Advertising 2014 Abstracts

Professional Freedom & Responsibility

What’s the Score?: A Longitudinal Content Analysis of Mature Adults in Super Bowl Commercials • Mary Brooks, Texas Tech University; Shannon Bichard; Clay Craig, Coastal Carolina University • Based on the rising older adult population, the importance of advertisers recognizing this consumer group is imperative. Thus, this content analysis of 239 Super Bowl commercials applied framing theory to examine how mature audiences are represented in one of the most expensive and highly viewed advertising venues. Previous research suggests that older adults are typically underrepresented in all media and often stereotyped. The results show underrepresentation is still problematic; yet positive frames were used often.

Inoculating the Electorate: American Corporatocracy and its Influence on Health Communication • Laura Crosswell; Lance Porter • Much like Socrates’ separation of art and cookery suggested the need for a new rhetoric centuries ago, commercially driven agendas reflect a contemporary need for a moral code in the corporate healthcare industry. This research examines the profit-driven agendas, non-branded marketing strategies, and commercialized propaganda that influence public trust in pharmaceutical products. Specifically focusing on Rick Perry’s 2007 HPV vaccination mandate, we examine the role that corporate funding plays in legislation, regulation, and voter/consumer behavior. Emergent findings from in-depth field interviews with Texas residents illustrate the capitalized communications contaminating consumer trust and public health, and present an argument for regulation realignment in the healthcare industry.

Tokens in a Man’s World: A Global Analysis of Women in Advertising Creative Departments • Jean Grow, Marquette University; Tao Deng, Marquette University • Using the Standard Directory of Advertising Agencies this study quantitatively explores the underrepresentation of women in advertising creative departments across five global geographic clusters. Engaging the Hofstede and GLOBE models and considering both horizontal and vertical distribution, data demonstrate fairly consistent patterns across 41 countries indicating significant complications for women both horizontally and vertically. Data further demonstrate a global scarcity of creative women with their numbers actually declining, across time, when compared to previous data.

Ethics of the Business Case for CSR Communication: An Integrated Business and Moral Perspective on CSR • S. Senyo Ofori-Parku, University of Oregon • Is it unethical to use corporate social responsibility (CSR) to enhance business goals through public relations, advertising, branding, and marketing efforts? In attending to this question, this paper points out the duality of CSR. It places profitable business in a framework that embraces utilitarianism economics and ethical principles such as duties, rights, and obligations. Drawing on literature from philosophy, business management and ethics, and communication ethics, it proposes that CSR is inherently both economic (strategic) and social (involves morality).

Message Strategies for Ads in U.S. Children’s magazines: An Application of Taylor’s Six-Segment Strategy Wheel • Meenakshi Trichur Venkitasubramanian; Jinhee Lee; Ronald Taylor, University of Tennessee • This study explores the message strategies employed by advertisers for children’s products in U.S. children’s magazines. This study also explores the association between product category and the message strategy. The study uses Taylor’s six-segment strategy wheel as its theoretical framework. A total of 531 ads from three different children’s magazines were examined for the years 2010-12. Content analysis of the ads reveals that advertisers use more transformational approaches than informational approaches.

Research

From Clicks to Behaviors: The mediating effect of viral behavioral intentions on the relationship between attitudes and offline behavioral intentions • Saleem Alhabash, Michigan State University; Anna McAlister, Michigan State University; Chen Lou, Michigan State University; Amy Hagerstrom, Michigan State University • Advertisers, marketers, and other professional communicators are heavily investing in social media marketing in hopes that online engagement will ultimately lead to offline behaviors (e.g., purchase). However, the relationship between online engagement behaviors (i.e., viral behaviors) and offline behavior still remains puzzling. The current study reports results of four experiments that investigated the mediating effect of intentions to like, share, and comment on persuasive social media messages with regard to informing the relationship between attitudes and offline behavioral intentions. The results are mixed with regard to this mediating effect. Findings are discussed in relation to redefining persuasion models within the context of the new media environment and in relation to practical implications of valuing online behaviors.

The Effects of the Valence of National Events on Persuasion in Patriotic Message: Regarding the Goal Framing • Hye Jin Bang, University of Georgia; Dongwon Choi; Jinnie Jinyoung Yoo, Gachen University • This study aims to examine if the activation of national identity through different contextual cues interplays with regulatory-focus message framing on consumers’ reaction to patriotic advertising. Specifically, this study explores the effective forms of patriotic ad message (promotion-focused vs. prevention-focused) depending on different valence of national identity priming contexts (positive vs. negative). Findings from an experiment suggest that the interaction between the valence of national identity priming and regulatory framing. Specifically, it appears that promotion-focused message yielded favorable Aad, Ab and PI when the valence of contexts that activate national identity is positive. On the other hand, the prevention-focused message elicited more favorable Ab if the valence of contexts that prime national identity is negative.

Exploring the Role of Parasocial Relationships on Product Placement Effectiveness • D. Jasun Carr, Susquehanna University • The practice of product placement, the embedding of goods and services within media, has experienced a resurgence of interest in recent years both from the stand point of the practitioner seeking additional avenues by which to reach the elusive consumer, and by scholars seeking to better understand the influence that media have on the consumptive practices of the audience. Many practitioners, and some scholars, have taken the stance that the practice of product placement may currently be the most influential form of advertising and persuasion.

Product Placement in Hollywood Movies: A Longitudinal Analysis • Huan Chen, Penn State Erie, The Behrend College; Ye Wang, University of Missouri – Kansas City • The study examined the nature and characteristics of product placement in the U.S. top-grossing movies from 2001 to 2012 with a historical approach. Several important findings and trends were identified from the results: First, product placements were found to be prolific in the U.S. top-grossing movies, with an average of 32 brands embedded in each movie. Second, the product categories of automobile, electronic equipment, and media and entertainment enjoyed the highest exposure in the movies. Third, brands appeared visually or verbally, but rarely demonstrated dual modality. Fourth, the majority of the placed brands seemed to fit with the movie setting regardless of visual or verbal oriented placements, and the most popular presentation mode of brand was full product. Finally, more than half of the product placements involved the interaction of characters.

Your Favorite Memory: Emotional Responses to Personal Nostalgic Advertising within Reminiscence Bump across Generations • ILYOUNG JU; Yunmi Choi, University of Florida; Jon Morris • This study examined the influence of reminiscence bump years when it comes to nostalgic advertising. Emotional responses toward nostalgic advertisements from late boomers and generation x were investigated. An online experiment was conducted to collect data from general consumer panels in their 30’s (x-gen) and 50’s (late boomers). Different emotional responses toward nostalgic advertisements were identified between the two generations. The result of this study revealed that nostalgic advertisements indicating reminiscence bump years were more likely to 1) evoke nostalgic feeling, 2) bring more positive Appeal (late boomers) and Engagement (x-gen), and 3) increase purchase intention.

Putting Things into Context: How evaluations are influenced by organic product claim and retail brand • Brenna Ellison, University of Illinois- Urbana Champaign; brittany duff, University of Illinois- Urbana Champaign; Xinyang Liu, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign; Jiachen Yao, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign • Organic food labels have been shown to have a “health halo” whereby products that are labeled organic are judged to be healthier and worth more money. However, the majority of work on organic product claims have ignored both product type and the context in which they are seen in (retail environment). We randomly assigned people (n=900) to see either a processed (cookie) or fresh (strawberry) product that had (not) been labeled as organic and put the scenario in the context of a retail brand (Walmart, Target or other). Results showed that organic labels had many of the previously found effects but these effects were modified by product type and the retail store at which they were supposedly going to be placed in.

Country Reputation as a Moderator of Tourism Advertising Effectiveness • Jami Fullerton, Oklahoma State University; Alice Kendrick, SMU Temerlin Advertising Institute • This study examines the role that country reputation plays in moderating the effects of tourism advertising to that country as well as attitude toward its government and citizens. A pre-post online study conducted in Australia used the current Brand USA’s “Land of Dreams” television commercial as the experimental stimulus. The country reputation index was factor analyzed to reveal three dimensions – Leadership, Investment and Culture. Results indicated that Leadership moderated the main effects of the tourism ad, as well as attitude toward the US government.

Sweetening the Deal: The Impact of Using “That’s-Not-All” Techniques in Promotional Emails • Zijian Gong, Texas Tech University; Shannon Bichard • This experiment investigated the “that’s-not-all” (TNA) technique as a promotional strategy and offered suggestions for maximizing its effectiveness in email advertising. Results denote a significant TNA impact on attitudes and perceptions of offer value, and this impact was robust across various types of products. Additionally, adding a time limit to TNA offers enhanced the perceptions of offer value. The research contributes to the current literature by developing strategies to increase the effectiveness of TNA techniques.

Segmenting The U.S. Product Placement Market: On the Basis of Consumers’ Cognitive and Attitudinal Responses to Advertising in General • Chang Dae Ham; Jin Seong Park, University of Tennessee Knoxville; Sejin Park, University of Tennessee • The purpose of the present study is to examine how U.S. consumers respond to product placement according to their perceptions about advertising in general. Based on a nationally representative sample of US adults from Experian Simmons (N = 22,348), this study identified five clusters of U.S. consumers, segmented by their cognitive and attitudinal responses to advertising in general. The study further reveals that each cluster has distinct demographic and media usage profiles and exhibits varying responses to product placement across television and movie. Implications for the practice of product placement are discussed.

A Model of Consumer Response to OTC Drug Advertising: Antecedents and Influencing Factors • Jisu Huh, University of Minnesota; Denise DeLorme, University of Central Florida; Leonard Reid, University of Georgia • Given the importance of OTC drugs in the healthcare marketplace and the lack of systematic research about OTC drug advertising effects, this study proposed and tested a Consumer Over-the-Counter Drug Advertising Response (CODAR) model. SEM analysis provides support for the model, explaining the OTCA effect process from key consumer antecedents to ad involvement, from ad involvement to ad attention, from ad attention to cognitive responses, then to affective/evaluative responses, leading to the final advertising outcomes.

Where Should Brands Position their Advertisements during the Sporting Event? Spectators’ Mental Energy Perspective • Wonseok Jang, University of Florida; Yong Jae Ko, University of Florida; Jon Morris; Jungwon Chun, University of Florida • The current study proposes a novel way to understand when brands should display advertisements during sporting events to maximize effectiveness. Relying on the ego-depletion model and the self-determination theory, this study explains how sport fans use, store, or increase their mental energy in the body system during the sporting event. Subsequently, how the increase or decrease mental energy transfers to the sport fans’ evaluation process of advertisements that were positioned during the sporting event.

The Effectiveness of Ecolabels among Young Adults: Environmental Warning Messages in Differing Message Contexts • Yongick Jeong, Louisiana State University • This study determines the contextual relationships between ecolabels and message contexts. By conducting two experiments, via a two-way mixed-repeated-measures design, the impacts of contextual similarity (Study 1) and the effects of context-induced moods (Study 2) on the effectiveness of ecolabels are examined. This study found ecolabels perform differently based on context formats (ads vs. PSAs), context-induced moods (positive vs. negative) and environmental issues (energy conservation, recycling, and pollution). Interaction effects were also examined and discussed.

The Role of Personal and Societal Norms in Understanding Social Media Advertising Effects: A Study of Sponsored Stories on Facebook • Joonghwa Lee, Middle Tennessee State University; Soojung Kim, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities; Doyle Yoon, University of Oklahoma • This study examines the antecedents and behavioral consequences of personal and societal norms in the context of Facebook sponsored stories. The survey findings indicate that personal descriptive and injunctive norms influence consumers’ intentions to interact with sponsored stories, whereas societal descriptive and injunctive norms do not. Interpersonal influences (e.g., family) and social influences (e.g., number of ‘likes’) form personal and societal norms, respectively. Theoretical and practical implications for social media advertising effects are discussed.

Development of an Other Minds Confidence Scale for Advertising • Esther Thorson; Eunjin (Anna) Kim, University of Missouri; Eunseon Kwon, University of Missouri; Heather Shoenberger, University of Missouri • The present study develops a rationale for why the construct of “other minds confidence” is generally an important one for human communication and specifically for theory about how people respond to advertising and other intentionally persuasive messages. We develop an exploratory scale for measuring what we conceptualize as “other minds confidence,” evaluate its reliability and factor structure, test whether it is different from a closely related construct, “persuasion knowledge,” and then further assess its validity by see whether it predicts general attitude toward advertising. Finally, we discuss some potential applications of the scale.

Perceived Norms and Consumer Responses to Social Media Advertising: A Cross-Cultural Study of Facebook Sponsored Stories among Americans and Koreans • Soojung Kim, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities; Joonghwa Lee, Middle Tennessee State University • This study examines the differences in the relationship among three types of norms (i.e., subjective, personal descriptive, and personal injunctive norms), attitudes toward interacting with Facebook sponsored stories, and behavioral intentions between Americans and Koreans. The findings indicate that personal injunctive norms were a stronger predictor of behavioral intentions for Koreans, whereas subjective norms and personal descriptive norms were stronger predictors of behavioral intentions for Americans. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

The Cognitive and Affective Effects of Brand Categorization and Evaluation on Brand Extension Purchase Intent • Jungsuk kang; Carolyn Lin • This study tested an expanded categorization model to examine how consumers evaluate and process perceived brand relationships between a parent brand, an extension product category and a brand extension. Study findings confirmed that perceived product-feature fit instead of perceived parent-brand image fit between a parent brand and its extension product category significantly enhanced the perceived similarity between the parent brand and its brand extension as well as brand-extension attitude and brand-extension purchase intent.

Uses and Gratifications that Drive Young Adults’ Smartphone Use and the Implications for Advertising Effectiveness • Kelty Logan, University of Colorado at Boulder • This quantitative study focuses on young adults in the U.S. and their use of smartphones in the belief that a thorough understanding of the gratifications sought will provide guidance to advertisers regarding the relative levels of involvement associated with each function. Specifically, the study explores the participants’ hierarchy of needs, the needs they seek to gratify through the use of various smartphone functions and applications, and their attitudes toward the advertising found in those environments. The results suggest that the heavy users of smartphone functions and apps are those who feel that “connection with friends and family,” “building relationships,” “increasing self-esteem,” and “mood elevation” are extremely important. Light users of smartphone functions and apps are those who feel that “seeking information/knowledge” or “seeking escape” are extremely important. While all light users appear to share negative attitudes toward advertising on smartphone functions and apps, not all heavy users share the same attitudes. There appears to be a distinction among heavy users based upon gratifications sought from smartphone use. Those who value connection, relationship-building, and mood elevation do not have positive attitudes toward advertising they encounter on smartphone functions and apps. Those who value increased self-esteem, however, appear to accept advertising on email and apps for information, assistance, and social media.

The Effectiveness of Crossmedia Advertising in Simultaneous Media Use: Combining TV and Web Advertisements • Shanshan Lou; Hong Cheng • Focused on cross-media advertising under simultaneous media exposure, this study explores the effectiveness of combining TV and web advertising by asking experiment participants (N = 168) to consume TV and web content simultaneously. In contrary to results from prior studies, media combination was not found to yield detrimental effects on ads attitudes and recalls. Multitasking seemed to have more negative influence on the recall of TV ads when compared with that of complex web ads simultaneously exposed to.

The “Boomerang Effect” of Disclosures: How Placement Disclosures Affect Brand Memory, Persuasion Knowledge, and Brand Attitude • Joerg Matthes; Brigitte Naderer, U of Vienna • Despite the relevance of disclosures to policy makers and consumer organisations, we have limited knowledge as to whether disclosures hinder or foster the impact of brand placements. This paper develops and tests a theoretical model of placement disclosure effects. An experimental study exposed participants to the video clip “Telephone” by Lady Gaga. Product placement frequency (zero, moderate, high) and presence of brand disclosures were experimentally varied. Results demonstrated that brand disclosures lead to an increase in brand memory for frequently depicted placements. Disclosures also affected defence motivation against persuasive influence by activating conceptual and attitudinal persuasion knowledge. However, defence motivation did not lead to more negative brand attitudes. On the contrary, findings suggest that disclosures can lead to more positive brand attitudes by activating, and therefore, strengthening already existing favourable brand evaluations. In terms of protection against covert marketing techniques, we conclude that disclosures may be a double-edge sword.

Exploring Qualifications for Senior-Level Advertising Agency Positions • Sheryl Oliver, Howard University; Rochelle Ford, Howard University • Using institutional theory to frame this study explores the qualifications talent and diversity professionals in advertising agencies perceive to be necessary to obtain senior-level positions in the advertising industry. Because African Americans and other minority groups are under-represented in mid and senior-level positions, this study explored particular characteristics desired among them. Using qualitative interviews, leadership experience within advertising agencies was the most important quality because they will be able to demonstrate a track record of success, the ability to thrive in a fast-paced environment, a level of toughness, and ability to generate new business. These characteristics will give credibility to candidates and help them motivate their teams. African Americans are expected to give back and mentor others. Results reinforce the need for strong retention programs to help entry-level candidates obtain mid-level managerial agency positions so they can be promoted into senior-level roles.

Beyond Exclusivity and Convenience: Real Estate Advertisements and the Singapore Story • Fernando Paragas, Nanyang Technological University; Aaron Tan, Nanyang Technological University; Dennis Kom, Nanyang Technological University; Stacey Anne Rodrigues, Nanyang Technological University; Joyce See, Nanyang Technological University • Using textual analysis, this paper explores the narrative that real estate advertisements depict and nurture in Singapore. Through the stages of identification, construction and deconstruction, the paper explores connections between and among advertising as text, culture as context and discourse as supra-text. It reveals paradoxes within the advertisements that depict not only what developers infer as the aspirational lifestyle in Singapore but also inform the tensions of life in the city-state.

The Influence Mechanism of the Advertising and National Economythe Chinese Experience (1979-2010) • Linsen Su; Mingqian Li • The paper found that GDP and economic openness predicted the advertising positively in China, whereas the Engel coefficient and unemployment had negative effects on the advertising, but the effect of the urbanization on advertising could not be confirmed, basing on the co-integration analysis of the per capita advertising, per capita GDP, urbanization, economic openness, urban unemployment rate, and Engel coefficient.

Let’s conserve energy but you recycle! Environmental claim types and responsibility attributions in green ads • Edson Tandoc, Nanyang Technological University; Margaret Duffy, Missouri School of Journalism • This study seeks to test the effects of two elements used in green advertisements—claim type and attribution of responsibility—on ad attitude, attitude toward the company, and purchase intention. An experiment involving 869 participants found that energy and recycling claims were more effective in getting a positive ad attitude than a selling sustainable products claim. The company’s taking responsibility for saving the environment is the most effective strategy to get a positive brand attitude.

Health Buzz at School: Evaluations of a Statewide Teen Health Campaign • Ming Wang, University of Nebraska-Lincoln; Amy Struthers, University of Nebraska-Lincoln • Drawing upon data from the first two years of a state-wide health communication campaign that employed a peer-to-peer marketing strategy to encourage high school students to adopt healthy behavior, this paper finds that the buzz component increased campaign awareness among students in participating schools compared to those in the comparison schools, but there was no significant difference between their health attitudes. Furthermore, attitude toward the campaign mediated the effect of buzz exposure on health attitudes.

Deception by Design? Analyzing native advertising design and disclosure on news websites • Bartosz Wojdynski, University of Georgia; Nathaniel Evans • In the face of evidence that consumers selectively, or even reflexively, avoid many forms of display advertising online, content publishers have sought more subtle ways to deliver viewers’ attention to advertisers’ content. One recent emergence is an increase in the use by online publishers of advertising copy presented in the form of editorial content, often called “native advertising.” Although this practice has analogs in print and broadcast media forms, the present research identified and analyzed recent examples of such native advertising on online editorial content publishing sites (N=28), with a focus on the language, positioning, and size of information that discloses the content as advertising. The findings suggest a lack of standard practice in all three areas. Although a majority of examples offered some disclosure elements positioned before the start of the page content, very few explicitly used any form of the word “advertising” in the disclosure labels. The findings are discussed in the context of the need greater for empirical research into effects of design characteristics in disclosure labeling.

A little training goes a long way: Increasing children’s recognition of embedded advertising through education • Eilene Wollslager, Our Lady of the Lake University • This study examined the relationship between media literacy training and elementary students’ (grades 3-4) ability to recognize embedded advertising (advergaming) in a children’s online website. Children could not recognize advergames as advertising at the beginning of the study (0%). Following a brief, 10-minute training session, children’s ability to recognize an advergame as a commercial message increased to 30%. Additionally, there was no indication of a digital divide in student’s awareness of advergaming. Rural students outperformed urban counterparts in the recognition of online advertising.

Understanding Consumer Animosity in the Politicized Global Market: From the Perspective of Young Transnational Consumers • Qinghua Yang; Katy Snell; Wanhsiu Sunny Tsai, University of Miami • Contextualized in the recent territorial dispute between Japan and China, this research examines consumer animosity from the perspective of transnational Chinese consumers. This study provides a multidimensional model of animosity and tests an integrative model that links cultural identification, antecedents (i.e., patriotism, nationalism, and internationalism), and moderators of consumer animosity (i.e., perceived symbolism and perceived threat). Transnational Chinese consumers’ cultural identification was found to significantly influence the mechanisms underlying their animosity against Japan and Japanese products.

Does “green” work? The role of message framing, construal level and environmental concern • Lingling Zhang, Towson University; Hua Chang • Many firms adopt green advertising and put great emphasis on the value of green marketing strategies. However, little research has examined the effectiveness of green appeal in advertisements. Building on message framing and construal level theory, this study conducts two experiments to examine the interaction effect of construal level and gain or loss framed messages on consumers’ attitudes and purchase intention towards advertised product, as well as the moderating role of consumers’ environmental concern in this interaction. The findings demonstrate that a congruency between loss (gain) frame and low (high) level construal leads to more positive outcomes in consumers’ attitudes and purchase intention. Furthermore, this research reveals that the congruency effect is moderated by the level of consumer environmental concern, which has important theoretical and practical implications.

Special Topics Papers

Connecting Science to Advertising: How John B. Watson Laid the Foundation of Behavioral Targeting • Abigail Bartholomew, University of Nebraska–Lincoln; Frauke Hachtmann, University of Nebraska-Lincoln • Behaviorism as defined in 1913 by John B. Watson was a science that used repeated, observable human activity to develop hypotheses that would eventually predict and control responses. Through repeated experiments, Watson developed a thorough knowledge of what he defined as base human reactions. Stanley Resor, then president of J. Walter Thompson Agency, hired Watson to promote a partnership between advertising and science, and the subsequent 15 years of Watson’s career included some notable scientific contributions. This historical study shows that though these outcomes may not have provided many measurable positive results, they set into motion industry-wide change that continued to develop until the present. The study also argues that though behavioristic principles may not have found solid footing in a mass media environment, the current networked communication state provides much more fertile ground for analyzing message receivers and eliciting desired responses.

A Case History of Small Advertising Agency Leadership: An In-Depth Look at Knoxville’s Lavidge & Associates • Daniel Haygood, Elon University • Most of the advertising agency-related articles in the trade press and the research contained in academic journals focus on the large multi-national advertising agencies. This is unfortunate because much innovation, creativity, and resourcefulness are found in the local advertising agency communities. This case history takes an in-depth look at Lavidge & Associates, a small advertising firm located in Knoxville, Tennessee. This advertising agency is in its sixty-third year of business, a journey that has seen the firm begin as a two-person shop, rise to employ fifty to sixty individuals, and then return in the recent decade to a small firm with two full-time business partners. Throughout its long history, the agency has survived by demonstrating leadership in different areas of the business. This quality of leading appears to be the key to its success and survival. Specifically, the firm’s story reveals leadership lessons in management, client service, creative development, and production. It shows that innovation can often come from the smaller firms of the advertising community.”

Educating the Next-Generation Don Draper • Valerie Jones, University of Nebraska-Lincoln • Technology and the proliferation of data have transformed the advertising industry. Those with digital and analytical skills are now more employable than those with “traditional” advertising skills. At the same time, colleges face increasing emphasis on job placement rates. Are advertising programs providing students with the skills needed to win jobs today? Today’s “next-generation Don Drapers” must not only be fluent in creativity and big ideas, but also be fluent in analysis and big data.

“Putting On Campaigns”: A History of 70 Years of Advertising Education at X University • Ronald Taylor, University of Tennessee; Joyce Wolburg, Marquette University • Two philosophies of advertising education have existed in American colleges and universities since the early 1900s. This paper traces the two philosophies—a “how to philosophy” vs. a “why philosophy” as they were sequentially implemented across 70 years at a land grant university in the Southeast.

Assessing Brand Personality on Social Media: An Analysis of External Perceptions of University Twitter Activity • Brandi Watkins, Virginia Tech; Regina Lewis, The University of Alabama • Universities market to diverse audiences and when combined with a common struggle within many universities for funding, online social media marketing possibilities become an important component of the university brand. This investigates the influence of Twitter activity on perceptions of university branding. Findings indicate that there is little difference in how universities are perceived by external audiences; the study contributes to the current body of literature by applying traditional brand personality scales to non-traditional media.

Motivating savings behavior in PSAs: The effect of social norms and the moderating role of financial responsibility • Hye Jin Yoon, Southern Methodist University • Personal savings rates in the United States are low, creating potentially negative consequences. This study conducted two experiments to test the effects of social norms and the moderating role of an individual’s financial responsibility in responses to public service advertisements promoting savings behavior. Across two studies, perception of norm and benefit information varied with financial responsibility. Implications for social norm theory and improving social marketing ad campaigns to promote saving are provided.

Teaching Papers

Blogging In The Classroom: Using WordPress Blogs With Buddy Press Plugin As A Learning Tool. • Keith Quesenberry, Johns Hopkins University; Dana Saewitz, Temple University; Sheryl Kantrowitz, Temple University • Three professors used WordPress blogs with 130 students one semester in three different advertising courses. Descriptions of how blogs were used to enhance student participation, engagement and skill building are included along with students’ quantitative and qualitative assessments. The use of course blogs led to multiple positive self-reported student learning outcomes. Based on the researchers’ self-evaluation and analysis of students’ survey feedback, this article offers insights for using blogging as a learning tool.

Teach Like They Build It: A User Experience Approach to Interactive Media in Advertising Education • Adam Wagler, UNL •
The proliferation of interactive media and new technology on college campuses is blending together student academic work and online personal lives. Advertising instructors have unique opportunities to leverage interactive instructional technology to reach more students and give them various ways to engage in learning materials while modeling professional applications of emerging media. User experience (UX), a term normally associated with interactive design, provides a framework for all advertising instructors to effectively integrate interactive media into their teaching. An in-depth review of the literature is provided to bridge the research between cognition, mass communications, and web usability creating a foundation for a UX approach to using interactive media in advertising education. The purpose of this paper is to provide theory-based strategies for advertising instructors to take advantage of interactive technology for student learning while modeling professional uses of interactive media.

Student Papers

The Moderating Role of Brand Familiarity on Media Synergistic Effect: An Information Processing Perspective • Guanxiong Huang, Michigan State University • Cross-media advertising campaigns have become commonplace in today’s multimedia environment. Drawing from the multiple source effect theorization, this study explores the underlying mechanism of media synergistic effect from an information processing perspective. Brand familiarity is proposed as a moderator of media synergistic effect: people with different level of prior brand-related knowledge tend to process advertisements in diverse cognitive routes. An experiment found that for an unfamiliar brand media synergy outperforms repeated exposures via a solo medium in terms of raising message credibility and generating more positive thoughts, while similar effects were not seen on the familiar brand.

A New Perspective on Brand Avoidance Behaviors: Attention to Social Comparison Information matters! • Eunjin (Anna) Kim, University of Missouri; Eunseon Kwon, University of Missouri • Prior research on brand consumption behaviors, especially those that potentially affect a person’s social identity, has mainly focused on approach rather than avoidance motives. We examine brand avoidance behaviors in the context of an individual-difference construct, attention to social comparison information (ATSCI). Our overarching argument is that high ATSCI consumers, being anxious and uncertain about others’ reactions, will seek to keep a low profile in their brand choices—they will prefer to blend in rather than to stand out. In study 1, we show that although high and low ATSCI consumers identify themselves with equally prestigious brands, the former do so with less distinctive brands. In study 2, we find that high ATSCI consumers, unlike their low ATSCI counterparts, avoid conspicuous brand logos even in the case of highly prestigious brands.

Perfect Mothers: How Mothers are Presented in Images in Food Advertising • Jinhee Lee; Jimi Hong, University of Texas at Austin • The purpose of study is to explore how food advertising portrays mother images in food advertising and which advertising themes in food advertising. The study selected sample advertisements from three magazines: Parents, Family Fun, and Working Mother. For analyzing data, content analysis was conducted. The study showed that food advertising portrayed traditional mother images and highlighted the traditional meanings of mothering. Theoretical and practical implications were addressed.

Anonymous vs. Non-anonymous Online Comments: The effects of Comments’ Visual Anonymity and Valence on Consumers’ Attitude and Purchase Intention • Chen Lou, Michigan State University; Pradnya Joshi; Eunsin Joo • Using the theoretical framework of social identity model of deindividuation (SIDE) and elaboration likelihood model, this study investigated how online commenters’ visual anonymity and comments’ valence (either positive or negative) affect consumers’ attitude and purchase intention toward products sold on social commerce websites. In a 2 (commenters’ visual anonymity: anonymous vs. recognized) x 2 (comments’ valence: positive vs. negative) between-subjects factorial design, participants (n= 157) were exposed to one of the four Groupon webpage selling a printer before being asked to indicate their evaluation and purchase intention toward the printer. Results indicated that online peer comments do have persuasive effects on online users, and such effects are not limited to only anonymous users’ reviews. Also, visually recognized negative comments – compared to anonymous negative comments – seem to be more efficient in persuading users not to buy the product. Findings are discussed in the context of computer-mediated-communication with new technology change in relation to consumer behavior research and social commerce marketing.

Playing with the Brand: Exploring the Influence of Advergame Play on Company Evaluations and Recall • Matthew VanDyke, Texas Tech University; Ann Rodriguez, Texas Tech University • This experiment employed a 2 X 2 factorial design to assess the influence of advergame play on evaluations of a company and game-specific information recall. Advergame play did not influence participants’ attitude toward the company or an ambiguous company news event. Participants’ perceptions of the advergame’s interactivity predicted whether the game was perceived as informative and enjoyable. Recall data suggested that regardless of interactivity perceptions, participants tended to recall game-specific information.

Mouse Tracking as a Method to Explore Brand Personality Distinctiveness • Zongyuan Wang, University of Missouri at Columbia; Russell Clayton, University of Missouri • Brand personality is an important value for a brand to differentiate itself from other brands and to create unique brand images. This study used mouse tracking as an unobtrusive cognitive indicator measure of brand personality distinctiveness and examined how product involvement and function orientation might jointly influence brand personality distinctiveness. Results showed that brand personality distinctiveness and accessibility was higher for functional brands than for sensory brands and was the lowest for low-involvement sensory brands.

Larger, Closer, Brighter: How Advertising Design Influence Advertising Recognition • Zongyuan Wang, University of Missouri at Columbia; Mikkel Christensen, University of Missouri; Andrew Brown, University of Missouri at Columbia; Michelle Reed, University of Missouri at Columbia • Ads on media suffer from competitions of their counterparts, which can be detrimental to ad recognition. Physical properties ad design may influence ad recognition. This study examined how brand name contrast, brand name size, and distance between the brand name and the product image influenced ad recognition. Findings suggest that larger brand name, shorter distance between the brand name and the product image, and higher brand name contrast produced the highest ad recognition.

Disgust in Advertising – Social and Gender Implications • Kivy Weeks, University of Connecticut • This exploratory research increases understanding of the implications for disgust in marketing communications. It details an experiment manipulating the amount of disgust in an advertisement depicting a low involvement, brand new product. It evaluates the importance of gender, social variables, as well as state and trait disgust on product attitude. Important findings include a significant interaction between gender and disgust manipulation, such that gender moderates the relationship between disgust advertising and product attitude, with disgust having a greater negative effect on attitude for women than men.

2014 Abstracts

2014 Abstracts

AEJMC 2014 Conference Paper Abstracts
Montréal, Canada • August 6 to 9

The following AEJMC groups conducted research competitions for the 2014 conference. The accepted paper abstracts are listed within each section.

Divisions:

Interest Groups:

Commissions:

<< AEJMC Abstracts Index

Journalism Educators call on Kansas Board of Regents to Reverse New Social Media Policy

CONTACT: PAULA POINDEXTER, Texas-Austin, 2013-14 President of AEJMC • May 21, 2014
The exercise of free speech is now potentially a firing offense at colleges and universities in Kansas. The Kansas Board of Regents, which governs public universities and colleges in Kansas, has adopted a policy that defines unacceptable uses of social media and allows for the suspension or dismissal of those who violate it.

This social media policy was primarily in response to University of Kansas journalism professor David Guth’s tweet about the deadly shooting in September 2013 at the U.S. Naval Yard when 12 people were killed. Guth, who was placed on administrative leave as a result of his Twitter message, tweeted: “The blood is on the hands of the #NRA. Next time, let it be YOUR sons and daughters. Shame on you. May God damn you.” The resulting outcry from the public and state lawmakers no doubt fueled the formation of this new policy.

The Regents’ policy bars social media messages that would incite violence, disclose confidential student information or release protected data, communication that is already prohibited by existing laws. The more troubling provision of the policy, however, is the overly vague statement that restricts faculty and staff from posting anything “contrary to the best interests of the university.”

It is not difficult to imagine the chilling effect the new policy will have on freedom of expression in general and academic freedom in particular on university and college campuses in Kansas. Furthermore, social media, and Twitter specifically, have become essential tools in gathering and disseminating news. If Kansas’ journalism professors are afraid to teach students how to use these reporting tools because they may violate a vague social media policy, the future journalists they train will be unprepared for the real world of journalism in the digital age.

The Kansas Board of Regents chair, Fred Logan, defended the policy and argued that it enhances academic freedom by giving employees specific guidelines. But the very suggestion that social media expression should be subjected to guidelines conflicts with academic freedom and, more importantly, the First Amendment. Therefore the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (AEJMC), the largest association of journalism and communication educators in the world, calls upon the Kansas Board of Regents to reverse this social media policy that restricts academic freedom, violates First Amendment rights, interferes with the professional education of those seeking journalism careers and suppresses the intellectual discourse that universities should champion.

For more information regarding this AEJMC Presidential Statement, please contact Paula Poindexter, President of AEJMC, at paula.poindexter@austin.utexas.edu.

AEJMC (The Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication) is a nonprofit, educational association of journalism and mass communication educators, students and media professionals. The Association’s mission is to advance education, foster scholarly research, cultivate better professional practice and promote the free flow of communication. To find out more about AEJMC, visit www.AEJMC.org.

<<PACS

Tips from the AEJMC Teaching Committee

Rewarding Good Teaching

Karen Miller RussellBy Karen Miller Russell
Associate Professor
Standing Committee on Teaching
University of Georgia, Grady College
russell.uga@gmail.com

(Article courtesy of AEJMC News, March 2014 issue)

One of the best things that the AEJMC Standing Committee on Teaching offers is its Best Practices in Teaching Competition.

Becoming a good or even great teacher is a life-long process, one that is not always rewarded by educational institutions in the same way that good or great research can be.

“Currently, research universities base tenure decisions primarily on research productivity and quality,” organizational psychologist Adam Grant recently stated in an op-ed in The New York Times. “Teaching matters only after you have cleared the research bar: It is a bonus to teach well.”

Of course, not all universities overlook good teaching, and many colleges and departments of mass communication recognize teaching through annual awards. These awards are significant ways to reward good work, but they don’t go far enough.

Writing for Inside Higher Ed, Elizabeth H. Simmons points out that faculty must be strategic in how they spend their time. Therefore, she argues, “If a department or college believes that innovative teaching is important, then innovative teaching must be rewarded in decisions related to salaries, reappointment, promotion and tenure.”

The Standing Committee on Teaching tries to facilitate that process by providing a national forum to call attention to innovative teaching in journalism and mass communication. Each year the committee selects a different theme — this year it’s “Globalizing the Classroom” — and members submit their assignments, classroom activities or ideas for competitive review.

Winning faculty members will be invited to present their ideas at the national convention in Montreal, and they’ll receive a cash prize.

But the competition does more than reward faculty who are trying innovative approaches; it also allows them to share their ideas with other faculty. In addition to being presented at the meeting, the winning entries are published in an e-booklet, and I cheerfully admit to shamelessly copying at least one past winner in my own classroom.

“Teaching is the core of what we all do. Recognizing great teaching ideas helps us learn from each other and become better teachers,” said Chris Roush of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, this year’s competition chair. “I’m constantly learning from my peers at UNC, and this is how I can expand that learning to the best around the country.”

If you would like to enter this year’s competition, the process is simple. Just write a two-page statement describing a new and effective approach you used to bring global ideas into your classroom. The call for entries (on p. 10) specifies that you need not be teaching a class specifically on international media. In fact, the committee would like to learn how you incorporate awareness of global communities and/or the practice of journalism and mass communication beyond national borders into any course.

I also urge you to take a few minutes to check out the downloadable booklets from past best practices competitions, on subjects ranging from writing to ethics and from information gathering to critical thinking. They can be found on the AEJMC website at http://www.aejmc.org/home/2010/09/best-practices-in-teaching-booklets/.

You might find inspiration for your own great teaching ideas.

 

<<Teaching Corner

Tips from the AEJMC Teaching Committee

Letting Online Students Know You’re There

Susan KeithBy Susan Keith
Standing Committee on Teaching
Associate Professor
Rutgers University
susank@rutgers.edu

(Article courtesy of AEJMC News, January 2014 issue)

At the beginning of the fall semester a few years ago, two young women stepped into my office and greeted me warmly. They spoke as if I knew them, though I couldn’t recall meeting either. Finally, they noticed my confusion and one said, “Oh, Dr. Keith, we were in your Newer Media Law and Policy course!”

They identified themselves and I realized they had, indeed, been in a summer course I had just taught as part of the Master’s in Communication and Information Studies program at Rutgers University. I failed to recognize them not because the class had been so large that I couldn’t learn students’ faces but because the course, like all the offerings in the MCIS program’s Digital Media track, which my department staffs, was fully online.

The course management system we used did not display avatars for students, so although students knew what I looked like from the headshot I had placed on the course syllabus, all I had seen of them were thumbnail images from their student IDs. In fact, I had thought throughout the summer that one of the women, who had a somewhat unusual first name, was male!

The students told me they had enjoyed the course, and I told them I had enjoyed their questions, comments and final papers. Then one of the students said something like, “I just wish the course could have been face to face.”

Ah! Had it been, I would not have volunteered to teach the course in summer. I commute an hour (by car) to two hours (subway/train) each way. Coming to campus several times a week in the summer would have seriously cut into research time.

The student’s comments, however, implied a legitimate concern over presence, a frequent issue in asynchronous online courses. Although online courses can give a voice to shy students or to international students concerned about their spoken English, other students sometimes miss the camaraderie of classmates they can see and a professor who is “right there.”

However, if you are teaching fully online courses — a topic that will be addressed in the plenary session being organized by AEJMC’s Standing Committee on Teaching for our Montreal Conference — there are things you can do to make students feel your presence in the virtual classroom:

Let students see you right away. I put a small mugshot on my syllabus and have students, before they do anything else, watch a short video of me welcoming them to the course. Although I don’t typically lecture straight to the camera in online courses, I think a video showing me explaining course expectations helps make the human connection.

Answer email more rapidly than in a face-to-face course: For students in off-campus, asynchronous online courses, email (or CMS-based message) is the only way to connect with the instructor. You ignore it at the peril of your teaching evaluation scores.

Encourage cooperative work. As an undergrad, I groaned at the prospect of group work. Now I think at least small group assignments can help alleviate a sense of isolation in online courses. Encourage students to go beyond email as they plan.    If the course management system doesn’t support video chatting, have them try Google+ Hangout (http://www.google. com/hangouts/), which allows multiple people to talk and see each other.

Think critically about discussion boards: Many online      instructors have students post to discussion boards as a way     to simulate in-class discussions. I’m not convinced, however, that most of us use those boards well. Do students see any evidence, through your on-board responses or timely feedback, that you are reading their work? Do you work — behind the scenes, through email — with students who make erroneous    assertions on the boards to help them publically convey correct information? Do you review what students discussed in the     last discussion board assignment before moving on to the next unit?

Consider some synchronous chats: I offer hourlong synchronous group text- or video-based chats eight or 10 times a semester and four times in a five-week summer session. Because my online courses are advertised as asynchronous, I cannot require students to take part, but I find that many are hungry for the connection and join multiple times, especially before big assignments. (I ask students to look over my planned dates and times in the first week of the course, and I adjust if any student says he or she cannot make any of the sessions.) I plan a discussion topic, usually tied to course content in current events. The first thing I do, however, is ask whether students have questions. Sometimes they have many questions and answering them takes the full hour!

These are just a few ways to give students a sense of your presence in online courses.
What are yours? I would love to hear. Drop a note to susank@rutgers.edu.

 

<<Teaching Corner

Journalism & Communication Monographs/Spanish

Volumen 15 Número 4 Invierno 2013 (Volume 15 Number 4 Winter 2013)

(English Version & Spanish Translation)

Prejudice: The Role of the Media in the Development of Social Bias
Kim Bissell and Scott Parrott
Abstract
Numerous studies document the existence of bias: bias against gender, race, sexual orientation, age, mental illness, and body shape or weight. This article presents a model of bias development, which helps explain the influence of mediated, individual, social, and ideological influences on the development of bias. This article applies the proposed model using four experimental studies that examine weight bias in children and adults. The results from the four studies lend empirical support for the model. Data from the studies suggest the explication of a theoretical model is necessary to understand the factors related to the development of bias against a variety of groups, character traits, or attributes in others. It is difficult to argue that any one factor whether it be media, individual, social, or ideology “trumps” other factors as the development of bias seems to be very individualistic. Therefore, a model that represents the myriad of factors identified above is proposed.

Prejuicio: El Papel de los Medios de Comunicación en el Desarrollo de la Polarización Social
Kim Bissell y Scott Parrott
Abstract Traducción español
Numerosos estudios documentan la existencia de sesgo: sesgo en contra de su género, raza , orientación sexual , la edad, la enfermedad mental, y la forma corporal o el peso . En este artículo se presenta un modelo de desarrollo sesgo , lo que ayuda a explicar la influencia de la mediación , las influencias individuales , sociales e ideológicas sobre el desarrollo de sesgo. Este artículo se aplica el modelo propuesto por medio de cuatro estudios experimentales que analizan el sesgo de peso en niños y adultos. Los resultados de los cuatro estudios dan soporte empírico para el modelo. Los datos de los estudios sugieren que la explicación de un modelo teórico es necesario entender los factores relacionados con el desarrollo de sesgo en contra de una variedad de grupos , rasgos de carácter, o los atributos de los demás. Es difícil argumentar que un solo factor , ya sea medios de comunicación, individual, social o ideología ” supera a ” otros factores como el desarrollo de sesgo parece ser muy individualista. Por lo tanto, se propone un modelo que representa la miríada de factores identificados anteriormente.

<<Journal Abstracts in Spanish

Journalism & Communication Monographs/Spanish

Volumen 15 Número 3 Otoño 2013 (Volume 15 Number 3 Autumn 2013)

(English Version & Spanish Translation)

A History of Comparative Advertising in the United States
Fred K. Beard
Abstract
This historical monograph addresses a gap in the extensive scholarly research literature devoted to comparative advertising—especially that which contrasts the advertised product, service, or brand with an identifiable competitor—by exploring advertisers’ explanations for its appeal as a tactic throughout the previous century. Prior historical research confirms advertisers have long been aware of and greatly concerned about the unintended consequences of what they often called excessively competitive and combative advertising. Moreover, despite some thirty-five years of systematic scholarly research, two research teams recently concluded that the state of empirical knowledge regarding its effectiveness remains “equivocal.” By synthesizing the extensive theoretical and empirical research literature on comparative advertising and interpreting those findings from a historical perspective, this monograph offers uniquely significant insights into modern advertising’s history, theory, and practice.

Una historia de la publicidad comparativa en los Estados Unidos
Fred K. Barba
Abstract Traducción español
Esta monografía histórica ocupa un espacio en la extensa literatura de investigación académica dedicada a la publicidad comparativa – especialmente la que contrasta el producto anunciado , servicio o marca con un competidor mediante la exploración de las explicaciones de los anunciantes para su atractivo como una táctica a lo largo del siglo anterior identificable. Investigación histórica Antes confirma anunciantes han sido conscientes de nuestra gran preocupación por las consecuencias no deseadas de lo que a menudo se llaman publicidad excesivamente competitiva y combativa . Por otra parte , a pesar de unos treinta y cinco años de investigación académica sistemática , dos equipos de investigación concluyó recientemente que el estado de conocimiento empírico sobre su eficacia sigue siendo ” equívoca “. Al sintetizar la extensa literatura de investigación teórica y empírica sobre la publicidad comparativa y la interpretación de los resultados de un perspectiva histórica, esta monografía ofrece una visión singularmente importantes en la historia de la publicidad moderna , la teoría y la práctica.

<<Journal Abstracts in Spanish

Journalism & Mass Communication Educator/Spanish

Volumen 68 Número 4 Invierno 2013 (Volume 68 Number 4 Winter 2013)

(English Version & Spanish Translation)

Editor’s Note
Nota del Editor

Enrollments, Reading, and Education
Maria B. Marron

Las inscripciones, la lectura y la educación
Maria B. Marron

Research Articles
artículos de Investigación

2012 Annual Survey of Journalism and Mass Communication Enrollments: Enrollments Decline for Second Year in a Row
Lee B. Becker, Tudor Vlad, and Holly Anne Simpson
Abstract
Enrollments in journalism and mass communication programs in the United States have declined over the last two years, reversing a pattern of growth that has sustained the field for twenty years. It is a decline at a time of continued growth in enrollments at universities generally. It is a decline at a time when enrollments have been growing in the instructional field of communication of which journalism and mass communication is a part. The data indicate the decline, based on degrees granted, which is a reflection of enrollments. Communication has been growing consistently, but the journalism and mass communication subfield has been flat and is now declining as the 2012 Annual Survey of Journalism and Mass Communication Enrollments demonstrates.

2012 Encuesta Anual de Periodismo y Medios de Comunicación Inscripciones: Las inscripciones Decline por segundo año en una fila
Lee B. Becker, Tudor Vlad, y Holly Anne Simpson
Abstract Traducción español
Las inscripciones en los programas de comunicación de periodismo y de masas en los Estados Unidos han disminuido en los últimos dos años, la inversión de un modelo de crecimiento que ha sostenido el campo durante veinte años. Es una disminución en un momento de crecimiento continuo de la matrícula en las universidades en general. Se trata de una caída en un momento en la matrícula ha ido creciendo en el campo de instrucción de la comunicación de que el periodismo y los medios de comunicación es una parte. Los datos indican la disminución, en base a grados concedidas, que es un reflejo de la matrícula. La comunicación ha estado creciendo constantemente, pero el periodismo y los medios de comunicación subcampo se ha estancado y ahora está disminuyendo a medida que la Encuesta Anual 2012 de Periodismo y Medios de Comunicación Inscripciones demuestra.

Assessing the Assessors: JMC Administrators Critique the Nine ACEJMC Standards
Scott Reinardy and Jerry Crawford II
Abstract
For nearly ninety years, journalism professionals and academics have attempted to develop standards by which to prepare college students for the media industry. For nearly 70 years, the Accrediting Council on Education in Journalism and Mass Communications (ACEJMC) has assessed programs based on its standards. This study surveyed administers of ACEJMC accredited programs, asking them to critique the nine standards. Nearly 70 percent of the administrators rated six of the nine standards “good as is.” Forty percent said one standard—Standard 2: Curriculum and Instruction—“needs major changes.” The major issues for administrators included the 80/65 liberal arts requirement. Additional issues included measuring for diversity among students and faculty (Standard 3) and the process for assessing the outcomes of student training (Standard 9).

La evaluación de los asesores: Administradores JMC criticar las Normas Nueve ACEJMC
De Scott Reinardy y Jerry Crawford II
Abstract Traducción español
Para casi noventa años, los profesionales de periodismo y académicos han tratado de desarrollar estándares que permitan preparar a los estudiantes universitarios para la industria de los medios. Durante casi 70 años, el Consejo de Acreditación de Educación en Periodismo y Comunicación de Masas (ACEJMC) ha evaluado los programas sobre la base de sus normas. Este estudio encuestó administra de ACEJMC programas acreditados, pidiéndoles que criticar los nueve estándares. Casi el 70 por ciento de los administradores tiene seis de los nueve estándares “bueno como es.” El cuarenta por ciento dijo que una norma-Norma 2:. “Necesita grandes cambios” Currículo e Instrucción-Los principales problemas para los administradores incluyen el requisito de 80/65 de artes liberales . Otras cuestiones incluyen la medición de la diversidad entre los estudiantes y el profesorado (Norma 3) y el proceso de evaluación de los resultados de la formación del estudiante (Norma 9).

Subjective Norms as a Driver of Mass Communication Students’ Intentions to Adopt New Media Production Technologies
Toby M. Hopp
Abstract
In this study, the impact of subjective norms on mass communication students’ intentions to adopt new media production technologies was explored. The results indicated that subjective norms play an instrumental role in explaining behavioral intentions to adopt new media technologies. Moreover, the data indicated that public relations students scored slightly lower on the behavioral intentions scale than their advertising and journalism colleagues. However, no evidence was found that the relationship between subjective norms and behavioral intentions differs on the basis of major classification. This study concludes by discussing practical implications for educators tasked with providing instruction on new media production tools.

Normas subjetivas como motor de Intenciones Comunicación de Masas de los estudiantes a adoptar nuevas tecnologías de producción de los medios
Toby M. Hopp
Abstract Traducción español
En este estudio, se analizó el impacto de las normas subjetivas sobre las intenciones de los estudiantes de comunicación de masas “para adoptar nuevas tecnologías de producción de los medios de comunicación. Los resultados indicaron que las normas subjetivas juegan un papel fundamental en la explicación de las intenciones de comportamiento para adoptar nuevas tecnologías de los medios. Además, los datos indican que los estudiantes de relaciones públicas marcados ligeramente inferior en las intenciones de comportamiento escalar que sus colegas de publicidad y periodismo. Sin embargo, no se encontraron pruebas de que la relación entre las normas subjetivas y las intenciones de comportamiento difiere en la base de la clasificación de los grandes. Este estudio concluye discutiendo implicaciones prácticas para los educadores encargados de impartir instrucción en las nuevas herramientas de producción multimedia.

Measuring Student Self-Perceptions of Writing Skills in Programs of Journalism and Mass Communication
Andrew Lingwall and Scott Kuehn
Abstract
This study explored student self-perceptions of writing skills in journalism and mass communication programs at thirteen public state universities in the mid-Atlantic region. Factor analysis revealed seven sets of perceptions among 860 students. A Media Writing Self-Perception Scale was constructed and found to be reliable. The authors propose using this scale to help craft new instructional approaches. This study addresses implications for faculty members who wish to better understand their students in order to devise more effective writing instruction.

Medición de la auto-percepciones de habilidades de escritura en los programas de Periodismo y Comunicación de Masas
Andrew Lingwall y Scott Kuehn
Abstract Traducción español
Este estudio exploró los estudiantes auto-percepción de las habilidades de escritura en los programas de comunicación de masas y el periodismo en trece universidades públicas estatales en la región del Atlántico medio. El análisis factorial reveló siete conjuntos de percepciones entre 860 estudiantes. A Medios de Escritura de autopercepción de escala se construyó y se encontró que es fidedigna. Los autores proponen el uso de esta escala para ayudar a diseñar nuevos métodos de enseñanza. Este estudio aborda implicaciones para los profesores que desean entender mejor a sus estudiantes con el fin de diseñar una enseñanza más efectiva por escrito.

Students’ Expectations and Motivation for Service-Learning in Public Relations
Nancy Muturi, Soontae An, and Samuel Mwangi
Abstract
This study is based on a survey of public relations students and examines their attitudes, expectations, and motivations for participating in curriculum-infused service-learning projects. Results indicate that prior participation does not influence attitudes or expectations, but motivation to participate in the project was significantly associated with positive attitude and higher expectations. Students’ expectations, which include social and professional growth, and psychological and altruistic gratification through community contributions, indicate a need for discipline-focused service-learning programs and for a focus on civic engagement given the role of public relations in relationship building and in strategically addressing social issues that impact society.

Las expectativas y la motivación de los estudiantes para Aprendizaje-Servicio en Relaciones Públicas
Nancy Muturi, Soontae An, y Samuel Mwangi
Abstract Traducción español
Este estudio se basa en una encuesta realizada a estudiantes de relaciones públicas y examina sus actitudes, expectativas y motivaciones para participar en proyectos de aprendizaje-servicio del plan de estudios con infusión. Los resultados indican que la participación previa no influye en las actitudes o expectativas, pero la motivación para participar en el proyecto se asoció significativamente con la actitud positiva y las expectativas más altas. Expectativas de los estudiantes, que incluyen el crecimiento social y profesional, y la gratificación psicológica y altruista a través de contribuciones de la comunidad, indican la necesidad de programas de aprendizaje-servicio de disciplina centrada y un enfoque en la participación cívica, dado el papel de las relaciones públicas en la construcción de relaciones y en forma estratégica abordar las cuestiones sociales que impactan a la sociedad.

Transplanting a Western-style Journalism Education to the Central Asian Republics of the Former Soviet Union: Experiences and Challenges at the American University of Central Asia in Kyrgyzstan
Elena Skochilo, Gulnura Toralieva, Eric Freedman, and Richard Shafer
Abstract
Western standards of journalism education, as well as western professional journalistic practices, have had difficulty taking root in the five independent countries of formerly Soviet Central Asia. This essay examines the experience of one university’s Department of Journalism and Mass Communication since 1997 and the challenges it faces, including curriculum reform, faculty retention, government regulation, and student career interests in the context of press systems that remain tightly controlled by regimes.

Trasplantar un estilo occidental de la enseñanza del periodismo a las Repúblicas de Asia Central de la antigua Unión Soviética: Experiencias y Desafíos en la Universidad Americana de Asia Central en Kirguistán
Elena Skochilo, Gulnura Toralieva, Eric Freedman, y Richard Shafer
Abstract Traducción español
Los estándares occidentales de la enseñanza del periodismo, así como las prácticas periodísticas profesionales occidentales, han tenido dificultades para echar raíces en los cinco países independientes de Asia Central ex soviética. Este ensayo examina la experiencia del Departamento de Periodismo y Comunicación de Masas de una universidad desde 1997 y los desafíos que enfrenta, entre ellos la reforma curricular, la retención de la facultad, la regulación gubernamental, y los intereses profesionales de los estudiantes en el contexto de sistemas de prensado que se mantienen estrechamente controlados por regímenes.

<<Journal Abstracts in Spanish

Journalism & Mass Communication Educator/Spanish

Volumen 68 Número 3 Otoño 2013 (Volume 68 Number 3 Autumn 2013)

(English Version & Spanish Translation)

Editorials
Editoriales

Conferences Focus on Renewal, Innovation, and the Future
Maria B. Marron

Conferencias Centrarse en la Renovación, Innovación y Futuro
Maria B. Marron

A Vision for Transformative Leadership: Rethinking Journalism and Mass Communication Education for the Twenty-First Century
John V. Pavlik
Abstract
Journalism and mass communication education is in urgent need of transformative leadership. The media are in the midst of a sea change, and educators and professionals alike are groping for a pathway to a future in which they play a vital role. This essay offers a vision for reinventing journalism and mass communication through a model based on innovation and entrepreneurship in media, guided by ethics, freedom of speech, and rigorous, independent, and critical inquiry.

Una visión para el liderazgo transformador: Repensando Periodismo y Comunicación de Masas de Educación para el Siglo XXI
John V. Pavlik
Abstract Traducción español
Periodismo y Medios de comunicación educación es una necesidad urgente de liderazgo transformador. Los medios de comunicación se encuentran en medio de un cambio radical, y educadores y profesionales por igual están buscando a tientas por un camino hacia un futuro en el que juegan un papel vital. Este artículo ofrece una visión para reinventar el periodismo y los medios de comunicación a través de un modelo basado en la innovación y el espíritu empresarial en los medios de comunicación, guiado por la ética, la libertad de expresión, y la investigación rigurosa, independiente y crítico.

Research Articles
artículos de Investigación

Media Entrepreneurship: Curriculum Development and Faculty Perceptions of What Students Should Know
Michelle Barrett Ferrier
Abstract
To prepare students for the changing media industry, educators must determine whether part of their mission is to prepare students to think and act entrepreneurially. This international study queries faculty who are developing media entrepreneurship courses. The study finds that while the courses take varied forms, the main objectives of the courses are to introduce students to the business side of media startups and to teach students to identify opportunities for innovation—whether inside legacy media organizations or as part of a media startup. The study offers some cautions and challenges for institutions seeking to embark on similar curriculum changes.

Emprendimiento medios: Currículo Desarrollo y Facultad percepciones de lo que los estudiantes deben saber
Michelle Barrett Ferrier
Abstract Traducción español
Para preparar a los estudiantes para la industria cambiante de los medios, los educadores deben determinar si parte de su misión es la de preparar a los estudiantes a pensar y actuar empresarialmente. Este estudio internacional consulta profesores que están desarrollando cursos de espíritu empresarial de los medios. El estudio revela que mientras que los cursos tienen formas variadas, los principales objetivos de los cursos son introducir al alumno en la parte comercial de nuevas empresas de medios de comunicación y para enseñar a los estudiantes a identificar las oportunidades de innovación, ya sea dentro de las organizaciones de medios de legado o como parte de una nueva empresa de medios . El estudio ofrece algunas precauciones y desafíos para las instituciones que deseen embarcarse en cambios curriculares similares.

Coorientation Theory and Assessment of the RFP Solution to Client/Service Learner Matchmaking
Cathy Rogers and Valerie Andrews
Abstract
Tensions that result from varying expectations of service learners and clients/community partners are as common as the pedagogical practice of service learning in public relations courses. The matchmaking process between instructors and clients can influence expectations; however, the literature includes little guidance about the process of client selection. This paper analyzes a request-for-proposal (RFP) client selection process through the lens of coorientation theory to gauge the effectiveness of communication in the service-learning relationship.

Coorientation Teoría y Evaluación de la Solución RFP para Cliente / Servicio de Estudiantes Matchmaking
Cathy Rogers y Valerie Andrews
Abstract Traducción español
Las tensiones que se derivan de las diferentes expectativas de los estudiantes de servicios y socios clientes / comunidad son tan comunes como la práctica pedagógica de servicio de aprendizaje en cursos de relaciones públicas. El proceso de emparejamiento entre los instructores y los clientes pueden influir en las expectativas, sin embargo, la literatura incluye poca orientación sobre el proceso de selección de clientes. Este trabajo analiza un (RFP) proceso de selección de la petición del cliente para la propuesta a través de la lente de la teoría coorientation para medir la efectividad de la comunicación en la relación aprendizaje-servicio.

Exploring Determinants of Relationship Quality between Students and Their Academic Department: Perceived Relationship Investment, Student Empowerment, and Student–Faculty Interaction
Moonhee Cho and Giselle A. Auger
Abstract
Given the increasing need for the retention of satisfied and successful students, the purpose of this study was to explore the factors that influence the perceived quality of relationships formed between students and their academic departments. Based on the extensive review of interdisciplinary literature, the study proposed three factors—student–faculty interaction, perceived relationship investment (PRI), and student empowerment. Results of the study demonstrate the significance in associations between student–faculty interaction, PRI, and student empowerment to quality of student–departmental relationships.

Explorando los Determinantes de relación calidad entre los estudiantes y sus Departamento Académico: Percibido Relación de Inversiones, Estudiante de Empoderamiento y Student-Facultad de Interacción
Moonhee Cho y Giselle A. Auger
Abstract Traducción español
Dada la creciente necesidad de la retención de estudiantes satisfechos y exitosos, el propósito de este estudio fue explorar los factores que influyen en la percepción de calidad de las relaciones que se forman entre los estudiantes y sus departamentos académicos. Sobre la base de la amplia revisión de la literatura interdisciplinaria, el estudio propone tres factores-la interacción estudiante-profesor, percibida relación de inversión (PRI), y el empoderamiento de los estudiantes. Los resultados del estudio ponen de manifiesto la importancia de las asociaciones entre la interacción estudiante-profesor, PRI, y fortalecimiento de los estudiantes con la calidad de las relaciones entre los estudiantes del departamento.

Ethnic/Racial Minorities’ Participation in AEJMC: How Much and What Type of Progress?
Mia Moody, Federico Subervi, and Hayg Oshagan
Abstract
This paper provides an assessment of the diversity of the leadership positions of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (AEJMC) from 2007 to 2011. While numerous studies have analyzed AEJMC’s membership demographics, gender, and scholarship production, there have been few investigations regarding people of color in leadership positions. Findings indicate little progress for people of color has been made in the past five years. Ideally, the educational institutions and academic organizations most responsible for preparing the next generation of media scholars as well as the professionals who produce the content and manage the media catering to the changing population patterns would be at the forefront of diversity in their own leadership. This is especially so for academic organizations, which through journal publications, conference presentations, and various awards, can often have a direct influence on the research emphases and curricular direction of programs nationally.

Participación racial/étnica de las minorías en AEJMC: ¿Cuánto y qué tipo de progreso?
Mia Moody, Federico Subervi, and Hayg Oshagan
Abstract Traducción español
Este documento proporciona una evaluación de la diversidad de las posiciones de liderazgo de la Asociación para la Educación en Periodismo y Comunicación de Masas ( AEJMC ) de 2007 a 2011. Si bien numerosos estudios han analizado la demografía de AEJMC de membresía , el género, y la producción de becas , ha habido pocas investigaciones sobre la gente de color en posiciones de liderazgo . Los hallazgos indican se ha avanzado muy poco para la gente de color en los últimos cinco años. Lo ideal sería que las instituciones educativas y las organizaciones académicas más responsables de la preparación de la próxima generación de estudiosos de los medios , así como los profesionales que producen el contenido y gestionar el catering de medios a los patrones cambiantes de la población estarían en la vanguardia de la diversidad en su propio liderazgo . Esto es especialmente cierto para las organizaciones académicas, que a través de publicaciones en revistas , presentaciones en congresos y diversos premios , a menudo pueden tener una influencia directa en los énfasis de investigación y dirección curricular de los programas a nivel nacional.

Essay
Ensayo

A Modest Proposal: One Way to Save Journalism and Journalism Education
Jeffrey Alan John
Abstract
This essay suggests that because anyone and everyone can now be a “journalist,” the standards of the field of journalism have been greatly diminished. To regain respect for the profession and retain stature in the academy, journalism education should offer an assurance of the legitimacy of journalism program graduates by recognizing only programs with appropriate personnel, infrastructure, and the financial means to assure the quality of their graduates, and then award an official appellation such as “certified” or “credentialed.” Academia and the profession must join together to agree on the appropriate requirements.

Una modesta proposición: Una forma de ahorrar Periodismo y Periodismo Educación
Jeffrey Alan John
Abstract Traducción español
Este ensayo sugiere que debido a que todos y cada uno puede ahora ser un “periodista”, las normas del campo del periodismo se han disminuido en gran medida. Para recuperar el respeto por la profesión y retener estatura en la academia, la enseñanza del periodismo debe ofrecer una garantía de la legitimidad de los graduados del programa de periodismo reconociendo sólo programas con personal adecuado, la infraestructura y los medios financieros para asegurar la calidad de sus egresados​​, y luego premio una denominación oficial, como “certificados” o “acreditados”. Academia y de la profesión deben unirse para acordar los requisitos correspondientes.

<<Journal Abstracts in Spanish

Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly/Spanish

Volumen 90 Número 4 Invierno 2013 (Volume 90 Number 4 Winter 2013)

(English Version & Spanish Translation)

Publics, Policies, and Social Control
Publics, Políticas y Control Social

Drug Abuse Violations in Communities: Community Newspapers as a Macro-level Source of Social Control
Masahiro Yamamoto and Weina Ran
Abstract
This study conceptualizes community newspapers as a unique community-level resource that promotes community social control. Specifically, community newspapers were hypothesized to have negative effects on drug abuse violations, both directly and indirectly, as mediated by civic engagement. Results indicate that a macro-level measure of community newspapers had an indirect negative effect on drug abuse violations through its positive effect on civic engagement. Implications are discussed for the role of community newspapers in building a healthy community.

Violaciónes Abuso de drogas en las comunidades: Periódicos comunitarios como a nivel macro Fuente de Control Social
Masahiro Yamamoto y Weina Ran
Abstract Traducción español
En este estudio se conceptualiza periódicos de la comunidad como un recurso único a nivel comunitario que promueve el control social de la comunidad. En concreto, los periódicos de la comunidad fueron la hipótesis de tener efectos negativos sobre violaciónes de abuso de drogas, tanto directa como indirectamente, como mediado por el compromiso cívico. Los resultados indican que una medida a nivel macro de los periódicos de la comunidad tuvo un efecto negativo indirecto sobre violaciónes de abuso de drogas a través de su efecto positivo en la participación cívica. Implicaciones se discuten para el papel de periódicos de la comunidad en la construcción de una comunidad saludable.

Exploring the Role of Agenda-Building Efforts in Media Coverage and Policymaking Activity of Healthcare Reform
Spiro Kiousis, Jung Min Park, Ji Young Kim, and Eun Go
Abstract
This investigation explores the relationships among information subsidies, news media coverage, and policymaking activities regarding healthcare reform during the first year of the Obama presidential administration. Specifically, a comparison of information subsidies (from the president, federal government offices, Congress, and healthcare-related stakeholder groups), news media content, and policymaking activity was completed from March 2009 to December 2009. Significant correlations were found for the salience of issues and stakeholder groups among information subsidies, news media coverage, and policymaking activity. Robust linkages were also found concerning issue attribute salience.

Analizar el papel de los Esfuerzos Programa de Fomento de la cobertura mediática y la formulación de políticas Actividad de la Reforma de Salud
Spiro Kiousis, Jung Min Park, Ji Young Kim y Eun Go
Abstract Traducción español
Esta investigación explora la relación entre los subsidios de la información, la cobertura de los medios de comunicación y las actividades de formulación de políticas con respecto a la reforma de salud durante el primer año de la administración presidencial de Obama. En concreto, una comparación de los subsidios de la información (por parte del presidente, las oficinas del gobierno federal, el Congreso y los grupos de interés relacionados con la asistencia sanitaria), el contenido de los medios de comunicación, y la actividad de la formulación de políticas se completó entre marzo de 2009 diciembre de 2009. No se encontraron correlaciones significativas para la relevancia de las cuestiones y los grupos de interés, entre los subsidios de la información, la cobertura de los medios de comunicación, y la actividad de la formulación de políticas. También se encontraron vínculos robustos en relación con tema atribuyen relevancia.

Audience Response to Brand Journalism: The Effect of Frame, Source, and Involvement
James T. Cole II and Jennifer D. Greer
Abstract
This study examined reactions to brand journalism in light of frame, source, and product involvement. Participants in an experimental study viewed a custom magazine with either a commercial (branded) or editorial (nonbranded) frame and read a story quoting either a peer or a corporate source. Readers rated the nonbranded magazine higher in credibility, but source cues had no direct effects on credibility ratings. Source did matter when combined with consumer product involvement. Highly involved consumers had stronger brand attitudes and purchase intent after reading advice from a peer source; low-involved consumers responded more favorably to a corporate source.

Audiencia Respuesta a Marca Periodismo: El efecto de marco, fuente y Participación
James T. Cole II y Jennifer D. Greer
Abstract Traducción español
Este estudio examinó las reacciones al periodismo de marca a la luz del marco, fuente, y la participación del producto. Los participantes en un estudio experimental vieron una revista personalizada, ya sea con un comercial (marca) o editorial (sin marca) marco y leer una historia citando sea un compañero o una fuente de la empresa. Los lectores calificaron la revista sin marca más alta en la credibilidad, pero las señales de origen no tuvo efectos directos sobre las calificaciones de credibilidad. Fuente importaba cuando se combina con la participación de los productos de consumo. Consumidores altamente implicados tenían actitudes más fuertes de la marca e intención de compra después de leer asesoramiento de una fuente de pares, los consumidores de baja involucrados respondieron más favorablemente a una fuente de la empresa.

Exploring Negative Dimensions of Organization-Public Relationships (NOPR) in Public Relations
Bitt Beach Moon and Yunna Rhee
Abstract
Although much research on organization–public relationship (OPR) has been conducted in public relations, negative relational features have been researched less extensively. It is imperative to identify negative relational components for restoring the damaged relationships between organization and publics and to understand how negative OPR (NOPR) can hamper public relations efforts. This study focused on exploring dimensions of NOPR through a systematic scale development process. In this study, four dimensions of NOPR—dissatisfaction, distrust, control dominance, and dissolution—were identified and the twenty-two-item scale was statistically reliable and valid. It was also shown that NOPR influenced Public’s Communication Behavior (PCB).

Explorando Negativo Dimensiones de Relaciones Públicas (Organización NOPR) en Relaciones Públicas
Bitt Playa Luna y Yunna Rhee
Abstract Traducción español
Aunque muchas investigaciones sobre la organización pública relación (OPR) se ha realizado en las relaciones públicas, las características relacionales negativas han sido investigados con menos intensidad. Es imperativo identificar componentes relacionales negativas para restaurar las relaciones dañadas entre organización y públicos y para entender como negativo OPR (NOPR) puede obstaculizar los esfuerzos de relaciones públicas. Este estudio se centró en la exploración de las dimensiones de NOPR a través de un proceso de desarrollo a escala sistemática. En este estudio, cuatro dimensiones de NOPR-insatisfacción, la desconfianza, el dominio de control, y la disolución-fueron identificados y la escala de veintidós artículo fue estadísticamente fiables y válidos. También se demostró que NOPR influenciada Comunicación Comportamiento de Pública (PCB).

Theorizing Technology Use: From Access to Utilization: Factors Affecting Smartphone Application Use and Its Impacts on Social and Human Capital Acquisition in South Korea
Jaemin Jung, Sylvia Chan-Olmsted, and Youngju Kim
Abstract
This study examines the mobile divide from the perspective of perception of information and knowledge inequity due to smartphone usage, exploring factors that may influence the use of smartphone applications and assessing discrepancies in social and human capital due to usage differences. A survey of smartphone users revealed that gender, age, personal innovativeness, and consumption skills were significant predictors of the frequent use for applications. Simply having more smartphone applications does not contribute to increases social or human capital; it is usage of these apps that makes a difference.

La teorización Tecnología Uso: Del acceso al Aprovechamiento: Factores que afectan Smartphone Aplicación Uso y su impacto en capital social y humano de adquisición en Corea del Sur
Jaemin Jung, Sylvia Chan-Olmsted, y Youngju Kim
Abstract Traducción español
Este estudio examina la división móvil de la perspectiva de la percepción de la información y la inequidad conocimiento debido al uso de teléfonos inteligentes, los factores que pueden influir en el uso de aplicaciones para teléfonos inteligentes y las discrepancias que evalúan en el capital social y humano, debido a las diferencias de uso de la exploración. Una encuesta de los usuarios de teléfonos inteligentes, reveló que el género, la edad, la capacidad de innovación personal, habilidades y consumo fueron predictores significativos del uso frecuente para las aplicaciones. Basta con tener más aplicaciones de teléfonos inteligentes no contribuye al aumento de el capital social o humano, sino que es el uso de estas aplicaciones que hacen la diferencia.

Multiple Opinion Climates in Online Forums: Role of Website Source Reference and Within-Forum Opinion Congruency
Elmie Nekmat and William J. Gonzenbach
Abstract
Through the Spiral of Silence framework, this study examines the online opinion climate effect on individual willingness to post messages in forums, using a 2 × 2 experiment manipulating website source (mainstream news/ideologically homogeneous activist group) and opinion congruency (minority/majority opinion). Individuals’ willingness to post was affected only by their opinion congruency with those expressed in forums. Analysis revealed instances of individuals “speaking up” as compared to “speaking out.” Other deterrents to willingness to post were also uncovered.

Múltiples climas de opinión en foros en línea: Papel de la Website Fuente de referencia y dentro de-Forum Opinión Congruencia
Elmie Nekmat y William J. Gonzenbach
Abstract Traducción español
A través de la Espiral del Silencio marco, este estudio examina el efecto del clima de opinión en línea de la voluntad individual a publicar mensajes en los foros, con una × 2 experimento manipulando fuente sitio web (corriente principal de noticias / grupo activista ideológicamente homogéneo) y la opinión de congruencia (dictamen 2 minoría / mayoría ). Disposición de las personas a cargo fue afectada sólo por su congruencia opinión con las expresadas en los foros. El análisis reveló casos de individuos “que habla up” en comparación con “hablar”. Otros factores de disuasión a disposición a publicar también fueron descubiertos.

Social Recommendation, Source Credibility, and Recency: Effects of News Cues in a Social Bookmarking Website
Qian Xu
Abstract
A 2 (number of diggs: a few, many) × 2 (source credibility: low, high) × 2 (recency: more recent, less recent) between-subjects experiment was conducted to explore how three news cues individually and interactively affected perception of credibility, newsworthiness, click likelihood, and sharing behavioral intentions toward the news feed on a social bookmarking website. The findings indicated that social recommendation in the form of number of diggs was the primary factor to influence perceived news credibility and click likelihood. The influence of source credibility was dependent upon the effect of other cues. There was also a cue-cumulation effect of source credibility and recency on perceived newsworthiness.

Recomendación Social, credibilidad de la fuente, y experiencia reciente: Efectos de Noticias Cues en un sitio web de marcadores sociales
Qian Xu
Abstract Traducción español
A 2 (número de diggs: unos pocos, muchos) × 2 (fuente de credibilidad: bajo, alto) × 2 (actualidad: más reciente y menos reciente) entre sujetos experimento se realizó para explorar cómo tres señales de noticias afectados de forma individual e interactivamente percepción de la credibilidad, la noticiabilidad, haga clic en la probabilidad, y el intercambio de las intenciones de comportamiento hacia la fuente de noticias en un sitio web de marcadores sociales. Los resultados indicaron que la recomendación social en forma de número de diggs fue el factor principal para influir en la percepción de credibilidad de noticias y haga clic en la probabilidad. La influencia de la credibilidad de la fuente era dependiente de el efecto de otras señales. También hubo un efecto-cue acumulación de credibilidad de la fuente y lo reciente de noticiabilidad percibido.

History
Historia

Participatory Innovation: The Culture of Contests in Popular Science Monthly, 1918-1938
Ioana Literat
Abstract
By analyzing the contests that appeared in Popular Science Monthly from 1918 to 1938, this article discusses the rhetoric of public engagement with technological innovation, and the magazine’s construction of a readership community. A close analysis of these contests reveals a burgeoning participatory culture within the context of the popularization of science and technology in the mass-circulation press of early twentieth-century America. Significantly, the contests frame their public as an active participant in the development of science and technology, in sharp contrast to the passive, diffusionist model of science popularization that dominated the interwar period in the United States.

Innovación Participativa: La Cultura de Concursos en Popular Science Monthly, 1918-1938
Ioana Literat
Abstract Traducción español
Mediante el análisis de las competencias que aparecieron en Popular Science Monthly 1918-1938, este artículo describe la retórica del compromiso público con la innovación tecnológica, y la construcción de la revista de una comunidad de lectores. Un análisis detallado de estos concursos revela una cultura de la participación creciente en el contexto de la divulgación de la ciencia y la tecnología en los medios de difusión de prensa de América de principios del siglo XX. De manera significativa, los concursos enmarcan su público como un participante activo en el desarrollo de la ciencia y la tecnología, en agudo contraste con el modelo pasivo, difusionista de popularización de la ciencia, que dominó el periodo de entreguerras, en los Estados Unidos.