students • Judith Rosenbaum, Albany State University; Benjamin Johnson, The Ohio State University; Amber Deane, Albany State University • Health literacy is increasingly seen as a solution to health disparities and poor health outcomes, and various instruments have been developed to measure it. In an exploratory pilot study, we tested the most recent and comprehensive measure of health literacy: the HLSI-SF. The results provided interesting insight into media use as a possible predictor of health literacy, but also raised questions about the instrument and how exactly to measure and define health literacy.

Cognitive and emotional risk perceptions mediate the association between news media use and food consumption intention: Analyzing food safety outbreaks in East Asia • Minsun Shim, Inha University; Myoungsoon You, Seoul National University • Much research on risk perception and health behavior has examined cognitive dimensions of risk but not emotional dimensions. To address this gap, this study examines both cognitive risk perception (perceived risk of susceptibility and severity) and emotional risk perception (worry) in the context of food safety risks in East Asia. We investigate their roles in independently and jointly predicting intention to consume outbreak-associated food products, as well as mediating the influences of news exposure and attention on intention. Data from a nationwide survey in South Korea (N = 1,500) lent support for our hypotheses in both cases of processed food from China and seafood from Japan. Our findings indicate: (1) both perceived risk and worry were negatively associated with food consumption intention, and the relationship between perceived risk and intention was stronger among those higher in worry; (2) news attention had stronger association with risk perceptions than news exposure, and it moderated the relationship between news exposure and risk perceptions; (3) perceived risk and worry mediated the associations between news media use and food consumption intention. Implications and limitations of the findings are discussed.

The power of narratives in health blogs: Identification as an instigator of self-persuasion • Carmen Stavrositu • This study examined the extent to which narrative vs. non-narrative blogs instigate self-persuasion processes and, ultimately, behavioral intentions related to skin cancer prevention. Participants (N = 190) read one of two versions of a blog post about skin cancer that described a blogger’s journey with skin cancer diagnosis and treatment, and included specific recommendations for skin cancer prevention. The post was written in either narrative or non-narrative style. Findings indicate that narrative blog formats reduce counterarguments while increasing pro-attitudinal arguments. These effects were shown to emerge as a result of higher identification with the blogger in the narrative vs. the non-narrative blog condition. Furthermore, the decrease in counterarguments and increase in pro-attitudinal arguments were associated with a stronger behavioral intentions, lending support to the notion that narratives and identification not only inhibit counterarguments, but promote pro-attitudinal arguments, which essentially translate to self-persuasion. Theoretical and practical implications, as well as suggestions for future research, are discussed.

Buzz Agents and a Teen Public Health Social Marketing Campaign: Impact on Attitudes and Behaviors • Amy Struthers, University of Nebraska-Lincoln; Ming Wang, University of Nebraska-Lincoln • Researchers developed a public health campaign for teens focused on obesity prevention, based on social marketing and buzz marketing principles, to test a series of hypotheses postulating that use of these principles would result in positive attitudes toward the campaign among the most engaged members of the target audience, the buzz agents, leading to positive attitudes as well as positive self-reported behavior changes involving fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity. Results largely support the hypotheses, with the exception of vegetable intake. The researchers propose that the buzz agent concept may provide a model for reaching adolescents most effectively with public health messages.

Cueing attitudes and behaviors about climate change: Heuristic processing and social norm cues on YouTube • Leona Yi-Fan Su, Department of Life Sciences Communication, University of Wisconsin-Madison; James T. Spartz, Department of Life Sciences Communication, University of Wisconsin-Madison • Normative cues embedded in a new media platform such as YouTube may shape viewers’ perceived importance of the video topic and willingness to seek more information. Study results suggest that the “number of views” cue can have subtle but significant influences on participants’ attitudes and behaviors. Specifically, individuals who indicated heuristically processing the video were likely to assign greater importance to the issue and seek more information under the “high number of views” condition.

Headlining energy issues: A content analysis of ethanol headlines in the U.S. elite press • Bruno Takahashi, Michigan State University; Carol Terracina Hartman, Michigan State University; Katheryn Amann, Michigan State University; Mark Meisner, International Environmental Communication Association • Few studies examining media coverage of environmental and science issues have focused on headlines, which are considered relevance optimizers. This study examined the headlines about ethanol in the elite U.S. press. We focused on themes, issue attributes, tone, and actors. Results show a dominance of policy and economic themes, similar to other studies on biofuels. Differences with those studies are found in the presence of actors, where ethanol industry is more prevalent than governmental actors.

The Framing of the Child Computer User by Taiwanese Children’s Newspapers • Yue Tan; Ping Shaw • This paper examines the media’s framing of child computer users in Taiwan and its evolution with the Internet diffusion (2000- 2011). Using a content analysis of articles published in the most popular children’s newspaper, we found significant longitudinal changes. Specifically, the construction of children changed from “needy” and “victimized” users to “successful” and “dangerous” users, and the agents of action shifted from children to schools and government, while maintaining an emphasis on the cognitive gains.

Dodging the debate and dealing the facts: Using research and community partnerships to promote understanding of the Affordable Care Act • Andrea Tanner, University of South Carolina; Otis Owens, University of South Carolina; Diana Sisson; Vance Kornegay, University of South Carolina; Caroline Bergeron; Daniela Friedman; Megan Weis; Lee Patterson; Teresa Windham • This study reports on an innovative, community-based effort to promote awareness and understanding of the Affordable Care Act (ACA). Specifically, this study assesses the current knowledge, perceptions, and communication sources and needs regarding the ACA among adults in one southeastern county in an effort to determine the feasibility of establishing the public library as a trusted and non-partisan source of ACA-related information. Results of formative research are discussed and campaign development activities are chronicled.

Truth, Objectivity, and False Balance in Public Health Reporting: Michele Bachmann, HPV, and “Mental Retardation” • Ryan Thomas, Missouri School of Journalism; Edson Tandoc, Nanyang Technological University; Amanda Hinnant, Missouri School of Journalism • This content analysis of media coverage of Michele Bachmann’s erroneous comments that the HPV vaccine causes mental retardation aims to understand the relationship between truth and objectivity in public health reporting. Of 206 articles analyzed, under half provided correction and less than 30% provided a counterpoint. We also found health reporters tended to engage in truth-telling and objectivity more than political reporters. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

Why I seek information: An integrative approach to explore the impact of discrete emotion on information seeking about flood risks • JIUN-YI TSAI, University of Wisconsin-Madison • This present study investigates the relationships between cognitive appraisals and emotion and the impact of emotion (anger) on information seeking behavior with regard to flood risks. We develop and test an integrative model to explore how unique sets of cognitive appraisal patters are associated with anger and how anger relates to key cognitive predictors in the RISP model. Results indicated that cognitive appraisals of responsibility, personal control, certainty and importance significantly predicted emotional reactions of anger. Emotional responses of anger not only directly motivated information seeking behavior but also triggered more need for information. Informational subjective norms, information insufficiency and perceived information gathering capacity continued to serve as positive predictors of risk information seeking. Perceived knowledge and appraisals of importance exerted a direct relationship with effortful information seeking. The sense of being uncertain about what happened in terms of flooding associated with higher information sufficiency threshold. Implications for risk communication theory and practice are discussed.

The Influence of Attitudes, Beliefs and Involvement on Environmental Selective Exposure and Subsequent Reinforcement Effects • Melanie Sarge, Texas Tech University; Matthew VanDyke, Texas Tech University • While research suggests predispositions as predictors of selective exposure, empirical investigations utilizing environmental information as the exposure stimuli are limited. The current study collected data in three waves; during the second wave, selective exposure (time spent) with news articles discussing environmental topics was unobtrusively recorded. Results revealed attitude and involvement as significant positive predictors of environmental selective exposure. Additionally, motivations to reinforce self-related attitudes and confirm self-efficacy beliefs through environmental selective exposure are observed.

Nationalizing a global phenomenon: A study of how the press portrays climate change in four different countries • Hong Vu • This study investigates the news media coverage of climate change in four different countries. Using the framing approach, this study identifies the connection between several national socioeconomic and environmental traits and the resulting portrayals of climate change. Although global warming/climate change is a global issue, which affects every country in the world, the news coverage of it varies from country to country. Such a variation is related to each country’s level of development, climate performance index ranking, and climate severity. The findings of this research contribute to framing literature by assessing and comparing frame use in a national context, filling in the gap in the application of framing as a communication theoretical framework.

“Measles epidemic … NOT!”: A fantasy theme analysis of vaccine critics’ online responses to negative media attention • Denise Vultee, Wayne State University • Outbreaks of measles in both California and New York in March 2014 drew increased negative media attention to parents who elect not to vaccinate their children. In response to this heightened scrutiny and criticism, many of these parents and their advocates turned to a variety of online venues to reaffirm their values and defend their choice. This study uses symbolic convergence theory and its associated rhetorical approach, fantasy theme analysis, to examine this discourse for insight into the rhetorical vision shared by vaccine critics in the U.S. It is intended as a step toward providing health communicators with a better understanding of the attitudes, beliefs, and values of this audience as they work to design messages about the risks and benefits of vaccination.

News, Health Decisions and the Microwave Society: Female Consumers’ Beliefs about Coverage of Medical Overtreatment • Kim Walsh-Childers, University of Florida; Jordan Neil, University of Florida; Jennifer Braddock; Ginger Blackstone, University of Florida • Health news may influence consumers’ knowledge and perceptions of medical; this may be especially true for women, who pay more attention to health information and tend to play more active roles in health decision-making for themselves and their family members. This study examined female consumers’ beliefs about overtreatment and about the role of news coverage in influencing their own health decisions. Focus group interviews with 20 adult women revealed six themes: overtreatment equals over-use of drugs, tests and specialists; the role of health professionals; the role of patients; the problem of time; costs and profits; and the role of the media. The women complained that health professionals spend too little time with patients, fail to listen to patients’ concerns or adequately answer their questions, and are more concerned about avoiding lawsuits and maximizing incomes than about providing the most efficient and effective care. Patients – most often “other” patients rather than the participants themselves – were seen as contributing to overmedication due to their desire for a “quick fix” to their health problems; however, they tended to see screening tests as useful precautions that enable consumers to be “better safe than sorry.” The women regarded the entire health care system, as well as the media industry, as driven by profits. They viewed health news, in general, with great skepticism and wanted journalists to provide more complete information about medical interventions, including “balanced” information about risks, benefits, the quality of evidence supporting new interventions, and conflicts of interest among doctors and researchers.

One Step Forward, Five Steps Back: Changes in News Coverage of Medical Interventions • Kim Walsh-Childers, University of Florida; Jennifer Braddock; Cristina Rabaza, University of Florida College of Journalism; Gary Schwitzer • In an increasingly complicated and demanding health news environment, offers reviews of the stories produced by major media outlets as a measure by which journalists and the public can assess the success or failure of health coverage across 10 criteria for quality reporting. This study produced an analysis of those reviews from 2005 to 2013, indicating significant declines in key areas. On average, the stories reviewed during 2010-2013 successfully met just less than half of the criteria. Changes over time in meeting the criteria were related to outlet type and story topic, with television and newspapers showing declines on the greatest number of criteria; the largest number of criteria showing statistically significant declines over time were for reviews of stories about medical treatments other than drugs or surgery. The paper discusses possible causes for the declines and the potential implications.

Impact of Influential Sources on Their Followers: Investigating Mental Illness Discussion in Chinese Social Media • Weirui Wang, Florida International University; Yu Liu • A content analysis was conducted to examine depression-related discourses by public opinion leaders and elite media in Chinese social media, as well as the impact of these discourses on their followers. The study revealed that stereotypes presented by these influential users often triggered stigma or reduced support among their followers. Environmental and genetic attributions reduced stigma. The recovery and treatment information was found to be a double-edged factor and should be cautiously used.

Exploring Latina College Students’ Involvement with Tanning and Skin Cancer Messages • Paula L. Weissman, American University; Susan Allen • This exploratory focus group study used the situational theory of publics (STP) to examine the skin cancer-related attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of Latina college students. The findings reported provide insight into the motivations for tanning behaviors that put these women at risk for skin cancer; highlight how underserved Latinas are by current skin cancer prevention campaigns; identify the need for culturally specific campaigns for this audience group; and suggest numerous directions for future research.

Testing Predictors of Physical Activity Among a Sample of Hispanic Adults Using the O-S-O-R Model • John Wirtz, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; Supathida Kulpavaropas • This paper presents a test of the O-S-O-R model (Markus & Zajonc, 1985) using data collected from a sample of Hispanic adults (N = 288). Exercise identity and ethnic identity were defined as preorientations (O1); physical activity- and health-related media use were stimuli (S); reflective integration and conversation about physical-activity related media were defined as postorientations (O2); and the outcome was physical activity (R). A path analysis revealed that exercise identity influenced both types of media use, as well as behavior. Health-related media use then predicted reflective integration and conversation, while PA-related media use only influenced conversation. Finally, reflective integration and conversation influenced levels of physical activity. Results of the study suggest that identity may act as a filter for media selection and that conversation serves as a link between media use and behavior. The results also suggest that practitioners should consider using mass media messages that encourage physical activity-related media use and conversation as potential precursors to regular physical activity when targeting Hispanic populations.

Does a Cyber Attack Motivate Action? Comparing Perceived Risks By Victims Of A Recent Attack • Ronald Yaros, University of Maryland • Applying temporal and physical distance in construal level theory (Trope & Liberman, 2003) to the risk information seeking and processing model (Griffin & Dunwoody, 2000), this study (N = 350) measured cyber risk perceptions. The “near” sample read an alert about a data breach of their personal information. The “distant” sample read news about future risks. Results suggest risk perceptions, worry, trust, and intentions to take precautionary measures were affected by construal level and age.

The Effect of “Headless Fatties” vs. Whole Beings in Obesity Health Campaign Imagery • Rachel Young, University of Iowa; Roma Subramanian, University of Missouri; Amanda Hinnant, Missouri School of Journalism • Recent campaigns with text and images depicting obesity as the effect of individual behaviors sparked concern that an emphasis on individual determinants may lead to stigmatization of overweight or obese people. In this 3 x 2 experiment (n = 252), we sought to determine whether stigmatizing images and text led to differences in antifat attitudes and health-related behavioral intentions, and whether effects were moderated by weight status. We found that stigmatizing images in particular prompted significant differences in negative attitudes toward overweight individuals and also in behavioral intentions to increase healthy behavior or to limit unhealthy behavior. Our results demonstrate that stigmatizing images might be effective at stigmatizing the behaviors that lead to obesity, but an intended consequence of these images is that they also contribute to stigma experienced by overweight people, which results in social and emotional harm.

Tweeting flu and setting agenda on Twitter network • Gi Woong Yun, Bowling Green State University; David Morin, Utah Valley University; SangHee Park; Claire Y. Joa; Brett Labbe; Jongsoo Lim; Sooyoung Lee, Sogang University; Dae-Won Hyun • This paper had two main goals. First, to accurately establish the network agenda setters regarding flu information based on the amount of replies and mentions. The twitter accounts were categorized as media, a health related individuals, organizations, government, an individual, in order to test the relationship between centrality measures of the accounts and their categories. The second goal was to examine the relationship between centrality measures and Twitter specific characteristics of each individual account, including the number of tweets and followers as well as the number of accounts followed and tweets favorited. By collecting this type of Twitter data, it is possible to obtain accurate centrality measures, through the social network analysis method, and gain a better understanding of the relationship between account characteristics and centrality measurements. Result indicated if the media and organizational Twitter accounts were present, they did set agenda on the Twitter network. Also, the novel research framework adopted in this research showed some potential.

The Efficacy of Chinese News Coverage of Tobacco Control: A Comparison between Media Agenda and Policy Agenda • Di Zhang; Baijing Hu • This study examines Chinese news coverage of tobacco control between 2010 and 2012, which is compared with the China Tobacco Control Program (2012-2015), a recent national policy initiative. The study found that the relative salience of second-level tobacco control issues on media agenda has a positive and moderate influence on policy agenda. The results suggest that media advocacy is a very useful tool for tobacco control practitioners to influence policy agenda in China, but its use has limits because of the obstruction from the tobacco industry, Chinese cultural norms and the way policymakers use media in policymaking process.

2014 Abstracts

Advertising 2014 Abstracts

Professional Freedom & Responsibility

What’s the Score?: A Longitudinal Content Analysis of Mature Adults in Super Bowl Commercials • Mary Brooks, Texas Tech University; Shannon Bichard; Clay Craig, Coastal Carolina University • Based on the rising older adult population, the importance of advertisers recognizing this consumer group is imperative. Thus, this content analysis of 239 Super Bowl commercials applied framing theory to examine how mature audiences are represented in one of the most expensive and highly viewed advertising venues. Previous research suggests that older adults are typically underrepresented in all media and often stereotyped. The results show underrepresentation is still problematic; yet positive frames were used often.

Inoculating the Electorate: American Corporatocracy and its Influence on Health Communication • Laura Crosswell; Lance Porter • Much like Socrates’ separation of art and cookery suggested the need for a new rhetoric centuries ago, commercially driven agendas reflect a contemporary need for a moral code in the corporate healthcare industry. This research examines the profit-driven agendas, non-branded marketing strategies, and commercialized propaganda that influence public trust in pharmaceutical products. Specifically focusing on Rick Perry’s 2007 HPV vaccination mandate, we examine the role that corporate funding plays in legislation, regulation, and voter/consumer behavior. Emergent findings from in-depth field interviews with Texas residents illustrate the capitalized communications contaminating consumer trust and public health, and present an argument for regulation realignment in the healthcare industry.

Tokens in a Man’s World: A Global Analysis of Women in Advertising Creative Departments • Jean Grow, Marquette University; Tao Deng, Marquette University • Using the Standard Directory of Advertising Agencies this study quantitatively explores the underrepresentation of women in advertising creative departments across five global geographic clusters. Engaging the Hofstede and GLOBE models and considering both horizontal and vertical distribution, data demonstrate fairly consistent patterns across 41 countries indicating significant complications for women both horizontally and vertically. Data further demonstrate a global scarcity of creative women with their numbers actually declining, across time, when compared to previous data.

Ethics of the Business Case for CSR Communication: An Integrated Business and Moral Perspective on CSR • S. Senyo Ofori-Parku, University of Oregon • Is it unethical to use corporate social responsibility (CSR) to enhance business goals through public relations, advertising, branding, and marketing efforts? In attending to this question, this paper points out the duality of CSR. It places profitable business in a framework that embraces utilitarianism economics and ethical principles such as duties, rights, and obligations. Drawing on literature from philosophy, business management and ethics, and communication ethics, it proposes that CSR is inherently both economic (strategic) and social (involves morality).

Message Strategies for Ads in U.S. Children’s magazines: An Application of Taylor’s Six-Segment Strategy Wheel • Meenakshi Trichur Venkitasubramanian; Jinhee Lee; Ronald Taylor, University of Tennessee • This study explores the message strategies employed by advertisers for children’s products in U.S. children’s magazines. This study also explores the association between product category and the message strategy. The study uses Taylor’s six-segment strategy wheel as its theoretical framework. A total of 531 ads from three different children’s magazines were examined for the years 2010-12. Content analysis of the ads reveals that advertisers use more transformational approaches than informational approaches.


From Clicks to Behaviors: The mediating effect of viral behavioral intentions on the relationship between attitudes and offline behavioral intentions • Saleem Alhabash, Michigan State University; Anna McAlister, Michigan State University; Chen Lou, Michigan State University; Amy Hagerstrom, Michigan State University • Advertisers, marketers, and other professional communicators are heavily investing in social media marketing in hopes that online engagement will ultimately lead to offline behaviors (e.g., purchase). However, the relationship between online engagement behaviors (i.e., viral behaviors) and offline behavior still remains puzzling. The current study reports results of four experiments that investigated the mediating effect of intentions to like, share, and comment on persuasive social media messages with regard to informing the relationship between attitudes and offline behavioral intentions. The results are mixed with regard to this mediating effect. Findings are discussed in relation to redefining persuasion models within the context of the new media environment and in relation to practical implications of valuing online behaviors.

The Effects of the Valence of National Events on Persuasion in Patriotic Message: Regarding the Goal Framing • Hye Jin Bang, University of Georgia; Dongwon Choi; Jinnie Jinyoung Yoo, Gachen University • This study aims to examine if the activation of national identity through different contextual cues interplays with regulatory-focus message framing on consumers’ reaction to patriotic advertising. Specifically, this study explores the effective forms of patriotic ad message (promotion-focused vs. prevention-focused) depending on different valence of national identity priming contexts (positive vs. negative). Findings from an experiment suggest that the interaction between the valence of national identity priming and regulatory framing. Specifically, it appears that promotion-focused message yielded favorable Aad, Ab and PI when the valence of contexts that activate national identity is positive. On the other hand, the prevention-focused message elicited more favorable Ab if the valence of contexts that prime national identity is negative.

Exploring the Role of Parasocial Relationships on Product Placement Effectiveness • D. Jasun Carr, Susquehanna University • The practice of product placement, the embedding of goods and services within media, has experienced a resurgence of interest in recent years both from the stand point of the practitioner seeking additional avenues by which to reach the elusive consumer, and by scholars seeking to better understand the influence that media have on the consumptive practices of the audience. Many practitioners, and some scholars, have taken the stance that the practice of product placement may currently be the most influential form of advertising and persuasion.

Product Placement in Hollywood Movies: A Longitudinal Analysis • Huan Chen, Penn State Erie, The Behrend College; Ye Wang, University of Missouri – Kansas City • The study examined the nature and characteristics of product placement in the U.S. top-grossing movies from 2001 to 2012 with a historical approach. Several important findings and trends were identified from the results: First, product placements were found to be prolific in the U.S. top-grossing movies, with an average of 32 brands embedded in each movie. Second, the product categories of automobile, electronic equipment, and media and entertainment enjoyed the highest exposure in the movies. Third, brands appeared visually or verbally, but rarely demonstrated dual modality. Fourth, the majority of the placed brands seemed to fit with the movie setting regardless of visual or verbal oriented placements, and the most popular presentation mode of brand was full product. Finally, more than half of the product placements involved the interaction of characters.

Your Favorite Memory: Emotional Responses to Personal Nostalgic Advertising within Reminiscence Bump across Generations • ILYOUNG JU; Yunmi Choi, University of Florida; Jon Morris • This study examined the influence of reminiscence bump years when it comes to nostalgic advertising. Emotional responses toward nostalgic advertisements from late boomers and generation x were investigated. An online experiment was conducted to collect data from general consumer panels in their 30’s (x-gen) and 50’s (late boomers). Different emotional responses toward nostalgic advertisements were identified between the two generations. The result of this study revealed that nostalgic advertisements indicating reminiscence bump years were more likely to 1) evoke nostalgic feeling, 2) bring more positive Appeal (late boomers) and Engagement (x-gen), and 3) increase purchase intention.

Putting Things into Context: How evaluations are influenced by organic product claim and retail brand • Brenna Ellison, University of Illinois- Urbana Champaign; brittany duff, University of Illinois- Urbana Champaign; Xinyang Liu, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign; Jiachen Yao, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign • Organic food labels have been shown to have a “health halo” whereby products that are labeled organic are judged to be healthier and worth more money. However, the majority of work on organic product claims have ignored both product type and the context in which they are seen in (retail environment). We randomly assigned people (n=900) to see either a processed (cookie) or fresh (strawberry) product that had (not) been labeled as organic and put the scenario in the context of a retail brand (Walmart, Target or other). Results showed that organic labels had many of the previously found effects but these effects were modified by product type and the retail store at which they were supposedly going to be placed in.

Country Reputation as a Moderator of Tourism Advertising Effectiveness • Jami Fullerton, Oklahoma State University; Alice Kendrick, SMU Temerlin Advertising Institute • This study examines the role that country reputation plays in moderating the effects of tourism advertising to that country as well as attitude toward its government and citizens. A pre-post online study conducted in Australia used the current Brand USA’s “Land of Dreams” television commercial as the experimental stimulus. The country reputation index was factor analyzed to reveal three dimensions – Leadership, Investment and Culture. Results indicated that Leadership moderated the main effects of the tourism ad, as well as attitude toward the US government.

Sweetening the Deal: The Impact of Using “That’s-Not-All” Techniques in Promotional Emails • Zijian Gong, Texas Tech University; Shannon Bichard • This experiment investigated the “that’s-not-all” (TNA) technique as a promotional strategy and offered suggestions for maximizing its effectiveness in email advertising. Results denote a significant TNA impact on attitudes and perceptions of offer value, and this impact was robust across various types of products. Additionally, adding a time limit to TNA offers enhanced the perceptions of offer value. The research contributes to the current literature by developing strategies to increase the effectiveness of TNA techniques.

Segmenting The U.S. Product Placement Market: On the Basis of Consumers’ Cognitive and Attitudinal Responses to Advertising in General • Chang Dae Ham; Jin Seong Park, University of Tennessee Knoxville; Sejin Park, University of Tennessee • The purpose of the present study is to examine how U.S. consumers respond to product placement according to their perceptions about advertising in general. Based on a nationally representative sample of US adults from Experian Simmons (N = 22,348), this study identified five clusters of U.S. consumers, segmented by their cognitive and attitudinal responses to advertising in general. The study further reveals that each cluster has distinct demographic and media usage profiles and exhibits varying responses to product placement across television and movie. Implications for the practice of product placement are discussed.

A Model of Consumer Response to OTC Drug Advertising: Antecedents and Influencing Factors • Jisu Huh, University of Minnesota; Denise DeLorme, University of Central Florida; Leonard Reid, University of Georgia • Given the importance of OTC drugs in the healthcare marketplace and the lack of systematic research about OTC drug advertising effects, this study proposed and tested a Consumer Over-the-Counter Drug Advertising Response (CODAR) model. SEM analysis provides support for the model, explaining the OTCA effect process from key consumer antecedents to ad involvement, from ad involvement to ad attention, from ad attention to cognitive responses, then to affective/evaluative responses, leading to the final advertising outcomes.

Where Should Brands Position their Advertisements during the Sporting Event? Spectators’ Mental Energy Perspective • Wonseok Jang, University of Florida; Yong Jae Ko, University of Florida; Jon Morris; Jungwon Chun, University of Florida • The current study proposes a novel way to understand when brands should display advertisements during sporting events to maximize effectiveness. Relying on the ego-depletion model and the self-determination theory, this study explains how sport fans use, store, or increase their mental energy in the body system during the sporting event. Subsequently, how the increase or decrease mental energy transfers to the sport fans’ evaluation process of advertisements that were positioned during the sporting event.

The Effectiveness of Ecolabels among Young Adults: Environmental Warning Messages in Differing Message Contexts • Yongick Jeong, Louisiana State University • This study determines the contextual relationships between ecolabels and message contexts. By conducting two experiments, via a two-way mixed-repeated-measures design, the impacts of contextual similarity (Study 1) and the effects of context-induced moods (Study 2) on the effectiveness of ecolabels are examined. This study found ecolabels perform differently based on context formats (ads vs. PSAs), context-induced moods (positive vs. negative) and environmental issues (energy conservation, recycling, and pollution). Interaction effects were also examined and discussed.

The Role of Personal and Societal Norms in Understanding Social Media Advertising Effects: A Study of Sponsored Stories on Facebook • Joonghwa Lee, Middle Tennessee State University; Soojung Kim, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities; Doyle Yoon, University of Oklahoma • This study examines the antecedents and behavioral consequences of personal and societal norms in the context of Facebook sponsored stories. The survey findings indicate that personal descriptive and injunctive norms influence consumers’ intentions to interact with sponsored stories, whereas societal descriptive and injunctive norms do not. Interpersonal influences (e.g., family) and social influences (e.g., number of ‘likes’) form personal and societal norms, respectively. Theoretical and practical implications for social media advertising effects are discussed.

Development of an Other Minds Confidence Scale for Advertising • Esther Thorson; Eunjin (Anna) Kim, University of Missouri; Eunseon Kwon, University of Missouri; Heather Shoenberger, University of Missouri • The present study develops a rationale for why the construct of “other minds confidence” is generally an important one for human communication and specifically for theory about how people respond to advertising and other intentionally persuasive messages. We develop an exploratory scale for measuring what we conceptualize as “other minds confidence,” evaluate its reliability and factor structure, test whether it is different from a closely related construct, “persuasion knowledge,” and then further assess its validity by see whether it predicts general attitude toward advertising. Finally, we discuss some potential applications of the scale.

Perceived Norms and Consumer Responses to Social Media Advertising: A Cross-Cultural Study of Facebook Sponsored Stories among Americans and Koreans • Soojung Kim, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities; Joonghwa Lee, Middle Tennessee State University • This study examines the differences in the relationship among three types of norms (i.e., subjective, personal descriptive, and personal injunctive norms), attitudes toward interacting with Facebook sponsored stories, and behavioral intentions between Americans and Koreans. The findings indicate that personal injunctive norms were a stronger predictor of behavioral intentions for Koreans, whereas subjective norms and personal descriptive norms were stronger predictors of behavioral intentions for Americans. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

The Cognitive and Affective Effects of Brand Categorization and Evaluation on Brand Extension Purchase Intent • Jungsuk kang; Carolyn Lin • This study tested an expanded categorization model to examine how consumers evaluate and process perceived brand relationships between a parent brand, an extension product category and a brand extension. Study findings confirmed that perceived product-feature fit instead of perceived parent-brand image fit between a parent brand and its extension product category significantly enhanced the perceived similarity between the parent brand and its brand extension as well as brand-extension attitude and brand-extension purchase intent.

Uses and Gratifications that Drive Young Adults’ Smartphone Use and the Implications for Advertising Effectiveness • Kelty Logan, University of Colorado at Boulder • This quantitative study focuses on young adults in the U.S. and their use of smartphones in the belief that a thorough understanding of the gratifications sought will provide guidance to advertisers regarding the relative levels of involvement associated with each function. Specifically, the study explores the participants’ hierarchy of needs, the needs they seek to gratify through the use of various smartphone functions and applications, and their attitudes toward the advertising found in those environments. The results suggest that the heavy users of smartphone functions and apps are those who feel that “connection with friends and family,” “building relationships,” “increasing self-esteem,” and “mood elevation” are extremely important. Light users of smartphone functions and apps are those who feel that “seeking information/knowledge” or “seeking escape” are extremely important. While all light users appear to share negative attitudes toward advertising on smartphone functions and apps, not all heavy users share the same attitudes. There appears to be a distinction among heavy users based upon gratifications sought from smartphone use. Those who value connection, relationship-building, and mood elevation do not have positive attitudes toward advertising they encounter on smartphone functions and apps. Those who value increased self-esteem, however, appear to accept advertising on email and apps for information, assistance, and social media.

The Effectiveness of Crossmedia Advertising in Simultaneous Media Use: Combining TV and Web Advertisements • Shanshan Lou; Hong Cheng • Focused on cross-media advertising under simultaneous media exposure, this study explores the effectiveness of combining TV and web advertising by asking experiment participants (N = 168) to consume TV and web content simultaneously. In contrary to results from prior studies, media combination was not found to yield detrimental effects on ads attitudes and recalls. Multitasking seemed to have more negative influence on the recall of TV ads when compared with that of complex web ads simultaneously exposed to.

The “Boomerang Effect” of Disclosures: How Placement Disclosures Affect Brand Memory, Persuasion Knowledge, and Brand Attitude • Joerg Matthes; Brigitte Naderer, U of Vienna • Despite the relevance of disclosures to policy makers and consumer organisations, we have limited knowledge as to whether disclosures hinder or foster the impact of brand placements. This paper develops and tests a theoretical model of placement disclosure effects. An experimental study exposed participants to the video clip “Telephone” by Lady Gaga. Product placement frequency (zero, moderate, high) and presence of brand disclosures were experimentally varied. Results demonstrated that brand disclosures lead to an increase in brand memory for frequently depicted placements. Disclosures also affected defence motivation against persuasive influence by activating conceptual and attitudinal persuasion knowledge. However, defence motivation did not lead to more negative brand attitudes. On the contrary, findings suggest that disclosures can lead to more positive brand attitudes by activating, and therefore, strengthening already existing favourable brand evaluations. In terms of protection against covert marketing techniques, we conclude that disclosures may be a double-edge sword.

Exploring Qualifications for Senior-Level Advertising Agency Positions • Sheryl Oliver, Howard University; Rochelle Ford, Howard University • Using institutional theory to frame this study explores the qualifications talent and diversity professionals in advertising agencies perceive to be necessary to obtain senior-level positions in the advertising industry. Because African Americans and other minority groups are under-represented in mid and senior-level positions, this study explored particular characteristics desired among them. Using qualitative interviews, leadership experience within advertising agencies was the most important quality because they will be able to demonstrate a track record of success, the ability to thrive in a fast-paced environment, a level of toughness, and ability to generate new business. These characteristics will give credibility to candidates and help them motivate their teams. African Americans are expected to give back and mentor others. Results reinforce the need for strong retention programs to help entry-level candidates obtain mid-level managerial agency positions so they can be promoted into senior-level roles.

Beyond Exclusivity and Convenience: Real Estate Advertisements and the Singapore Story • Fernando Paragas, Nanyang Technological University; Aaron Tan, Nanyang Technological University; Dennis Kom, Nanyang Technological University; Stacey Anne Rodrigues, Nanyang Technological University; Joyce See, Nanyang Technological University • Using textual analysis, this paper explores the narrative that real estate advertisements depict and nurture in Singapore. Through the stages of identification, construction and deconstruction, the paper explores connections between and among advertising as text, culture as context and discourse as supra-text. It reveals paradoxes within the advertisements that depict not only what developers infer as the aspirational lifestyle in Singapore but also inform the tensions of life in the city-state.

The Influence Mechanism of the Advertising and National Economythe Chinese Experience (1979-2010) • Linsen Su; Mingqian Li • The paper found that GDP and economic openness predicted the advertising positively in China, whereas the Engel coefficient and unemployment had negative effects on the advertising, but the effect of the urbanization on advertising could not be confirmed, basing on the co-integration analysis of the per capita advertising, per capita GDP, urbanization, economic openness, urban unemployment rate, and Engel coefficient.

Let’s conserve energy but you recycle! Environmental claim types and responsibility attributions in green ads • Edson Tandoc, Nanyang Technological University; Margaret Duffy, Missouri School of Journalism • This study seeks to test the effects of two elements used in green advertisements—claim type and attribution of responsibility—on ad attitude, attitude toward the company, and purchase intention. An experiment involving 869 participants found that energy and recycling claims were more effective in getting a positive ad attitude than a selling sustainable products claim. The company’s taking responsibility for saving the environment is the most effective strategy to get a positive brand attitude.

Health Buzz at School: Evaluations of a Statewide Teen Health Campaign • Ming Wang, University of Nebraska-Lincoln; Amy Struthers, University of Nebraska-Lincoln • Drawing upon data from the first two years of a state-wide health communication campaign that employed a peer-to-peer marketing strategy to encourage high school students to adopt healthy behavior, this paper finds that the buzz component increased campaign awareness among students in participating schools compared to those in the comparison schools, but there was no significant difference between their health attitudes. Furthermore, attitude toward the campaign mediated the effect of buzz exposure on health attitudes.

Deception by Design? Analyzing native advertising design and disclosure on news websites • Bartosz Wojdynski, University of Georgia; Nathaniel Evans • In the face of evidence that consumers selectively, or even reflexively, avoid many forms of display advertising online, content publishers have sought more subtle ways to deliver viewers’ attention to advertisers’ content. One recent emergence is an increase in the use by online publishers of advertising copy presented in the form of editorial content, often called “native advertising.” Although this practice has analogs in print and broadcast media forms, the present research identified and analyzed recent examples of such native advertising on online editorial content publishing sites (N=28), with a focus on the language, positioning, and size of information that discloses the content as advertising. The findings suggest a lack of standard practice in all three areas. Although a majority of examples offered some disclosure elements positioned before the start of the page content, very few explicitly used any form of the word “advertising” in the disclosure labels. The findings are discussed in the context of the need greater for empirical research into effects of design characteristics in disclosure labeling.

A little training goes a long way: Increasing children’s recognition of embedded advertising through education • Eilene Wollslager, Our Lady of the Lake University • This study examined the relationship between media literacy training and elementary students’ (grades 3-4) ability to recognize embedded advertising (advergaming) in a children’s online website. Children could not recognize advergames as advertising at the beginning of the study (0%). Following a brief, 10-minute training session, children’s ability to recognize an advergame as a commercial message increased to 30%. Additionally, there was no indication of a digital divide in student’s awareness of advergaming. Rural students outperformed urban counterparts in the recognition of online advertising.

Understanding Consumer Animosity in the Politicized Global Market: From the Perspective of Young Transnational Consumers • Qinghua Yang; Katy Snell; Wanhsiu Sunny Tsai, University of Miami • Contextualized in the recent territorial dispute between Japan and China, this research examines consumer animosity from the perspective of transnational Chinese consumers. This study provides a multidimensional model of animosity and tests an integrative model that links cultural identification, antecedents (i.e., patriotism, nationalism, and internationalism), and moderators of consumer animosity (i.e., perceived symbolism and perceived threat). Transnational Chinese consumers’ cultural identification was found to significantly influence the mechanisms underlying their animosity against Japan and Japanese products.

Does “green” work? The role of message framing, construal level and environmental concern • Lingling Zhang, Towson University; Hua Chang • Many firms adopt green advertising and put great emphasis on the value of green marketing strategies. However, little research has examined the effectiveness of green appeal in advertisements. Building on message framing and construal level theory, this study conducts two experiments to examine the interaction effect of construal level and gain or loss framed messages on consumers’ attitudes and purchase intention towards advertised product, as well as the moderating role of consumers’ environmental concern in this interaction. The findings demonstrate that a congruency between loss (gain) frame and low (high) level construal leads to more positive outcomes in consumers’ attitudes and purchase intention. Furthermore, this research reveals that the congruency effect is moderated by the level of consumer environmental concern, which has important theoretical and practical implications.

Special Topics Papers

Connecting Science to Advertising: How John B. Watson Laid the Foundation of Behavioral Targeting • Abigail Bartholomew, University of Nebraska–Lincoln; Frauke Hachtmann, University of Nebraska-Lincoln • Behaviorism as defined in 1913 by John B. Watson was a science that used repeated, observable human activity to develop hypotheses that would eventually predict and control responses. Through repeated experiments, Watson developed a thorough knowledge of what he defined as base human reactions. Stanley Resor, then president of J. Walter Thompson Agency, hired Watson to promote a partnership between advertising and science, and the subsequent 15 years of Watson’s career included some notable scientific contributions. This historical study shows that though these outcomes may not have provided many measurable positive results, they set into motion industry-wide change that continued to develop until the present. The study also argues that though behavioristic principles may not have found solid footing in a mass media environment, the current networked communication state provides much more fertile ground for analyzing message receivers and eliciting desired responses.

A Case History of Small Advertising Agency Leadership: An In-Depth Look at Knoxville’s Lavidge & Associates • Daniel Haygood, Elon University • Most of the advertising agency-related articles in the trade press and the research contained in academic journals focus on the large multi-national advertising agencies. This is unfortunate because much innovation, creativity, and resourcefulness are found in the local advertising agency communities. This case history takes an in-depth look at Lavidge & Associates, a small advertising firm located in Knoxville, Tennessee. This advertising agency is in its sixty-third year of business, a journey that has seen the firm begin as a two-person shop, rise to employ fifty to sixty individuals, and then return in the recent decade to a small firm with two full-time business partners. Throughout its long history, the agency has survived by demonstrating leadership in different areas of the business. This quality of leading appears to be the key to its success and survival. Specifically, the firm’s story reveals leadership lessons in management, client service, creative development, and production. It shows that innovation can often come from the smaller firms of the advertising community.”

Educating the Next-Generation Don Draper • Valerie Jones, University of Nebraska-Lincoln • Technology and the proliferation of data have transformed the advertising industry. Those with digital and analytical skills are now more employable than those with “traditional” advertising skills. At the same time, colleges face increasing emphasis on job placement rates. Are advertising programs providing students with the skills needed to win jobs today? Today’s “next-generation Don Drapers” must not only be fluent in creativity and big ideas, but also be fluent in analysis and big data.

“Putting On Campaigns”: A History of 70 Years of Advertising Education at X University • Ronald Taylor, University of Tennessee; Joyce Wolburg, Marquette University • Two philosophies of advertising education have existed in American colleges and universities since the early 1900s. This paper traces the two philosophies—a “how to philosophy” vs. a “why philosophy” as they were sequentially implemented across 70 years at a land grant university in the Southeast.

Assessing Brand Personality on Social Media: An Analysis of External Perceptions of University Twitter Activity • Brandi Watkins, Virginia Tech; Regina Lewis, The University of Alabama • Universities market to diverse audiences and when combined with a common struggle within many universities for funding, online social media marketing possibilities become an important component of the university brand. This investigates the influence of Twitter activity on perceptions of university branding. Findings indicate that there is little difference in how universities are perceived by external audiences; the study contributes to the current body of literature by applying traditional brand personality scales to non-traditional media.

Motivating savings behavior in PSAs: The effect of social norms and the moderating role of financial responsibility • Hye Jin Yoon, Southern Methodist University • Personal savings rates in the United States are low, creating potentially negative consequences. This study conducted two experiments to test the effects of social norms and the moderating role of an individual’s financial responsibility in responses to public service advertisements promoting savings behavior. Across two studies, perception of norm and benefit information varied with financial responsibility. Implications for social norm theory and improving social marketing ad campaigns to promote saving are provided.

Teaching Papers

Blogging In The Classroom: Using WordPress Blogs With Buddy Press Plugin As A Learning Tool. • Keith Quesenberry, Johns Hopkins University; Dana Saewitz, Temple University; Sheryl Kantrowitz, Temple University • Three professors used WordPress blogs with 130 students one semester in three different advertising courses. Descriptions of how blogs were used to enhance student participation, engagement and skill building are included along with students’ quantitative and qualitative assessments. The use of course blogs led to multiple positive self-reported student learning outcomes. Based on the researchers’ self-evaluation and analysis of students’ survey feedback, this article offers insights for using blogging as a learning tool.

Teach Like They Build It: A User Experience Approach to Interactive Media in Advertising Education • Adam Wagler, UNL •
The proliferation of interactive media and new technology on college campuses is blending together student academic work and online personal lives. Advertising instructors have unique opportunities to leverage interactive instructional technology to reach more students and give them various ways to engage in learning materials while modeling professional applications of emerging media. User experience (UX), a term normally associated with interactive design, provides a framework for all advertising instructors to effectively integrate interactive media into their teaching. An in-depth review of the literature is provided to bridge the research between cognition, mass communications, and web usability creating a foundation for a UX approach to using interactive media in advertising education. The purpose of this paper is to provide theory-based strategies for advertising instructors to take advantage of interactive technology for student learning while modeling professional uses of interactive media.

Student Papers

The Moderating Role of Brand Familiarity on Media Synergistic Effect: An Information Processing Perspective • Guanxiong Huang, Michigan State University • Cross-media advertising campaigns have become commonplace in today’s multimedia environment. Drawing from the multiple source effect theorization, this study explores the underlying mechanism of media synergistic effect from an information processing perspective. Brand familiarity is proposed as a moderator of media synergistic effect: people with different level of prior brand-related knowledge tend to process advertisements in diverse cognitive routes. An experiment found that for an unfamiliar brand media synergy outperforms repeated exposures via a solo medium in terms of raising message credibility and generating more positive thoughts, while similar effects were not seen on the familiar brand.

A New Perspective on Brand Avoidance Behaviors: Attention to Social Comparison Information matters! • Eunjin (Anna) Kim, University of Missouri; Eunseon Kwon, University of Missouri • Prior research on brand consumption behaviors, especially those that potentially affect a person’s social identity, has mainly focused on approach rather than avoidance motives. We examine brand avoidance behaviors in the context of an individual-difference construct, attention to social comparison information (ATSCI). Our overarching argument is that high ATSCI consumers, being anxious and uncertain about others’ reactions, will seek to keep a low profile in their brand choices—they will prefer to blend in rather than to stand out. In study 1, we show that although high and low ATSCI consumers identify themselves with equally prestigious brands, the former do so with less distinctive brands. In study 2, we find that high ATSCI consumers, unlike their low ATSCI counterparts, avoid conspicuous brand logos even in the case of highly prestigious brands.

Perfect Mothers: How Mothers are Presented in Images in Food Advertising • Jinhee Lee; Jimi Hong, University of Texas at Austin • The purpose of study is to explore how food advertising portrays mother images in food advertising and which advertising themes in food advertising. The study selected sample advertisements from three magazines: Parents, Family Fun, and Working Mother. For analyzing data, content analysis was conducted. The study showed that food advertising portrayed traditional mother images and highlighted the traditional meanings of mothering. Theoretical and practical implications were addressed.

Anonymous vs. Non-anonymous Online Comments: The effects of Comments’ Visual Anonymity and Valence on Consumers’ Attitude and Purchase Intention • Chen Lou, Michigan State University; Pradnya Joshi; Eunsin Joo • Using the theoretical framework of social identity model of deindividuation (SIDE) and elaboration likelihood model, this study investigated how online commenters’ visual anonymity and comments’ valence (either positive or negative) affect consumers’ attitude and purchase intention toward products sold on social commerce websites. In a 2 (commenters’ visual anonymity: anonymous vs. recognized) x 2 (comments’ valence: positive vs. negative) between-subjects factorial design, participants (n= 157) were exposed to one of the four Groupon webpage selling a printer before being asked to indicate their evaluation and purchase intention toward the printer. Results indicated that online peer comments do have persuasive effects on online users, and such effects are not limited to only anonymous users’ reviews. Also, visually recognized negative comments – compared to anonymous negative comments – seem to be more efficient in persuading users not to buy the product. Findings are discussed in the context of computer-mediated-communication with new technology change in relation to consumer behavior research and social commerce marketing.

Playing with the Brand: Exploring the Influence of Advergame Play on Company Evaluations and Recall • Matthew VanDyke, Texas Tech University; Ann Rodriguez, Texas Tech University • This experiment employed a 2 X 2 factorial design to assess the influence of advergame play on evaluations of a company and game-specific information recall. Advergame play did not influence participants’ attitude toward the company or an ambiguous company news event. Participants’ perceptions of the advergame’s interactivity predicted whether the game was perceived as informative and enjoyable. Recall data suggested that regardless of interactivity perceptions, participants tended to recall game-specific information.

Mouse Tracking as a Method to Explore Brand Personality Distinctiveness • Zongyuan Wang, University of Missouri at Columbia; Russell Clayton, University of Missouri • Brand personality is an important value for a brand to differentiate itself from other brands and to create unique brand images. This study used mouse tracking as an unobtrusive cognitive indicator measure of brand personality distinctiveness and examined how product involvement and function orientation might jointly influence brand personality distinctiveness. Results showed that brand personality distinctiveness and accessibility was higher for functional brands than for sensory brands and was the lowest for low-involvement sensory brands.

Larger, Closer, Brighter: How Advertising Design Influence Advertising Recognition • Zongyuan Wang, University of Missouri at Columbia; Mikkel Christensen, University of Missouri; Andrew Brown, University of Missouri at Columbia; Michelle Reed, University of Missouri at Columbia • Ads on media suffer from competitions of their counterparts, which can be detrimental to ad recognition. Physical properties ad design may influence ad recognition. This study examined how brand name contrast, brand name size, and distance between the brand name and the product image influenced ad recognition. Findings suggest that larger brand name, shorter distance between the brand name and the product image, and higher brand name contrast produced the highest ad recognition.

Disgust in Advertising – Social and Gender Implications • Kivy Weeks, University of Connecticut • This exploratory research increases understanding of the implications for disgust in marketing communications. It details an experiment manipulating the amount of disgust in an advertisement depicting a low involvement, brand new product. It evaluates the importance of gender, social variables, as well as state and trait disgust on product attitude. Important findings include a significant interaction between gender and disgust manipulation, such that gender moderates the relationship between disgust advertising and product attitude, with disgust having a greater negative effect on attitude for women than men.

2014 Abstracts

2014 Abstracts

AEJMC 2014 Conference Paper Abstracts
Montréal, Canada • August 6 to 9

The following AEJMC groups conducted research competitions for the 2014 conference. The accepted paper abstracts are listed within each section.


Interest Groups:


<< AEJMC Abstracts Index

Journalism Educators call on Kansas Board of Regents to Reverse New Social Media Policy

CONTACT: PAULA POINDEXTER, Texas-Austin, 2013-14 President of AEJMC • May 21, 2014
The exercise of free speech is now potentially a firing offense at colleges and universities in Kansas. The Kansas Board of Regents, which governs public universities and colleges in Kansas, has adopted a policy that defines unacceptable uses of social media and allows for the suspension or dismissal of those who violate it.

This social media policy was primarily in response to University of Kansas journalism professor David Guth’s tweet about the deadly shooting in September 2013 at the U.S. Naval Yard when 12 people were killed. Guth, who was placed on administrative leave as a result of his Twitter message, tweeted: “The blood is on the hands of the #NRA. Next time, let it be YOUR sons and daughters. Shame on you. May God damn you.” The resulting outcry from the public and state lawmakers no doubt fueled the formation of this new policy.

The Regents’ policy bars social media messages that would incite violence, disclose confidential student information or release protected data, communication that is already prohibited by existing laws. The more troubling provision of the policy, however, is the overly vague statement that restricts faculty and staff from posting anything “contrary to the best interests of the university.”

It is not difficult to imagine the chilling effect the new policy will have on freedom of expression in general and academic freedom in particular on university and college campuses in Kansas. Furthermore, social media, and Twitter specifically, have become essential tools in gathering and disseminating news. If Kansas’ journalism professors are afraid to teach students how to use these reporting tools because they may violate a vague social media policy, the future journalists they train will be unprepared for the real world of journalism in the digital age.

The Kansas Board of Regents chair, Fred Logan, defended the policy and argued that it enhances academic freedom by giving employees specific guidelines. But the very suggestion that social media expression should be subjected to guidelines conflicts with academic freedom and, more importantly, the First Amendment. Therefore the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (AEJMC), the largest association of journalism and communication educators in the world, calls upon the Kansas Board of Regents to reverse this social media policy that restricts academic freedom, violates First Amendment rights, interferes with the professional education of those seeking journalism careers and suppresses the intellectual discourse that universities should champion.

For more information regarding this AEJMC Presidential Statement, please contact Paula Poindexter, President of AEJMC, at

AEJMC (The Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication) is a nonprofit, educational association of journalism and mass communication educators, students and media professionals. The Association’s mission is to advance education, foster scholarly research, cultivate better professional practice and promote the free flow of communication. To find out more about AEJMC, visit


Tips from the AEJMC Teaching Committee

Rewarding Good Teaching

Karen Miller RussellBy Karen Miller Russell
Associate Professor
Standing Committee on Teaching
University of Georgia, Grady College

(Article courtesy of AEJMC News, March 2014 issue)

One of the best things that the AEJMC Standing Committee on Teaching offers is its Best Practices in Teaching Competition.

Becoming a good or even great teacher is a life-long process, one that is not always rewarded by educational institutions in the same way that good or great research can be.

“Currently, research universities base tenure decisions primarily on research productivity and quality,” organizational psychologist Adam Grant recently stated in an op-ed in The New York Times. “Teaching matters only after you have cleared the research bar: It is a bonus to teach well.”

Of course, not all universities overlook good teaching, and many colleges and departments of mass communication recognize teaching through annual awards. These awards are significant ways to reward good work, but they don’t go far enough.

Writing for Inside Higher Ed, Elizabeth H. Simmons points out that faculty must be strategic in how they spend their time. Therefore, she argues, “If a department or college believes that innovative teaching is important, then innovative teaching must be rewarded in decisions related to salaries, reappointment, promotion and tenure.”

The Standing Committee on Teaching tries to facilitate that process by providing a national forum to call attention to innovative teaching in journalism and mass communication. Each year the committee selects a different theme — this year it’s “Globalizing the Classroom” — and members submit their assignments, classroom activities or ideas for competitive review.

Winning faculty members will be invited to present their ideas at the national convention in Montreal, and they’ll receive a cash prize.

But the competition does more than reward faculty who are trying innovative approaches; it also allows them to share their ideas with other faculty. In addition to being presented at the meeting, the winning entries are published in an e-booklet, and I cheerfully admit to shamelessly copying at least one past winner in my own classroom.

“Teaching is the core of what we all do. Recognizing great teaching ideas helps us learn from each other and become better teachers,” said Chris Roush of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, this year’s competition chair. “I’m constantly learning from my peers at UNC, and this is how I can expand that learning to the best around the country.”

If you would like to enter this year’s competition, the process is simple. Just write a two-page statement describing a new and effective approach you used to bring global ideas into your classroom. The call for entries (on p. 10) specifies that you need not be teaching a class specifically on international media. In fact, the committee would like to learn how you incorporate awareness of global communities and/or the practice of journalism and mass communication beyond national borders into any course.

I also urge you to take a few minutes to check out the downloadable booklets from past best practices competitions, on subjects ranging from writing to ethics and from information gathering to critical thinking. They can be found on the AEJMC website at

You might find inspiration for your own great teaching ideas.


<<Teaching Corner

Tips from the AEJMC Teaching Committee

Letting Online Students Know You’re There

Susan KeithBy Susan Keith
Standing Committee on Teaching
Associate Professor
Rutgers University

(Article courtesy of AEJMC News, January 2014 issue)

At the beginning of the fall semester a few years ago, two young women stepped into my office and greeted me warmly. They spoke as if I knew them, though I couldn’t recall meeting either. Finally, they noticed my confusion and one said, “Oh, Dr. Keith, we were in your Newer Media Law and Policy course!”

They identified themselves and I realized they had, indeed, been in a summer course I had just taught as part of the Master’s in Communication and Information Studies program at Rutgers University. I failed to recognize them not because the class had been so large that I couldn’t learn students’ faces but because the course, like all the offerings in the MCIS program’s Digital Media track, which my department staffs, was fully online.

The course management system we used did not display avatars for students, so although students knew what I looked like from the headshot I had placed on the course syllabus, all I had seen of them were thumbnail images from their student IDs. In fact, I had thought throughout the summer that one of the women, who had a somewhat unusual first name, was male!

The students told me they had enjoyed the course, and I told them I had enjoyed their questions, comments and final papers. Then one of the students said something like, “I just wish the course could have been face to face.”

Ah! Had it been, I would not have volunteered to teach the course in summer. I commute an hour (by car) to two hours (subway/train) each way. Coming to campus several times a week in the summer would have seriously cut into research time.

The student’s comments, however, implied a legitimate concern over presence, a frequent issue in asynchronous online courses. Although online courses can give a voice to shy students or to international students concerned about their spoken English, other students sometimes miss the camaraderie of classmates they can see and a professor who is “right there.”

However, if you are teaching fully online courses — a topic that will be addressed in the plenary session being organized by AEJMC’s Standing Committee on Teaching for our Montreal Conference — there are things you can do to make students feel your presence in the virtual classroom:

Let students see you right away. I put a small mugshot on my syllabus and have students, before they do anything else, watch a short video of me welcoming them to the course. Although I don’t typically lecture straight to the camera in online courses, I think a video showing me explaining course expectations helps make the human connection.

Answer email more rapidly than in a face-to-face course: For students in off-campus, asynchronous online courses, email (or CMS-based message) is the only way to connect with the instructor. You ignore it at the peril of your teaching evaluation scores.

Encourage cooperative work. As an undergrad, I groaned at the prospect of group work. Now I think at least small group assignments can help alleviate a sense of isolation in online courses. Encourage students to go beyond email as they plan.    If the course management system doesn’t support video chatting, have them try Google+ Hangout ( com/hangouts/), which allows multiple people to talk and see each other.

Think critically about discussion boards: Many online      instructors have students post to discussion boards as a way     to simulate in-class discussions. I’m not convinced, however, that most of us use those boards well. Do students see any evidence, through your on-board responses or timely feedback, that you are reading their work? Do you work — behind the scenes, through email — with students who make erroneous    assertions on the boards to help them publically convey correct information? Do you review what students discussed in the     last discussion board assignment before moving on to the next unit?

Consider some synchronous chats: I offer hourlong synchronous group text- or video-based chats eight or 10 times a semester and four times in a five-week summer session. Because my online courses are advertised as asynchronous, I cannot require students to take part, but I find that many are hungry for the connection and join multiple times, especially before big assignments. (I ask students to look over my planned dates and times in the first week of the course, and I adjust if any student says he or she cannot make any of the sessions.) I plan a discussion topic, usually tied to course content in current events. The first thing I do, however, is ask whether students have questions. Sometimes they have many questions and answering them takes the full hour!

These are just a few ways to give students a sense of your presence in online courses.
What are yours? I would love to hear. Drop a note to


<<Teaching Corner

Journalism & Communication Monographs/Spanish

Volumen 15 Número 4 Invierno 2013 (Volume 15 Number 4 Winter 2013)

(English Version & Spanish Translation)

Prejudice: The Role of the Media in the Development of Social Bias
Kim Bissell and Scott Parrott
Numerous studies document the existence of bias: bias against gender, race, sexual orientation, age, mental illness, and body shape or weight. This article presents a model of bias development, which helps explain the influence of mediated, individual, social, and ideological influences on the development of bias. This article applies the proposed model using four experimental studies that examine weight bias in children and adults. The results from the four studies lend empirical support for the model. Data from the studies suggest the explication of a theoretical model is necessary to understand the factors related to the development of bias against a variety of groups, character traits, or attributes in others. It is difficult to argue that any one factor whether it be media, individual, social, or ideology “trumps” other factors as the development of bias seems to be very individualistic. Therefore, a model that represents the myriad of factors identified above is proposed.

Prejuicio: El Papel de los Medios de Comunicación en el Desarrollo de la Polarización Social
Kim Bissell y Scott Parrott
Abstract Traducción español
Numerosos estudios documentan la existencia de sesgo: sesgo en contra de su género, raza , orientación sexual , la edad, la enfermedad mental, y la forma corporal o el peso . En este artículo se presenta un modelo de desarrollo sesgo , lo que ayuda a explicar la influencia de la mediación , las influencias individuales , sociales e ideológicas sobre el desarrollo de sesgo. Este artículo se aplica el modelo propuesto por medio de cuatro estudios experimentales que analizan el sesgo de peso en niños y adultos. Los resultados de los cuatro estudios dan soporte empírico para el modelo. Los datos de los estudios sugieren que la explicación de un modelo teórico es necesario entender los factores relacionados con el desarrollo de sesgo en contra de una variedad de grupos , rasgos de carácter, o los atributos de los demás. Es difícil argumentar que un solo factor , ya sea medios de comunicación, individual, social o ideología ” supera a ” otros factores como el desarrollo de sesgo parece ser muy individualista. Por lo tanto, se propone un modelo que representa la miríada de factores identificados anteriormente.

<<Journal Abstracts in Spanish

Journalism & Communication Monographs/Spanish

Volumen 15 Número 3 Otoño 2013 (Volume 15 Number 3 Autumn 2013)

(English Version & Spanish Translation)

A History of Comparative Advertising in the United States
Fred K. Beard
This historical monograph addresses a gap in the extensive scholarly research literature devoted to comparative advertising—especially that which contrasts the advertised product, service, or brand with an identifiable competitor—by exploring advertisers’ explanations for its appeal as a tactic throughout the previous century. Prior historical research confirms advertisers have long been aware of and greatly concerned about the unintended consequences of what they often called excessively competitive and combative advertising. Moreover, despite some thirty-five years of systematic scholarly research, two research teams recently concluded that the state of empirical knowledge regarding its effectiveness remains “equivocal.” By synthesizing the extensive theoretical and empirical research literature on comparative advertising and interpreting those findings from a historical perspective, this monograph offers uniquely significant insights into modern advertising’s history, theory, and practice.

Una historia de la publicidad comparativa en los Estados Unidos
Fred K. Barba
Abstract Traducción español
Esta monografía histórica ocupa un espacio en la extensa literatura de investigación académica dedicada a la publicidad comparativa – especialmente la que contrasta el producto anunciado , servicio o marca con un competidor mediante la exploración de las explicaciones de los anunciantes para su atractivo como una táctica a lo largo del siglo anterior identificable. Investigación histórica Antes confirma anunciantes han sido conscientes de nuestra gran preocupación por las consecuencias no deseadas de lo que a menudo se llaman publicidad excesivamente competitiva y combativa . Por otra parte , a pesar de unos treinta y cinco años de investigación académica sistemática , dos equipos de investigación concluyó recientemente que el estado de conocimiento empírico sobre su eficacia sigue siendo ” equívoca “. Al sintetizar la extensa literatura de investigación teórica y empírica sobre la publicidad comparativa y la interpretación de los resultados de un perspectiva histórica, esta monografía ofrece una visión singularmente importantes en la historia de la publicidad moderna , la teoría y la práctica.

<<Journal Abstracts in Spanish

Journalism & Mass Communication Educator/Spanish

Volumen 68 Número 4 Invierno 2013 (Volume 68 Number 4 Winter 2013)

(English Version & Spanish Translation)

Editor’s Note
Nota del Editor

Enrollments, Reading, and Education
Maria B. Marron

Las inscripciones, la lectura y la educación
Maria B. Marron

Research Articles
artículos de Investigación

2012 Annual Survey of Journalism and Mass Communication Enrollments: Enrollments Decline for Second Year in a Row
Lee B. Becker, Tudor Vlad, and Holly Anne Simpson
Enrollments in journalism and mass communication programs in the United States have declined over the last two years, reversing a pattern of growth that has sustained the field for twenty years. It is a decline at a time of continued growth in enrollments at universities generally. It is a decline at a time when enrollments have been growing in the instructional field of communication of which journalism and mass communication is a part. The data indicate the decline, based on degrees granted, which is a reflection of enrollments. Communication has been growing consistently, but the journalism and mass communication subfield has been flat and is now declining as the 2012 Annual Survey of Journalism and Mass Communication Enrollments demonstrates.

2012 Encuesta Anual de Periodismo y Medios de Comunicación Inscripciones: Las inscripciones Decline por segundo año en una fila
Lee B. Becker, Tudor Vlad, y Holly Anne Simpson
Abstract Traducción español
Las inscripciones en los programas de comunicación de periodismo y de masas en los Estados Unidos han disminuido en los últimos dos años, la inversión de un modelo de crecimiento que ha sostenido el campo durante veinte años. Es una disminución en un momento de crecimiento continuo de la matrícula en las universidades en general. Se trata de una caída en un momento en la matrícula ha ido creciendo en el campo de instrucción de la comunicación de que el periodismo y los medios de comunicación es una parte. Los datos indican la disminución, en base a grados concedidas, que es un reflejo de la matrícula. La comunicación ha estado creciendo constantemente, pero el periodismo y los medios de comunicación subcampo se ha estancado y ahora está disminuyendo a medida que la Encuesta Anual 2012 de Periodismo y Medios de Comunicación Inscripciones demuestra.

Assessing the Assessors: JMC Administrators Critique the Nine ACEJMC Standards
Scott Reinardy and Jerry Crawford II
For nearly ninety years, journalism professionals and academics have attempted to develop standards by which to prepare college students for the media industry. For nearly 70 years, the Accrediting Council on Education in Journalism and Mass Communications (ACEJMC) has assessed programs based on its standards. This study surveyed administers of ACEJMC accredited programs, asking them to critique the nine standards. Nearly 70 percent of the administrators rated six of the nine standards “good as is.” Forty percent said one standard—Standard 2: Curriculum and Instruction—“needs major changes.” The major issues for administrators included the 80/65 liberal arts requirement. Additional issues included measuring for diversity among students and faculty (Standard 3) and the process for assessing the outcomes of student training (Standard 9).

La evaluación de los asesores: Administradores JMC criticar las Normas Nueve ACEJMC
De Scott Reinardy y Jerry Crawford II
Abstract Traducción español
Para casi noventa años, los profesionales de periodismo y académicos han tratado de desarrollar estándares que permitan preparar a los estudiantes universitarios para la industria de los medios. Durante casi 70 años, el Consejo de Acreditación de Educación en Periodismo y Comunicación de Masas (ACEJMC) ha evaluado los programas sobre la base de sus normas. Este estudio encuestó administra de ACEJMC programas acreditados, pidiéndoles que criticar los nueve estándares. Casi el 70 por ciento de los administradores tiene seis de los nueve estándares “bueno como es.” El cuarenta por ciento dijo que una norma-Norma 2:. “Necesita grandes cambios” Currículo e Instrucción-Los principales problemas para los administradores incluyen el requisito de 80/65 de artes liberales . Otras cuestiones incluyen la medición de la diversidad entre los estudiantes y el profesorado (Norma 3) y el proceso de evaluación de los resultados de la formación del estudiante (Norma 9).

Subjective Norms as a Driver of Mass Communication Students’ Intentions to Adopt New Media Production Technologies
Toby M. Hopp
In this study, the impact of subjective norms on mass communication students’ intentions to adopt new media production technologies was explored. The results indicated that subjective norms play an instrumental role in explaining behavioral intentions to adopt new media technologies. Moreover, the data indicated that public relations students scored slightly lower on the behavioral intentions scale than their advertising and journalism colleagues. However, no evidence was found that the relationship between subjective norms and behavioral intentions differs on the basis of major classification. This study concludes by discussing practical implications for educators tasked with providing instruction on new media production tools.

Normas subjetivas como motor de Intenciones Comunicación de Masas de los estudiantes a adoptar nuevas tecnologías de producción de los medios
Toby M. Hopp
Abstract Traducción español
En este estudio, se analizó el impacto de las normas subjetivas sobre las intenciones de los estudiantes de comunicación de masas “para adoptar nuevas tecnologías de producción de los medios de comunicación. Los resultados indicaron que las normas subjetivas juegan un papel fundamental en la explicación de las intenciones de comportamiento para adoptar nuevas tecnologías de los medios. Además, los datos indican que los estudiantes de relaciones públicas marcados ligeramente inferior en las intenciones de comportamiento escalar que sus colegas de publicidad y periodismo. Sin embargo, no se encontraron pruebas de que la relación entre las normas subjetivas y las intenciones de comportamiento difiere en la base de la clasificación de los grandes. Este estudio concluye discutiendo implicaciones prácticas para los educadores encargados de impartir instrucción en las nuevas herramientas de producción multimedia.

Measuring Student Self-Perceptions of Writing Skills in Programs of Journalism and Mass Communication
Andrew Lingwall and Scott Kuehn
This study explored student self-perceptions of writing skills in journalism and mass communication programs at thirteen public state universities in the mid-Atlantic region. Factor analysis revealed seven sets of perceptions among 860 students. A Media Writing Self-Perception Scale was constructed and found to be reliable. The authors propose using this scale to help craft new instructional approaches. This study addresses implications for faculty members who wish to better understand their students in order to devise more effective writing instruction.

Medición de la auto-percepciones de habilidades de escritura en los programas de Periodismo y Comunicación de Masas
Andrew Lingwall y Scott Kuehn
Abstract Traducción español
Este estudio exploró los estudiantes auto-percepción de las habilidades de escritura en los programas de comunicación de masas y el periodismo en trece universidades públicas estatales en la región del Atlántico medio. El análisis factorial reveló siete conjuntos de percepciones entre 860 estudiantes. A Medios de Escritura de autopercepción de escala se construyó y se encontró que es fidedigna. Los autores proponen el uso de esta escala para ayudar a diseñar nuevos métodos de enseñanza. Este estudio aborda implicaciones para los profesores que desean entender mejor a sus estudiantes con el fin de diseñar una enseñanza más efectiva por escrito.

Students’ Expectations and Motivation for Service-Learning in Public Relations
Nancy Muturi, Soontae An, and Samuel Mwangi
This study is based on a survey of public relations students and examines their attitudes, expectations, and motivations for participating in curriculum-infused service-learning projects. Results indicate that prior participation does not influence attitudes or expectations, but motivation to participate in the project was significantly associated with positive attitude and higher expectations. Students’ expectations, which include social and professional growth, and psychological and altruistic gratification through community contributions, indicate a need for discipline-focused service-learning programs and for a focus on civic engagement given the role of public relations in relationship building and in strategically addressing social issues that impact society.

Las expectativas y la motivación de los estudiantes para Aprendizaje-Servicio en Relaciones Públicas
Nancy Muturi, Soontae An, y Samuel Mwangi
Abstract Traducción español
Este estudio se basa en una encuesta realizada a estudiantes de relaciones públicas y examina sus actitudes, expectativas y motivaciones para participar en proyectos de aprendizaje-servicio del plan de estudios con infusión. Los resultados indican que la participación previa no influye en las actitudes o expectativas, pero la motivación para participar en el proyecto se asoció significativamente con la actitud positiva y las expectativas más altas. Expectativas de los estudiantes, que incluyen el crecimiento social y profesional, y la gratificación psicológica y altruista a través de contribuciones de la comunidad, indican la necesidad de programas de aprendizaje-servicio de disciplina centrada y un enfoque en la participación cívica, dado el papel de las relaciones públicas en la construcción de relaciones y en forma estratégica abordar las cuestiones sociales que impactan a la sociedad.

Transplanting a Western-style Journalism Education to the Central Asian Republics of the Former Soviet Union: Experiences and Challenges at the American University of Central Asia in Kyrgyzstan
Elena Skochilo, Gulnura Toralieva, Eric Freedman, and Richard Shafer
Western standards of journalism education, as well as western professional journalistic practices, have had difficulty taking root in the five independent countries of formerly Soviet Central Asia. This essay examines the experience of one university’s Department of Journalism and Mass Communication since 1997 and the challenges it faces, including curriculum reform, faculty retention, government regulation, and student career interests in the context of press systems that remain tightly controlled by regimes.

Trasplantar un estilo occidental de la enseñanza del periodismo a las Repúblicas de Asia Central de la antigua Unión Soviética: Experiencias y Desafíos en la Universidad Americana de Asia Central en Kirguistán
Elena Skochilo, Gulnura Toralieva, Eric Freedman, y Richard Shafer
Abstract Traducción español
Los estándares occidentales de la enseñanza del periodismo, así como las prácticas periodísticas profesionales occidentales, han tenido dificultades para echar raíces en los cinco países independientes de Asia Central ex soviética. Este ensayo examina la experiencia del Departamento de Periodismo y Comunicación de Masas de una universidad desde 1997 y los desafíos que enfrenta, entre ellos la reforma curricular, la retención de la facultad, la regulación gubernamental, y los intereses profesionales de los estudiantes en el contexto de sistemas de prensado que se mantienen estrechamente controlados por regímenes.

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