AEJMC Interest Group Responsibilities

AEJMC interest groups are approved by the AEJMC Board of Directors for one-year, two-year or three-year terms. These terms are renewable by the Board of Directors Petitions for renewal must be filed in a timely manner.

Interest groups are allowed programming rights during the AEJMC Conference but the number of “chips” allowed is smaller than for a division. Normally interest groups have half as many “chips” as a division. The number allowed is set by the Council of Divisions’ chair. The number for 2015-16 is 3 chips. A chip roughly equates to one conference time slot. However, co-sponsored sessions count only a half chip to each sponsoring group.

All interest group programming is done through the annual Council of Divisions Conference Planning Process. Interest groups may sponsor their own sessions and co-sponsor sessions with other interest groups or divisions. The interest groups follow the Council of Divisions Policies and Procedures, and the Policies for Reimbursement.

Interest groups must be represented at the two Council of Divisions meetings during the annual conference. Interest groups are also required to file an annual report each year and will go through the five-year assessment process. The format for the report will be provided by the AEJMC Central Office.

Current Interest Groups, 2015-2015

Participatory Journalism (2017) — established in 1994
Community Journalism (2016) — established in 2004
Entertainment Studies (2016) — established in 2000
Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender (2016) — established in 2003
Graduate Education (2016) — established in 1993
Internships and Careers (2016) — established in 1994
Political Communication (2016)  — established in 2010
Religion and Media (2017) — established in 1996
Small Programs (2017) — established in 1994
Sports Communication (2016)  — established in 2010

UPDATE: 7/15

AEJMC Interest Group Guidelines

1. Each interest group must plan its conference sessions using the Council of Divisions Conference Programming Process. All convention programming is done through this process. Your group must be represented at both of the Council of Divisions’ meetings at the convention.

2. Meet all deadlines for filing information for conference programming, sessions and workshops.

3. Meet all deadlines for filing official interest group reports with the AEJMC Central Office. Formats for these reports will be mailed to you by the Central Office.

4. Mail some type of newsletter to your members at least twice each year.

5. Interest groups are granted AEJMC status for a finite period of time, from one to three years. Groups seeking a renewal of interest group status must formally petition the AEJMC Board of Directors for renewal. These renewals must include the following:
• A formal statement of the mission and goals of the group;
• A list of current and incoming officers;
• What this group has accomplished thus far (include specifics);
• Why this group fills a unique niche within AEJMC; and
• Copies of the annual reports for the past two years.

6. Interest group renewal petitions will be considered at the first or second AEJMC Board of Directors meeting during the conference, depending on when the petition is filed. Ideally, the petition is filed with the Executive Director before the conference via email in early July. If not filed by early July, then one set of all the paperwork for the renewal must be filed with the Executive Director (or left at the AEJMC registration desk) by the end of the AEJMC plenary session, which occurs on the second morning of the AEJMC Conference.

If a renewal petition is filed late, it will not be considered by the Board of Directors at its second meeting, and might result in a loss of interest group status. Failure to file a renewal petition at all will result in loss of interest group status.

Current Interest Groups, 2017-2018

Participatory Journalism (2020) — established in 1994
Community Journalism (2019) — established in 2004
Entertainment Studies (2019) — established in 2000
Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender (2019) — established in 2003
Graduate Education (2019) — established in 1993
Internships and Careers (2019) — established in 1994
Political Communication (2019)  — established in 2010
Religion and Media (2020) — established in 1996
Small Programs (2020) — established in 1994
Sports Communication (2019)  — established in 2010

Creation of New Interest Groups

All requests for new interest groups must petition with a formal statement of the mission and goals of the group as it fits within AEJMC’s three core areas: teaching, research and public service. You also need to explain how this group would fill a unique niche within AEJMC. New interest group requests may be filed with the Executive Director as in number 6 above or by November 1 each year. Petitioners must also submit signatures (email signatures will be accepted) from at least 100 voting AEJMC members who support creation of the new group.  Since AEJMC graduate students are not voting members, their signatures do not count toward the 100 needed signatures.

New petitions will only be voted on during the Board of Directors’ Winter meeting. If approval is granted at the Winter Meeting, the organizers must get at least 75 voting AEJMC members to pay dues to the new group by the end of the next conference, in order for it to be formally created on the following October 1st. At the conference after approval the new group will be allowed to conduct a business meeting in order to establish itself and elect officers.  If there are timeslots remaining after all other groups have programmed, then the Council of Divisions’ chair may grant the incoming interest group an available timeslot for a program.

For example, if a new group petitions for interest group status by November 1, 2016, then the Board of Directors will consider the petition at its 2016 Winter meeting. If approved, the new group will have a business meeting at the August 2017 Convention, after which they must have gathered at least 75 dues-paying voting AEJMC members to join the group in order to formally become an interest group on October 1, 2017. The group would have full interest group programming rights for the 2018 Conference. Since graduate students are not voting members, their dues do not count toward the 75 dues-paying members.

UPDATE: 8/16

AEJMC Strategic Plan Progress Report

August 2008 to August 2013

The AEJMC membership approved the association’s first strategic plan in August 2008. During the next four years a Strategic Plan Implementation Committee, in conjunction with the AEJMC president and Board of Directors, have developed new processes and programs based on our 5 strategic directions.

The following actions and programs have resulted: [strategic direction of activity in brackets]

  1. AEJMC Presidential statements — a new process empowers the president to comment on relevant public/industry issues on behalf of the association. Began in October 2009. [2,3]
  2. AEJMC Emerging Scholars Program — offered competitively selected grants to junior faculty for research and teaching projects; first research grants awarded in January 2010. [1, 2, 5]
  3. Membership survey on Name Change — membership overwhelmingly wanted to retain the current name, saying it still reflects who we are and what we do. [2, 5]
  4. New AEJMC logo created — after an open competition for a logo failed to result in a suitable logo, AEJMC commissioned a designer to create a new logo. The new logo was approved in spring 2011, and put into use in October 2011. [2]
  5. Created the AEJMC Equity & Diversity Award to recognize schools that are doing outstanding work in building diversity within their units in a variety of ways. First award presented in August 2009. [1, 2, 3, 5]
  6. Re-design of AEJMC website — in 2010. [2, 5]
  7. Re-design of website allowed for new tools in the AEJMC Online Ads section, resulting in more user-friendly searches. The end result has been more traffic and additional revenue. It is now the #1 entry point into the main AEJMC site, and resulted in $60,000 in revenue in FY 2010-11. [2, 3, 4, 5]
  8. Development of new social media tools, including a Twitter feed (in Winter 2010) and conference mobile app (in July 2011). In 2013 Twitter feed goes to 5,700 followers. [2, 3, 5]
  9. Creation of new websites — first conference micro-site for the Denver conference (in January 2010), conference site for each year since, and a separate centennial celebration website (opened in March 2012). [2, 5]
  10. Created a new program for faculty to see industry changes first-hand. These summer “externships” fund a 2-week visit with various media outlets; in partnership with the Scripps Howard Foundation. Began in 2011. [1, 2, 5]
  11. Created conference travel grants for graduate students. Began in 2011. [1, 2, 5]
  12. Developed a new program that provides funds for faculty to develop new social media platforms and software for classroom use. These Bridge Grants provide up to $8,000 for faculty to adapt open source applications from the Knight News Challenge; program in partnership with the Knight Foundation. Grants issued in Fall 2011 and Fall 2012. [1, 2, 5]
  13. Completed a Centennial Fundraising Campaign to raise money for new initiatives and current endowed accounts. Raised $301,407 by July 30, 2013 (which exceeded the goal of $300,000) — began in August 2011 to run through August 2013. About 2/3rds of the funds were targeted contributions. [4]
  14. Encouraged our international outreach by continuing to support the World Journalism Education Congress initiative by hosting a planning meeting at 2012 conference for the 2013 congress. [2, 3, 5]
  15. Developed a Task Force on Latino and Latin America to expand our presence and services to Latin America — began in August 2011. [2, 3, 5]
  16. Developed a Task Force on Recruiting for Academic Diversity to encourage professionals of color to consider teaching — began in August 2011. The group’s first training workshop will take place in August 2012. {2,3]
  17. AEJMC Online Display Ads — first display ad posted May 2012, two more ads planned for summer 2012. [4]
  18. Encouraged our international outreach by supporting the International Congress on Studies of Journalism in Chile in June 2012. We also sent a delegate and membership materials to the meeting to make connections with Latin American scholars/teachers. [2, 3, 5]
  19. Encouraged our international outreach by inviting (and providing comp registration) to a delegation of Brazilian communication scholars to attend the Chicago Conference. Seven scholars attended. [2, 3, 5]
  20. AEJMC Senior Scholars Program — offers competitively selected grants to senior faculty for research projects; 15 senior scholars applied in fall 2012 and two grants were awarded in January 2013. [1, 2, 5]
  21. AEJMC Graduate Student Information Expo — pilot program during 2013 DC conference. Provides place where potential grad students can talk with schools that offer master’s and doctorates. 22 schools will be present for the session. [2, 5]
  22. AEJMC WJEC3 presence — AEJMC sent the top 3 officers and one journal editor to the Belgium meeting, & provided prize money to the top 3 research papers. [1, 2, 3]
  23. AEJMC 2015 International Regional Meeting — an international regional meeting was approved in June 2013 by the AEJMC Board to take place in October 2015 in Chile. [1, 2, 3]
  24. Journal abstracts in Spanish on AEJMC website — The article abstracts from the 2013 issues of J&MC Quarterly, J&C Monographs and J&MC Educator have been translated into Spanish and are posted on the website. Future issues will also be added to the site. [1, 2, 3]

<<Strategic Plan

 

 

Tips from the AEJMC Teaching Committee

Transformation Involves Collaboration

Charles DavisBy Charles Davis
Standing Committee on Teaching
Dean, Henry W. Grady College of Journalism and Mass Communication
University of Georgia
cndavis@uga.edu

 

(Article courtesy of AEJMC News, September 2013 issue)

As a newly minted dean, I’ve been on a steep learning curve, one that has me energized and excited as never before. I’m spending a ton of time listening to faculty, students, staff and alums of the Henry W. Grady College of Journalism and Mass Communication at the University of Georgia – and the process serves to remind me anew of how critical the teaching mission of our program remains and of the challenges and opportunities of journalism education in the digital era.

The transformation of our disciplines, fueled by the difficult economic environment and the changes roiling the industries we partner with, offer tremendous opportunities for positive change, but only if we all remain open to experimentation, collaboration and yes, the occasional spectacular failure. It’s awfully hard to embrace risk-taking in today’s mass media environment, but that’s what we must do to remain relevant and take a more central role in the reshaping of our disciplines.

For the past three years, I worked half time for the Provost of the University of Missouri in a unique interdisciplinary program, Mizzou Advantage. My job title was simple yet evocative: Facilitator. My charge was to explore opportunities to cross disciplines and find external partners for the university to work with. The job was enormously rewarding, and served to provide me with an eye-opening realization. The way forward for journalism education, at least in part, must involve interdisciplinary and external collaboration like never before.

The steps we took towards building an interdisciplinary culture started simply enough. We convened forums for anyone interested in digital media, mass communication, from technologists to empiricists. The turnout was heartening, the conversations stimulating, and from those early efforts, a call for interdisciplinary research proposals generated a number of multidisciplinary teams working on all sorts of fascinating topics, from digital archives to opportunistic discovery of information and communicating science.

Meanwhile, I fanned out across the state, the region and the nation, touring corporate headquarters and labs, attending workshops and seminars and spreading the word that Mizzou sought partnerships and collaborative projects. Bring us your research questions, I said, asking corporate and government leaders to think of things that keep them up at night.

We began seeing new teams of researchers emerge from such disparate disciplines as engineering, law, art, English, Life Sciences and many, many more. Once the culture began to   grow, it seemed like everyone had a research question to explore!

Interdisciplinary collaboration begins beyond the classroom,     but quickly begins to influence pedagogy in new and exciting ways. At one of our social gatherings to encourage interdisciplinary networking, a young orthopedic surgeon approached me with an idea to head off ACL injuries in young girls. His grasp of the literature was encyclopedic, and he knew what he wanted to do, but he needed the help of an engineer and some digital journalists to explore it further. I pulled together a team, and now a class is working on designing an interactive video game platform to retrain female athletes in proper jumping kinesiology. This is interdisciplinary research and teaching at its best, presenting students with real-world problems in need of solutions.

It’s happening at Grady College as well. Just last week I sat at Turner Entertainment Networks, watching some amazing student presentations from our Advertising and Public Relations students who had been tasked with creating a promotional campaign for a new TBS show set to launch in the fall. I watched, delighted, as Turner execs took furious notes as the students outlined their innovative social media campaign ideas.

For the last two weeks, Grady health and medical journalism   students have been featured in the Athens Banner-Herald. A team of journalists went to Reno, Nevada, to report on a unique health insurance cooperative being replicated in Athens. The coverage, nuanced and rich with personal detail, brought the subject to life.

Students presented with professional opportunities like these are changed forever. They excel, and by doing so, they work collaboratively with professionals. I’m confident that we’ll seek even deeper and more profound collaborations, inside and outside of our walls, because the energy of these projects is contagious.

Take the first steps towards becoming an interdisciplinary teacher. They can be small steps, but each is important and each leads to another. Perhaps you start by seeking a collaborative project with another department on campus. Or it could be something as small as lining up guest speakers from other parts of campus who can lend a fresh perspective. Warning: once you start, it will be hard to stop!

<<Teaching Corner

Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly/Spanish

Volumen 90 Número 2 Verano 2013 (Volume 90 Number 2 Summer 2013)

(English Version & Spanish Translation)

Theory, Law, and Social Media
Teoría, Derecho y Social Media

Predicting Dissemination of News Content in Social Media: A Focus on Reception, Friending, and Partisanship
Brian E. Weeks and R. Lance Holbert
Abstract
Social media are an emerging news source, but questions remain regarding how citizens engage news content in this environment. This study focuses on social media news reception and friending a journalist/news organization as predictors of social media news dissemination. Secondary analysis of 2010 Pew data (N = 1,264) reveals reception and friending to be positive predictors of dissemination, and a reception-by-friending interaction is also evident. Partisanship moderates these relationships such that reception is a stronger predictor of dissemination among partisans, while the friending-dissemination link is evident for nonpartisans only. These results provide novel insights into citizens’ social media news experiences.

Predecir Difusión de noticias contenido en Social Media: Un enfoque en Recepción, Friending y partidismo
Brian E. Weeks and R. Lance Holbert
Abstract Traducción español
Los medios sociales son una fuente de noticias que salen, pero quedan preguntas sobre cómo los ciudadanos participan contenido de las noticias en este entorno. Este estudio se centra en la recepción de los medios de comunicación social y friending una organización periodista / noticia como predictores de los medios de comunicación la difusión de noticias sociales. El análisis secundario de los datos de 2010 de Pew (N = 1264) revela recepción y friending ser predictores positivos de la difusión y la interacción recepción por friending es también evidente. Moderados Partidismo estas relaciones tales que la recepción es un predictor más fuerte de difusión entre los partidarios, mientras que el enlace friending-difusión es evidente sólo nonpartisans. Estos resultados proporcionan nuevos conocimientos sobre experiencias de comunicación de redes sociales de los ciudadanos.

When Retweets Attack: Are Twitter Users Liable for Republishing the Defamatory Tweets of Others?
Daxton R. “Chip” Stewart
Abstract
Under the republication doctrine, repeating false and defamatory statements has traditionally triggered liability for the repeater. However, some confusion has emerged regarding retweeting posts of others on Twitter, the popular microblog site. Does retweeting the defamatory statement of another open the retweeter to liability? This article examines exceptions to the republication doctrine, such as the single publication rule, the wire service defense, and the Communications Decency Act (CDA) to answer this question. A review of court opinions leads to the conclusion that Section 230 of the CDA provides a powerful shield for users of interactive computer services such as Twitter.

Cuando atacan Retweets: Son responsables de los usuarios de Twitter a publicar los Tweets difamatorias de los otros?
Daxton R. “Chip” Stewart
Abstract Traducción español
Bajo la doctrina republicación, repitiendo declaraciones falsas y difamatorias ha provocado tradicionalmente responsabilidad por el repetidor. Sin embargo, ha surgido cierta confusión respecto Retweeting mensajes de otras personas en Twitter, el popular sitio de microblog. ¿Tiene retweeting la declaración difamatoria de otro abierto el retweet a la responsabilidad? Este artículo examina las excepciones a la doctrina republicación, tales como la regla de publicación única, el defensa servicio de cable, y la Ley de Decencia en las Comunicaciones (CDA) para responder a esta pregunta. Una revisión de los dictámenes judiciales lleva a la conclusión de que el artículo 230 de la CDA ofrece un poderoso escudo para los usuarios de servicios informáticos interactivos tales como Twitter.

Journalism: Professional and Legal Questions
Periodismo: Preguntas Profesionales y Legal

What Does It Take for Women Journalists to Gain Professional Recognition?: Gender Disparities among Pulitzer Prize Winners, 1917-2010
Yong Z. Volz and Francis L. F. Lee
Abstract
This article compares the characteristics of 814 female and male Pulitzer Prize winners from 1917 to 2010. Borrowing the “compensation model” from political science, this study shows that female winners were more likely to have a metropolitan upbringing, a journalism major, and a graduate degree. These differences manifest the logic of compensation: some forms of social capital can be important for female journalists to overcome gender disadvantage in competing for recognition. The compensational model, however, is historically contingent. In more recent years, women journalists no longer needed the compensational capital to boost their chances.

¿Qué se necesita para las Mujeres Periodistas de obtener el reconocimiento profesional?: Las disparidades de género entre los ganadores del Premio Pulitzer, 1917-2010
Yong Z. Volz and Francis L. F. Lee
Abstract Traducción español
Este artículo compara las características de los 814 ganadores del Premio Pulitzer mujeres y hombres 1917-2010. Tomando prestado el “modelo de compensación” de la ciencia política, este estudio muestra que las mujeres ganadoras fueron más propensos a tener una educación metropolitana, en periodismo, y un título de posgrado. Estas diferencias ponen de manifiesto la lógica de la compensación: algunas formas de capital social puede ser importante para las mujeres periodistas para superar las desventajas de género en la competencia por el reconocimiento. El modelo compensatoria, sin embargo, es históricamente contingente. En los últimos años, las mujeres periodistas ya no necesitan la capital compensatoria para aumentar sus posibilidades.

Journalism’s “Crazy Old Aunt”: Helen Thomas and Paradigm Repair
Elizabeth Blanks Hindman and Ryan J. Thomas
Abstract
Veteran White House correspondent Helen Thomas abruptly retired in summer 2010 after she gave unscripted remarks widely perceived to be anti-Semitic. This case study applies paradigm repair and attribution theories to explore how mainstream journalists repaired the damage to their profession’s reputation. It concludes that they (1) situated Thomas’s remark against a backdrop of journalistic excellence, subtly reinforcing the point that her career should now come to an end; (2) suggested Thomas’s remarks were caused by senility; (3) condemned her remarks as racist; and (4) raised the norm of objectivity.

“La tía vieja locade Periodismo: Helen Thomas y Paradigm Reparación
Elizabeth Blanks Hindman and Ryan J. Thomas
Abstract Traducción español
Veterano corresponsal de la Casa Blanca Helen Thomas se retiró abruptamente en el verano de 2010 después de dar declaraciones improvisadas ampliamente percibidos como antisemita. Este estudio de caso se aplica la reparación y la atribución teorías paradigma para explorar cómo los periodistas tradicionales reparar el daño a la reputación de su profesión. Llega a la conclusión de que (1) situados comentario de Thomas en un marco de excelencia periodística, sutilmente refuerza el punto de que su carrera ahora debe llegar a su fin, (2) Observaciones sugerido por Thomas fueron causadas por la senilidad, (3) condenó sus comentarios como racistas y (4) planteó la norma de objetividad.

Come One, Come All into the Newsroom? Student Publications after Christian Legal Society v. Martinez
Andrew D. Pritchard
Abstract
The Supreme Court’s ruling in Christian Legal Society v. Martinez allows a public university to institute a “take-all-comers” nondiscrimination policy for student organizations. In doing do, the Court adds new perils and expands existing hazards for student publications. First, the Christian Legal Society majority overlooks the possibility that safeguards for the rights of student organizations generally may not adequately protect the unique interests of student publications. In addition, the ruling creates a misleading impression of the degree of deference courts owe the pedagogical judgments of public university administrators.

Venga uno, vengan todos en la sala de prensa? Publicaciones estudiantiles después de que Christian Legal Society v Martinez
Andrew D. Pritchard
Abstract Traducción español
El fallo de la Corte Suprema en el caso cristiano Legal Society v Martinez permite a una universidad pública de instituir un “take-all-llegados” política de no discriminación de las organizaciones estudiantiles. De este hacer, el Tribunal añade nuevos peligros y amplía los riesgos existentes para las publicaciones estudiantiles. En primer lugar, la mayoría de la Sociedad Legal Cristiana vistas a la posibilidad de que las salvaguardias para los derechos de las organizaciones de estudiantes por lo general no pueden proteger adecuadamente los intereses particulares de las publicaciones estudiantiles. Además, el fallo crea una falsa impresión sobre el grado de deferencia tribunales debemos los juicios pedagógicos de los administradores de las universidades públicas.

International and Intercultural Processes and Effects
Procesosy efectosInternacionales e Interculturales

Soap Operas as a Matchmaker: A Cultivation Analysis of the Effects of South Korean TV Dramas on Vietnamese Women’s Marital Intentions
Hong Tien Vu and Tien-Tsung Lee
Abstract
This cultivation study examined the effects of South Korean soap operas on Vietnamese female audiences. It also assessed cultivation effects in combination with the theory of reasoned action. Based on a survey of 439 female viewers, it explicated the link between South Korean soap opera consumption and the emergent phenomenon of transnational marriages involving Vietnamese women and South Korean men. Cultivation effects were confirmed in an international setting. Results also have important real-world implications.

Telenovelas como Matchmaker: Un análisis de cultivo de los efectos de la televisión de Corea del Sur Dramas de la Mujer vietnamita Intenciones civil
Hong Tien Vu and Tien-Tsung Lee
Abstract Traducción español
Este estudio examinó los efectos de cultivo de Corea del Sur, las telenovelas en las audiencias femeninas vietnamitas. También evaluó los efectos de cultivo en combinación con la teoría de la acción razonada. Basado en una encuesta de 439 espectadoras, es explicada la relación entre Corea del Sur, el consumo de jabón ópera y el fenómeno emergente de los matrimonios transnacionales que involucran a mujeres vietnamitas y los hombres de Corea del Sur. Efectos de cultivo fueron confirmados en un entorno internacional. Los resultados también tienen importantes implicaciones en el mundo real.

Challenges and Dangers of Reporting in a Tumultuous Border Region: How Journalists at the El Paso Times Deal with the Violence in Neighboring Ciudad Juarez
Cathleen Carter and Kris Kodrich
Abstract

Journalists at the El Paso Times routinely cover violence in neighboring Ciudad Juarez, where thousands of men, women, and children have been murdered in recent years. Utilizing border theory and research involving journalists and trauma, this qualitative newsroom study examines how journalists at the El Paso Times are dramatically affected by their daily exposure to the unrelenting violence in this border region. The study recommends that newsroom management provide journalists with the necessary resources and support that will help them cope.

Retos y peligros de informes en una región fronteriza Tumultuous: Cómo los periodistas del Times oferta El Paso con la violencia en la vecina Ciudad Juárez
Cathleen Carter and Kris Kodrich
Abstract Traducción español
Periodistas en El Paso Times cubren sistemáticamente actos de violencia en la vecina Ciudad Juárez, donde miles de hombres, mujeres y niños han sido asesinados en los últimos años. Utilizando la teoría de las fronteras y la investigación con periodistas y traumas, este estudio cualitativo redacción examina cómo los periodistas en El Paso Times están dramáticamente afectados por su exposición diaria a la violencia incesante en esta región fronteriza. El estudio recomienda que la gestión redacción proporcionar a los periodistas con los recursos y el apoyo que les ayude a hacer frente necesarias.

News Stereotypes, Time, and Fading Priming Effects
Florian Arendt
Abstract
Although there is evidence that the media priming effect fades with time, we lack empirical evidence from experimental designs. We investigated the media priming effect of reading crime tabloid articles that overrepresented foreigners as criminals on a subsequent real-world reality judgment (i.e., estimated frequency of criminal foreigners). We utilized a factorial experimental design (N = 465) with the between-subjects factors treatment and temporal delay of the postmeasurement. We found that the media priming effect followed an exponential decay function and that vigilance (i.e., the tendency to intensify the intake and processing of threat-relevant information) moderated the decay.

Noticias estereotipos, Tiempo, y efectos de priming Fading
Florian Arendt
Abstract Traducción español
Aunque no existe evidencia de que los medios de cebado efecto se desvanece con el tiempo, carecen de la evidencia empírica de los diseños experimentales. Se investigó el efecto priming medios de lectura de artículos sensacionalistas crimen que sobrerrepresentados extranjeros como delincuentes en una sentencia posterior de la realidad del mundo real (es decir, la frecuencia estimada de los extranjeros criminales). Hemos utilizado un diseño experimental factorial (N = 465), con la inter-sujetos factores de tratamiento y retraso temporal de la postmeasurement. Se encontró que el efecto de preparación de medios siguió una función de decaimiento exponencial y que la vigilancia (es decir, la tendencia a intensificar la toma y procesamiento de información de amenazas relevantes) moderó el deterioro.

Public Relations
relaciones públicas

Developing a Valid and Reliable Measure of Organizational Crisis Responsibility
Kenon A. Brown and Eyun-Jung Ki
Abstract
This study intended to develop a reliable and valid measure of organizational crisis responsibility that could be uniquely applied to public relations research. The three-dimensional measure was constructed using rigorous two-step pilot tests and a nationwide panel full administration survey. The constructed measures were further refined using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, and resulted in a twelve-item scale, consisting of three items for intentionality, three items for locality, and six items for accountability. The confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the hypothesized factor structure and confirmed that the dimensions of the scale had reliable and valid factor structure.

El desarrollo de una medida válida y fiable de Responsabilidad Crisis Organizacional
Kenon A. Brown and Eyun-Jung Ki
Abstract Traducción español
Este estudio pretende desarrollar una medida fiable y válida de la responsabilidad crisis organizativa que se podría aplicar únicamente a la investigación de relaciones públicas. La medida en tres dimensiones fue construido usando pruebas piloto de dos pasos rigurosos y un estudio completo panel de administración en todo el país. Las medidas construidos se perfeccionaron aún más mediante el análisis factorial exploratorio y confirmatorio, y dio lugar a una escala de doce ítems, que consta de tres elementos de intencionalidad, tres artículos de la localidad, y seis artículos sobre la responsabilidad. El análisis factorial confirmatorio se utilizó para probar la hipótesis de la estructura factorial y confirmó que las dimensiones de la escala tenían estructura factorial fiable y válida.

<<Journal Abstracts in Spanish

Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly/Spanish

Volumen 90 Número 1 Primavera 2013 (Volume 90 Number 1 Spring 2013)

(English Version & Spanish Translation)

Politics and Partisan Media
Política y medios partidistas

Partisan Journalism and the Rise of the Republican Party in South Carolina, 1959–1962
Sid Bedingfield
Abstract
When political journalist William D. Workman, Jr., resigned from Charleston’s News and Courier and announced plans to run for the U.S. Senate in 1962, he said it would be “unethical” to combine “objective reporting with partisan politics.” Yet Workman’s personal papers reveal that, for three years, he and editor Thomas R. Waring, Jr., had been working with Republican leaders to build a conservative party to challenge Deep South Democrats. Workman’s story provides an example of how partisan activism survived in the twentieth-century American press, despite the rise of professional standards prohibiting political engagement.

Periodismo Partisan y el surgimiento del Partido Republicano en Carolina del Sur, 1959-1962
Sid Bedingfield
Abstract Traducción español
Cuando el periodista político William D. Workman, Jr., renunció a Noticias y Courier de Charleston y anunció sus planes de postularse para el Senado de EE.UU. en 1962, dijo que sería “poco ético” combinar “información objetiva con la política partidista.” Sin embargo, Workman de personal documentos revelan que, durante tres años, él y editor Thomas R. Waring, Jr., había estado trabajando con los líderes republicanos para construir un partido conservador para desafiar los demócratas del Sur Profundo. La historia de Workman es un ejemplo de cómo el activismo partidista sobrevivió en la prensa norteamericana del siglo XX, a pesar del aumento de los niveles profesionales que prohíben la participación política.

A Functional Analysis Comparison of Web-Only Advertisements and Traditional Television Advertisements from the 2004 and 2008 Presidential Campaigns
Chris Roberts
Abstract
This article uses the functional theory of campaign discourse to determine whether differences exist in the purpose and content of 75 web-only video ads and 742 television ads created by candidates and national parties during the 2004 and 2008 presidential campaigns. Web-only ads were more likely to include attack themes than TV ads, and TV ads were more likely to include acclaim themes than web-only ads. Ads differed little in their use of news-mediated evidence to bolster ad claims.

Una comparación Análisis funcional de la Web sólo y anuncios tradicionales de televisión anuncios de las campañas presidenciales de 2004 y 2008
Chris Roberts
Abstract Traducción español
Este artículo utiliza la teoría funcional del discurso campaña para determinar si existen diferencias en el propósito y el contenido de 75-sólo web anuncios de vídeo y 742 anuncios de televisión creados por los candidatos y los partidos nacionales en las campañas presidenciales de 2004 y 2008. De sólo Web anuncios eran más propensos a incluir los temas de ataque que los anuncios de televisión y anuncios de televisión eran más propensos a incluir temas aclamación que sólo por Internet anuncios. Anuncios difieren poco en su uso de la evidencia noticias mediada para reforzar las reivindicaciones ad.

Motivated Misperception? Party, Education, Partisan News, and Belief in “Death Panels”
Patrick C. Meirick
Abstract
This study drew on the literature in motivated reasoning and 2009 Pew survey data to examine the roles of partisanship, education, news exposure, and their interactions in the misperception that health care reform would create “death panels.” Radio news exposure encouraged the misperception only among Republicans, while newspaper exposure discouraged it, especially among non-Republicans. But rather than polarize perceptions along partisan lines as predicted, Fox News exposure contributed to misperception mainstreaming. Finally, this study identified a complex role for education in both inhibiting misperceptions (as a main effect) and promoting them (as an interaction with Fox News exposure).

Malentendido motivado? Partido, Educación, Noticias Partisan, y la creencia en “paneles de la muerte”
Patrick C. Meirick
Abstract Traducción español
Este estudio se basó en la literatura en el razonamiento motivado y 2009 datos de la encuesta Pew para examinar el papel de partidismo, la educación, la exposición a las noticias y sus interacciones en la percepción errónea de que la reforma de salud podría crear “paneles de la muerte.” Exposición de noticias Radio alentó a la percepción errónea sólo entre los republicanos, mientras que la exposición periódico desalentado, sobre todo entre los no republicanos. Pero en lugar de polarizar las percepciones a lo largo de líneas partidistas como se predijo, la exposición Fox News contribuyó a la incorporación percepción errónea. Por último, este estudio identificó un complejo papel de la educación en ambas percepciones erróneas inhibidoras (como efecto principal) y la promoción de las mismas (como una interacción con la exposición a Fox News).

He Wrote, She Wrote: Journalist Gender, Political Office, and Campaign News
Lindsey Meeks
Abstract
This study examines the intersection of journalist gender and campaign news coverage across legislative and executive political offices in a gender-prominent context: mixed-gender elections—those with at least one woman and one man. Based on a content analysis of U.S. newspaper coverage, this study focuses on “masculinized” and “feminized” political issues and character traits, and explicit references that highlight a candidate’s novelty. Results revealed no direct relationship between journalist gender and news coverage; however, when type of office was considered, there were significant shifts and differences in the focus of coverage by female and male journalists.

Él escribió, She Wrote: Periodista de Género, Oficina Política y Noticias Política
Lindsey Meeks
Abstract Traducción español
Este estudio examina la intersección del género periodista y cobertura de noticias de la campaña a través de las oficinas políticas legislativas y ejecutivas en un contexto importante de género: las elecciones-los mixtos con al menos una mujer y un hombre. En base a un análisis de contenido de la cobertura de prensa EE.UU., este estudio se centra en “masculinizado” y “feminizadas” cuestiones políticas y rasgos de carácter, y las referencias explícitas que destacar la novedad de un candidato. Los resultados revelaron una relación directa entre el género periodista y la cobertura de noticias, sin embargo, cuando el tipo de la oficina era considerado, hubo cambios y las diferencias en el enfoque de la cobertura de periodistas mujeres y hombres importantes.

Identifying Antecedents of the Strategic Game Frame: A Longitudinal Analysis
Daniela V. Dimitrova and Petia Kostadinova
Abstract
Although election news framing is a burgeoning area of research, empirical studies of what factors influence frame building remain rare, especially in non-Western countries. This study investigates the use of the strategic game frame and the relationship between that frame and system-level and organizational-level factors. The analysis focuses on the coverage of campaign news in six elite Bulgarian newspapers between 1990 and 2009. Results show that the type of electoral system, number of parties in government, and newspaper specialization are significant predictors of game frame use. The results are discussed in relation to framing research in Western Europe and the United States.

Identificar Antecedentes del Marco Estratégico del juego: Un análisis longitudinal
Daniela V. Dimitrova and Petia Kostadinova
Abstract Traducción español
Aunque las elecciones encuadre noticia es un área floreciente de la investigación, los estudios empíricos de los factores que influyen en edificio de madera siguen siendo poco frecuentes, especialmente en los países no occidentales. Este estudio investiga el uso de la trama del juego estratégico y la relación entre el marco y el sistema de niveles y factores a nivel organizacional. El análisis se centra en la cobertura de noticias sobre las elecciones en seis periódicos búlgaros élite entre 1990 y 2009. Los resultados muestran que el tipo de sistema electoral, el número de partidos en el gobierno, y la especialización periódico son predictores significativos del uso del juego del marco. Los resultados se discuten en relación a la elaboración de la investigación en Europa occidental y los Estados Unidos.

Images and Stereotypes
Imágenes y estereotipos

The Immigrant Muslim American at the Boundary of Insider and Outsider: Representations of Faisal Shahzad as “Homegrown” Terrorist
Angie Chuang and Robin Chin Roemer
Abstract
Studies of Orientalized portrayals of Muslims have generally been distinct from studies on the Othering of immigrant Americans. This study employs concepts of insider/outsider status, applying theories of Orientalism and representations of the Other to newspaper coverage of the Muslim and Pakistani American perpetrator of the 2010 attempted Times Square bombing. Newspapers constructed a seemingly contradictory representation of Faisal Shahzad, as the apparent insider/American who becomes the alienated outsider/Other. This portrayal of the Orientalized insider establishes an emerging discourse on the “homegrown” terrorist who exists at the boundary of self and Other.

El estadounidense musulmana inmigrante en los límites de la empresa y Outsider: Las representaciones de Faisal Shahzad como “Homegrown” Terrorist
Angie Chuang and Robin Chin Roemer
Abstract Traducción español
Los estudios de representaciones orientalizada de los musulmanes en general han sido distintos de los estudios sobre la otredad de los inmigrantes estadounidenses. Este estudio emplea conceptos de estado interno / externo, la aplicación de las teorías del orientalismo y representaciones del Otro para la cobertura periodística del autor musulmán paquistaní estadounidense del bombardeo Square 2,010 intentos Times. Prensa construyen una representación aparentemente contradictoria de Faisal Shahzad, como la aparente insider / americano que se convierte en el outsider / Otros alienado. Esta interpretación de la información privilegiada orientalizada establece un discurso emergente sobre el terrorista “de cosecha propia” que existe en la frontera entre yo y el otro.

Writing the Wrong: Can Counter-Stereotypes Offset Negative Media Messages about African Americans?
Lanier Frush Holt
Abstract
Several studies show media messages activate or exacerbate racial stereotypes. This analysis, however, may be the first to examine which types of information—those that directly contradict media messages (i.e., crime-related) or general news (i.e., non-crime-related)—are most effective in abating stereotypes. Its findings suggest fear of crime is becoming more a human fear, not just a racial one. Furthermore, it suggests that for younger Americans, the concomitant dyad of the black criminal stereotype—race and crime—is fueled more by crime than by race.

Escribir el mal: Puede contrarrestar los estereotipos de desplazamiento negativo Medios Mensajes sobre los afroamericanos?
Lanier Frush Holt
Abstract Traducción español
Varios estudios muestran mensajes de los medios activan o exacerban los estereotipos raciales. Este análisis, sin embargo, puede ser el primero en examinar qué tipos de información en los que los mensajes multimedia directamente contradicen (es decir, los delitos relacionados) o noticias en general (es decir, no la delincuencia relacionada)-son más eficaces para disminuir los estereotipos. Sus hallazgos sugieren temor a la delincuencia es cada vez más un temor humano, no sólo racial uno. Además, se sugiere que para los estadounidenses más jóvenes, la díada concomitante del estereotipo de la carrera negro criminal y el crimen-es alimentada más por el crimen de la raza.

New News Technology
Nueva Tecnología

Mobile News Adoption among Young Adults: Examining the Roles of Perceptions, News Consumption, and Media Usage
Sylvia Chan-Olmsted, Hyejoon Rim, and Amy Zerba
Abstract
Using the frameworks of innovation diffusion and technology acceptance model, this study examines the predictors of mobile news consumption among young adults. The results show that the perceived relative advantage (especially content), utility, and ease of use of mobile news are positively related to its adoption. The young adults’ news consumption patterns and preferences, as well as media usage, all play a role in the adoption of mobile news. This study also validates the importance of examining the adoption outcome from multiple perspectives.

News Mobile adopción entre los adultos jóvenes: El examen de las funciones de percepción, Noticias de consumo y los medios de comunicación de uso
Sylvia Chan-Olmsted, Hyejoon Rim, and Amy Zerba
Abstract Traducción español
Uso de los marcos de difusión de la innovación y el modelo de aceptación de la tecnología, este estudio examina los factores predictivos de consumo móvil de noticias entre los adultos jóvenes. Los resultados muestran que la ventaja percibida relativa (sobre todo contenido), utilidad y facilidad de uso de la información por telefonía móvil se relacionan positivamente con su adopción. Los patrones de los jóvenes adultos de noticias y preferencias de consumo, así como de uso de los medios de comunicación, todos juegan un papel en la adopción de noticias móviles. Este estudio también confirma la importancia de examinar el resultado adopción desde múltiples perspectivas.
Nueva Tecnología

Ethics
Ética

The Root of Journalistic Plagiarism: Contested Attribution Beliefs
Norman P. Lewis and Bu Zhong
Abstract
Journalists condemn plagiarism, yet rarely acknowledge disagreements over attribution standards. To document and evaluate those differences, journalists in broadcasting and print operations were surveyed (N = 953). Respondents were far less willing to attribute press releases than they were their colleagues’ work. They were more likely to consider attribution optional if they were under pressure to produce, worked for a broadcast medium, were a content creator, were less experienced, or saw their principles as flexible. The findings reveal that attribution beliefs are far more pliant than ethics policies suggest and illuminate some of the reasons why plagiarism occurs.

La raíz del plagio periodística: Creencias Attribution impugnados
Norman P. Lewis and Bu Zhong
Abstract Traducción español
Periodistas condenan el plagio, pero rara vez se reconocen los desacuerdos sobre las normas de atribución. Para documentar y evaluar las diferencias, los periodistas de la radiodifusión y las operaciones de impresión fueron encuestados (N = 953). Los encuestados eran mucho menos dispuestos a atribuir notas de prensa de lo que eran el trabajo de sus colegas. Eran más propensos a considerar la atribución opcional si estaban bajo presión para producir, trabajaba para un medio de difusión, fueron un creador de contenido, eran menos experiencia, o vieron sus principios como flexible. Los resultados revelan que las creencias de atribución son mucho más flexibles que las políticas de ética sugieren e iluminan algunas de las razones por las que ocurre el plagio.

<<Journal Abstracts in Spanish

Tips from the AEJMC Teaching Committee

What are your TLOs for DC?

Amy FalknerBy Amy Falkner
Standing Committee on Teaching
S.I. Newhouse School of Public Communications
Syracuse University
apfalkne@syr.edu
Twitter: amyfalkner

(Article courtesy of AEJMC News, July 2013 issue)

Learning is good. I don’t mean just for your students. I’m talking about you. The AEJMC Conference in Washington, DC, presents you that opportunity and I encourage you to take full advantage.

We all know how important it is to have clear student learning outcomes on our syllabi. My university’s Senate Committee on Curricula has put a big push on these in the last academic year. They’ve bounced back numerous new course proposals in an attempt to get faculty to make crystal clear on their syllabi what exactly students will know or be able to do as a result of a learning activity or course or program. Make these measurable, they say. Express the outcomes using action verbs as knowledge, skills or attitudes.

Ok, then. Let’s turn this on its head. What are your teacher learning outcomes (TLOs) for this conference? Strategize about this before you go. What is it that you want to learn? Incorporating diversity into your courses? Better use of social media? Best practices in developing an online course?

All of these topics will be profiled during the Conference. Seek out these opportunities and be ready to capitalize. Have your business card ready for the presenter and write down on the back of it, as an example, “pls send Twitter assignment.” My TLO is to collect five such skill-based assignments or exercises during the course of the conference. Action verb? Check. Measurable? Check. New knowledge? Check.

The Standing Committee on Teaching has put together a perfect slate of programming for you to start your pre-gaming. I’ll explain it below. But also know that the divisions and interest groups have plenty of teaching programming that is discipline-specific. Most of them also make it a point to bring in some industry professionals either for a special panel or a mixed panel with academics. I find these particular panels especially helpful to learn what’s the latest industry trend, skill needed or problem to solve. What you learn will help your students, and that should always be your goal.

So here is the line-up for the programming from the Standing Committee on Teaching. It’s a great place to start your conference to-do list.

Thursday, Aug. 8, 10 to 11:30 a.m. — “2013 Best Practices in Teaching with Tools and Technologies”
You could get your entire list of TLOs simply by attending this session. The call for entries specified a search for innovative ways tools and technologies were integrated into the learning environment, either as used by instructors in presenting materials or by students in learning new tools. The Committee has held this competition eight years in a row and this one was one of its most highly competitive. Nearly 30 entries were judged and three winners were selected, plus an honorable mention. Winning entries utilized geo-tagging, cloud-based research tools, Google Forms, YouTube, social media and more. Interested? Attendees receive a booklet with the winning entries, so that makes it super easy to accomplish your TLOs.

Friday, Aug. 9, 1:30 to 3 p.m. — “Doctors Are In” session
This will mark the seventh year of this popular session, where you are essentially speed dating, but for ideas: participants move from table to table, with each table responsible for a different topic that keeps teachers, new and experienced, up at night. Originally, the intent of this session was to reach those new to academe, but we’ve discovered over time that both newbies and long-time faculty wanted a safe place to ask questions, share concerns and gather new ideas.

This year’s topics are sure to provide a springboard for ideas for your classes with proven classroom management tips and suggestions on how to teach large lecture classes, in addition to the topics of social media, diversity and teaching online mentioned above. And for your own personal TLOs, there are sessions on creating a teaching portfolio for tenure and promotion and the secret to balancing research, teaching and service.

Saturday, Aug. 10, 3:30 to 5 p.m. — “Transforming Teaching Failures into Teaching Successes”
The Committee schedules a “faculty concerns” session each year, and utilizing the long teaching careers — and goofs — of several Committee members (yours truly included), we have a panel session on transforming those errors into a positive experience in the end for your students. This is the ultimate TLO. It’s also a little-discussed part of being a professor, but it happens. The key is to recognize something went wrong and how you can recover from it. We’ll also suggest some red flags that may indicate a classroom crisis is ahead. Being prepared is half the battle.

Saturday, Aug. 10, 5:15 to 6:45 p.m. — “Top Papers from Research on Teaching Paper Competition”
New this year, the Committee, in conjunction with Journalism & Mass Communication Educator, sponsored a special paper call for research related to teaching. We received so many papers we had to recruit extra judges. It’s a good problem to have! The top papers discuss three topics near and dear to all: strengthening basic writing skills, integrating team-based learning and the gaps between journalism and practice in the digital age. Talk about TLOs. You can’t miss with this session.

Hope to see you at these sessions and that you’ll be pleased with what you learned. Your students thank you in advance.

<<Teaching Corner

Communication Theory and Methodology 2013 Abstracts

Agenda-setting in the beginning of the 1979 oil crisis: compelling arguments and public concern • Alberto Ardèvol-Abreu; Magdalena Saldaña, The University of Texas at Austin; Maxwell McCombs • Following the “compelling arguments” hypothesis, this study examines both first and second-level agenda-setting effects in the context of the 1979 oil crisis. Our results show the role of oil pricing, national oil market and nuclear energy as compelling arguments. Besides, our research suggests that arguments are not compelling per se: depending on who uses it, the same argument can be compelling or not. Members of Congress were the most credible sources.

It’s Who You Don’t Know: How Exposure to Online Social Influence on YouTube Affects Political Evaluations and Behavior • Matthew Barnidge, University of Wisconsin-Madison; ByungGu Lee, University of Wisconsin-Madison; Stephanie Jean Tsang, University of Wisconsin-Madison; D. Jasun Carr, Susquehanna University • The Internet exposes us to new and different forms of social influence. While many claims have been made about the “effects” of the Internet on politics and society, one of the most intuitively sensible claims about the Internet is this: The Internet exposes people to more indicators of what other people think. This study presents an experimental investigation into the effects of relatively impersonal indicators of social opinion on YouTube. Drawing from SIDE (Social Identity Depersonalization Effects) theory, as well as theories of information processing and evaluation, we examine the balance of user comments on YouTube and their influence on the persuasive effects of an online news story about a political scandal. Results reveals that exposure to social indicators that are incongruent with the original message can abate the persuasive effects of that message on political evaluations and behavior.

Emotion-provoking personalization of news: Informing citizens and closing the knowledge gap? • Ozen Bas, Indiana University; Maria Elizabeth Grabe, Indiana University • News that personalizes issues and elicits emotion are often dismissed as serious information. This experiment investigated the merits of this view through the knowledge gap hypothesis. Two versions (with/without emotional testimony of ordinary people) of eight television stories were tested. Emotional versions produced smaller knowledge gaps and the size of gaps varied across three memory measures. Unlike the inimical role traditionally assigned to emotion, these findings suggest a facilitative role for emotion in informing citizens.

Thinking about Others Online: The Relationship between Third Person and Hostile Media Perceptions • Pamela Brubaker, Brigham Young University • This study explores the relationship between hostile media and third person perceptions. Partisans (N = 760) who strongly supported and opposed the issue of legalizing same-sex marriage participated in an online experiment, which was made available to blog readers. Third person perceptions, particularly the influence on others with contrasting attitudes, proved a significant predictor of hostile perceptions, validating claims that the media’s perceived influence on others does indeed contribute to hostile perceptions of media coverage.

How do individuals develop attitude extremity in the new media environment? The interplay between the Internet, schemas, and information seeking • Doo-Hun Choi, Department of Life Sciences Communication, University of Wisconsin-Madison; Michael Cacciatore; Michael Xenos; Dietram Scheufele, Department of Life Sciences Communication, University of Wisconsin-Madison; Dominique Brossard; Elizabeth Corley • Analyzing data from a nationally-representative online survey, this study explored the role of the Internet and schemas in seeking out information and forming individuals’ attitude toward nanotechnology. More specifically, we examined the interplay between the Internet, schemas, information seeking and their impact on attitude formation toward the issue. The results in the study showed that individuals rely on their schemas in order to seek out information for nanotechnology, and the Internet played a large role in promoting information seeking. More importantly, individuals who select schema-congruent information are more likely than those who select schema-incongruent information to have more extreme in their attitudes toward nanotechnology. This study also found that greater attitude extremity produced attitude polarization toward nanotechnology. Implications of these findings as they pertain to public understanding of science in democratic society are discussed in greater detail.

Functional Forms of Symbolic Crises in the News: Implications for Quantitative Research • Bryan Denham • With communication scholars relying heavily on linear statistical models such as ordinary least squares regression, the present study examined the possibility that logistic, logarithmic and quadratic functions would capture symbolic crises in the news more effectively, potentially helping to enhance quantitative research. Analyzing cases involving drug abuse, pedophilia, violence, music lyrics, and religious freedom, the study found the strongest support for logarithmic and quadratic representations of cumulative data distributions, consistent with the notion of volatile news events triggering dramatic and widespread coverage for a limited time. The study concludes that while quantitative researchers should not abandon linear regression techniques, situations do arise in which nonlinear tests may be more effective in capturing statistical relationships.

Knowledge Gaps on Social Media: Exploring Knowledge Inequality in Contemporary News Environments • Trevor Diehl, University of Texas, Austin • This study explored how social media for news might affect knowledge gaps. A secondary analysis of the Pew Center for the People and the Press 2012 Media Consumption Survey found evidence for knowledge gaps between education groups on social media. A comparison of multiple news sources found a gap between those that pay attention to news on social media and those that don’t. News sharing was associated with an increase in knowledge in some groups.

Mapping the News Landscape • Stephanie Edgerly, Northwestern University • This study explores how media users make sense of the high-choice news media environment. Using a multi dimensional approach, ten news organizations are mapped by the implicit thoughts a sample of college students uses to differentiate them. Results indicate a specialized news environment where each news organization occupies their own space on the map. The two dimensions of an organization’s political ideology (conservative-to-liberal) and orientation (normative-to-market) are used to interpret the map.

An Exploration of the Roots of the Gatekeeper Concept: What Can Network Theory Tell Us About the Shifting Role of Journalism in a Networked Media Ecology? • Thomas Ernste • The concept of gatekeepers as it has long been understood within journalism studies remains deeply intertwined with its now antiquated metaphorical meaning that sees news organizations as in control of public access to news. This paper describes how a conceptual shift towards understanding the gatekeeper concept instead in a network theory context which sees gatekeepers as central, boundary spanning network actors is useful for conceptualizing news and information gatekeeping in a networked media ecology.

Disuse, Misuse, and Abuse of Intercoder Reliability Indices in Communication • Charles Feng, Jinan University • Although intercoder reliability has been considered crucial to the validity of a content study, the choice among them has been controversial. This study analyzed all the content studies published in the two major communication journals that reported intercoder reliability, aiming to find how communication scholars conduct intercoder reliability test. The results revealed that some intercoder reliability indices were misused persistently concerning the levels of measurement, the number of coders, and the means of reporting reliability over the past 30 years. Implications of misuse, disuse, and abuse were discussed, and suggestions regarding proper choice of indices in various situations were made at last.

Social network ties and discussion attributes as antecedents of political discussion elaboration • Homero Gil de Zúñiga, University of Texas at Austin • Scores of research highlight the key role of political discussion for society’s democratic wellbeing establishing a conduit to a more deliberative democracy. More recently, academics have turned their attention to explore the different roles peoples’ discussion network attributes may have in promoting politically valuable and fruitful discussions. For instance, the strength of discussion ties (weak or strong), heterogeneity of discussion networks, exposure to disagreement, and the level of reasoning in peoples’ discussion have all, to some degree, been associated to different forms of political outcomes such as participation. Other scholars have expanded the notion of citizens’ discussion attributes by integrating discussion elaboration. Thus, the connection between discussion network attributes and political participation, or between discussion elaboration and political participation is not new. Less explored however is the connection of all these discussion attributes as antecedents of political discussion elaboration. Based on U.S. national crossectional data, results indicate strong-ties discussion is the strongest predictor for discussion elaboration. On the other hand, discussing public affairs with weak ties was a stronger predictor for citizens to discussing with people who reasoned their arguments, and also for being exposed to discussion with higher levels of disagreement, and with more heterogeneous networks. Structural equation modeling tests indicate that strong ties is both directly and indirectly related to political discussion elaboration. Conversely, the influence of weak-ties on political discussion elaboration is fully mediated by discussion network heterogeneity and reasoned discussions. Finally, exposure to disagreement seems to preclude individuals’ from cognitively elaborating upon the issues they discuss.

Political Consumption as Civic, Cooperative, and Contrived: Implications for Social Marketing • Melissa R. Gotlieb, Texas Tech University • A series of three studies demonstrate the factor structure and reliability (Study 1), convergent and discriminant validity (Study 2), and predictive validity (Study 3) of a scale measuring value-expressive, social-identification, and social-adjustive attitudes toward political consumption. The third study demonstrates the importance of fit between a strategic message appeal and individuals’ underlying attitude functions in the context of a fictitious student campaign to reduce bottled water consumption on campus. Theoretical and marketing implications are discussed.

Examining Mood, Anxiety, and Knowledge in the Process of Resisting Influence • Michel Haigh, Penn State University; Shelley Wigley, University of Texas at Arlington • This study examines the role mood and anxiety play in inoculation research, and employs a new method of coding concept maps and counterarguments. Results indicate mood impacts how inoculation messages are processed. Those in the inoculation condition feel more anxiety compared to controls. Those who receive inoculation messages use the content from the messages to counterargue as well as form new nodes in their associative networks.

Using the Theory of Reasoned Action to Study the Influence of News Media • Jennifer Hoewe, The Pennsylvania State University • This study attempts to situate the theory of reasoned action (TRA) as a viable method for studying the impact of news media on attitudes and behaviors. Using news stories about the building of an Islamic community center, results show the TRA provides a well-fitting model for examining news stories’ influences in an experimental context. The moderating variable of prior attitudes toward the news story’s subject may prove useful in future use of the TRA.

Consequences of Disagreement in Political Conversation: Iterative vs. Episodic Forms of Political Participatory Behaviors • Yangsun Hong, University of Wisconsin-Madison; Hernando Rojas, University of Wisconsin – Madison • In everyday life, people talk about political issues with others who may share or may not share their views. However, empirical studies in this area have produced a conundrum in terms of the relationship between disagreeable discussion and participation. Some recent studies suggest that distinguishing the types of participation considered would be helpful to shed light on this controversy. These studies argue that the relationship between discussion disagreement and participation is likely contingent on the type of participation in which people are involved. This study aims to contribute to the literature on the relationships between heterogeneous discussion and different types of participation. The focus of this article is to (a) analyze whether disagreeable political talk has different influences on varying types of participation (b) explore these relations in less stable democracy than have typically been considered by previous research.

Risk Communication Factors to Inform Theory: Risk Perception, Special Needs Populations, and Media Usage • Melissa Janoske, University of Maryland, College Park; Benjamin Sheppard, University of Maryland • There is no single conceptual framework that provides “the answer” to effectively communicating risk. There are, however, critical factors that all communicators and managers need to be aware of: publics’ perceptions, message content, unique risk characteristics, an understanding of special needs publics, and communication channels. This paper discusses those factors in detail through a deep discussion of the current literature, and offers best practices for communicators to utilize during each risk phase (preparedness, response, recovery).

Steer Clear or Get Ready: How Coping Styles Moderate the Effect of Informational Utility • Benjamin Johnson, The Ohio State University; Silvia Knobloch-Westerwick, The Ohio State University • An experiment (N = 414) with a 2x3x2 between-subjects design analyzed the effect of informational utility on selective exposure to online news stories. Individual differences in avoidant coping and problem-focused coping were tested as moderators of impacts of informational utility message characteristics on selective exposure. A positive main effect of informational utility intensity was found to result from the dimensions of magnitude, likelihood, and immediacy. The proposed fourth dimension, efficacy, did not yield a main effect or moderate the other message factors. However, coping styles demonstrated the proposed interactions. Individuals low on avoidant coping browsed messages with high informational utility longer, whereas avoidants did not. Those low on problem-focused coping spent more time with high-efficacy messages, and those high on problem-focus spent more time with low-efficacy messages.

Examining Warranting Theory toward use in non-interpersonal Computer-Medicated Communication (CMC) contexts • Eunsin Joo, Michigan State University • The concept of warrant has been used for many years in CMC settings. The principal objective of this paper is to evaluate and expand the scope of the warranting theory. The study examines the theoretical constructs of the warranting theory by using the criteria of theory such as explanatory power, predictive power, testability, parsimony, internal consistency, and heuristic provocativeness as well as its empirical applications in a variety of research realms (Chaffee & Berger, 1987; Heath & Bryan, 1992). The current applied research status and limitations of the theory are also discussed further to contribute future directions of the warranting theory in non-interpersonal CMC contexts.

Three-Stage Spiral of Silence in a Networked Society • Sang Chon Kim, University of Oklahoma • This paper reconsiders spiral of silence theory in the networked society by focusing on (1) changes in the media environment and (2) changes in audience psychology. First, This paper predicts that new media (e.g. the Internet) reduce the power of traditional mass media over audiences’ perceptions about public opinion, based on Jackob’s (2010) relational model between perceived use of alternative sources, media dependency, and trust in mass media. Interactivity theory supports that networked groups would not only reduce the power of mass media, but might also play a role as new opinion leaders. Second, this paper predicts that new media environment would change audiences’ psychology in responding to public opinions. Audiences would feel less fear of isolation when expressing their minority opinions, thanks to inherent natures of computer-mediated communication. In accordance with these potential changes affecting spirals of silence, this paper suggests a revised conceptual model, three-stage spiral of silence.

Linguistic Framing Versus Numeric Framing in Campaign Messages: Revisiting An Application of Prospect Theory in Communication Research • Sunny J. Kim, Cornell University • Prospect theory provides a framework to systematically construct gain- versus loss-framed messages. Communication researchers have utilized the framing postulate of prospect theory to encourage various kinds of behavioral and attitudinal responses. However, empirical findings on gain- versus loss-framing which predict distinct outcomes in accordance with theory have been mixed or undifferentiated. This paper traces the origins of prospect theory and examines how the theory has extended to message framing in a health communication context. We review the successes and limitations of prospect theory application, and propose a new way of incorporating prospect theory into message framing within the communication research field.

Predicting TV Channel Choice and Duration Using an Integrated Model of Media Choice • Su Jung Kim, Northwestern University; Vijay Viswanathan • This study examines how individual and structural factors of media choice impact TV channel choice and viewing time. Using Nielsen Korea’s TV-Internet Convergence data that electronically recorded television and Internet use behavior, we find that television channel choice is influenced by individual factors such as gratifications, age, and gender as well as structural factors like access, and cost. However, duration is largely affected by structural factors such as lead-in, and other media use.

Framing Healthcare: Frame Building and News Coverage of Who Is Responsible for Rising Healthcare Costs in the United States • Sei-Hill Kim; Andrea Tanner; Soo Yun Kim, University of Wisconsin-Madison; Caroline Foster; Oh Sang-Hwa • Analyzing newspaper articles and television news transcripts, this study attempts to understand how the American news media have framed the question of who is responsible for rising healthcare costs in the United States. In particular, we explore the notion of frame building, looking at internal and external factors of news organizations that may influence the way the media frame the question of who is responsible. Findings indicate that frame building factors, such as organizational constraints (e.g., self-censorship), typical professional routines (e.g., episodic presentation of the issues), and political orientations of news organizations (e.g., conservative vs. liberal ideology), can affect the media’s selective use of frames.

Elaborative Processing that Matters: A Study of Factors Influencing Perceived Risks Related to Food and Medicine in South Korea • Hwalbin Kim, University of South Carolina; Sei-Hill Kim; Jeong-Heon JC Chang, Korea University; Jea Chul Shim, Korea University; Sang Hwa Oh, University of South Carolina • This study explores the effects of the media, interpersonal communication, and elaborative processing on perceived risks related to food and medicine safety in South Korea. The findings of the study show that media use such as TV and Internet news, interpersonal discussion, and elaborative processing are positively associated with perceived risks related to food and medicine. More importantly, the effects of newspaper, SNS, and interpersonal discussion on perceived risks were moderated by elaborative processing.

Examining the Intertextuality of Fictional Political Comedy and Real-World Political News • Kristen Landreville; Heather LaMarre • This study examines effects of viewing a fictional, comedic political film on political discussion intent about a related news article. In an experiment, participants watched the political comedy Man of the Year or a control film, and then read a politically-relevant news article on electronic voting. Beyond direct effects, the mediating influence of elaboration about the politically-relevant news article on discussion intent was analyzed. Results revealed no main effect of political comedy viewing on discussion intent, and no mediating effect of elaboration either. However, viewing the comedic political film was associated with higher levels of elaboration about the related news article, which shows evidence of intertextuality among media texts. Moreover, perceived external realism of the fictional, comedic political film was a significant positive predictor of discussion intent about the news article. Results also showed perceived external realism about the fictional, comedic political film to be a nearly significant moderator of the elaboration and discussion intent relationship. A broader discussion regarding the theoretical and practical implications of the findings is included.

Visual Context of Message Content: A Re-evaluation of Component Separation in the Elaboration Likelihood Model • Allison Lazard, The University of Texas at Austin; Lucy Atkinson, The University of Texas at Austin; Michael Mackert, The University of Texas at Austin • Visually rich persuasive messages have a pervasive presence in our society, creating an impetus for increased theoretical research to understand the role of visuals in information processing. The Elaboration Likelihood Model, which highlights critical stages for the decision to elaborate via two different processing routes, provides a theoretical framework that should be adapted to include the prevalent and influential role of visual context, visual deign, and visual processing in the evaluation of persuasive messages.

Does Motivation Make a Difference in Agenda-Setting Effects? • Na Yeon Lee, University of Texas at Austin • By employing laboratory experiment, this study examined the role of the two different motivations on agenda-setting effects: one is the need for orientation (NFO), which is traditionally regarded as the most important factor to explain individual differences in agenda-setting research, and the other is accuracy or directional goals introduced by the theory of motivated reasoning. Confirming previous findings, NFO was found to be the single most positive predictor for agenda-setting effects. Interestingly, the influence of NFO on agenda-setting effects was moderated by the types of motivational goals (accuracy vs. directional) that individuals employ when seeking information. Individuals with accuracy goals plus high levels of NFO demonstrated agenda-setting effects that were higher than for individuals with directional goals. Contrary to predictions of this study, individuals’ types of motivational goals (accuracy vs. directional) alone were not found to be a significant predictor. This study contributes to agenda-setting research by elaborating the role of NFO on agenda- setting effects and by proposing that while the media’s role of consensus building may be constrained, especially in a digital media era, those constraints may not likely apply broadly to entire audiences but, instead, may be limited mostly to individuals who tend to exercise selective exposure relative to their own particular issues: namely, those who generally employ directional goals.

Investigating the relationship between social media use and opinion polarization • Jae Kook Lee, Indiana University School of Journalism; Jihyang Choi, Indiana University School of Journalism; Cheonsoo Kim, Indiana University School of Journalism; Yonghwan Kim, University of Alabama • Conflicting arguments and findings have been reported about whether or not the use of new media would result in an increase in people’s exposure to diverse views and, if so, what the political consequences of encounters with dissimilar people and perspectives would be. This study tackles these issues by investigating the relationship between the social media use, the heterogeneity of social networks and the level of opinion polarization in the context of social network services (SNSs). Employing a national probability survey, this study shows that the use of SNSs is a positive predictor of network heterogeneity on SNSs. The study also found that the frequency of SNSs use does not directly affect the level of network heterogeneity, but that the relationship is mediated by several news-related activities, such as getting news, news posting, and talking about politics on SNSs. To explore the influence of the level of SNSs network heterogeneity on polarization, the study considered three different dimensions of opinion polarization: partisan, ideological, and issue polarization. The findings indicate that political discussion moderates the relationship between SNS network heterogeneity and the level of polarization; a higher level of SNS network heterogeneity results in a higher level of partisanship and ideological polarization for individuals who talk about politics more frequently. The implications of the study are discussed.

Revisiting Opinion Leadership in the Online World: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach • Tien-Tsung Lee, University of Kansas; Peter Bobkowski, University of Kansas • Opinion leadership is an important topic in marketing and communication research. Based on a survey of 7,025 U.S. consumers, this study examines the characteristics of online opinion leaders, and investigates the association between online and offline opinion leadership and activism. Online opinion leadership is predicted by the use of interactive online media, offline opening leadership, and offline activism. Use of online informational media is not directly linked to online opinion leadership.

Motivated Processing of Anger and Disgust In Anti-Tobacco Video Advertisements • Glenn Leshner, University of Missouri; Russell Clayton, University of Missouri; Manu Bhandari, University of Missouri; Paul Bolls • The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of two message attributes of anti-tobacco video ads on cognitive processing. The two message attributes were tobacco industry attacks (anger) and disgusting images. Industry attack ads were adapted from the American Legacy Foundation anti-tobacco campaign, which showed tobacco company executives as deceitful, dishonest, and manipulative. A 2 (anger: high/low) x 2 (disgust: present/absent) x 3 (message replication) x 4 (message order) mixed model repeated measures experiment was conducted. Participants (N=49), viewed 12, 30-s messages. Self-reports of emotional valence and arousal were collected. Heart rate, a physiological indicator of cognitive resources allocated to encoding, was collected for a five second baseline prior to each message and was time-locked during exposure to the messages. Participants also completed an audio recognition test. Results strongly indicate that HR deceleration occurred most for messages featuring anger or disgust related content, but decelerated least for messages that contained both anger and disgust content. Audio recognition data, including signal detection analyses, showed that recognition worsened for messages that contained both anger and disgust on both accuracy and sensitivity. In addition, participants were least confident in their responses to messages that contained both. Self-reports showed that both anger and disgust content showed strong aversive system activation, while anger showed small appetitive activation. These findings indicate that messages high in both anger and disgust showed signs of cognitive withdrawal and descent into a defensive cascade reflective of defensive processing and message responses.

The Mediating Role of Prior Knowledge in Framing Effects: An Experimental Study of Responses to Valenced Frames • Chen Lou, Michigan State University; Carson Wagner, EW Scripps School of Journalism, Ohio University; Eunsin Joo, Michigan State University • An experiment was run to detect whether prior knowledge about a subject mediates framing effects. A considerable number of framing studies have claimed media effects on audiences without examining audience responses and/or disentangling different confounding variables from media frames. Prior knowledge among other factors has been suggested as an entry point for testing if various frames indeed affect audiences, as assumed when effects are claimed but no audience data are taken. This study examines how media frames affect audience attitudes by manipulating prior knowledge in a laboratory experiment.

Toward a Cognitive-affective Process Model of Hostile Media Perceptions: A Multi-Country Structural Equation Modeling Approach • Jorg Matthes, U of Vienna; Audun Beyer, University of Oslo, Norway • This paper develops and tests a theoretical cognitive-affective process model of the hostile media effect (HME). To explain the HME, scholars have mainly focused on cognitive involvement, i.e., the extent to which an issue is of personal importance. By contrast, we introduce the notion of affective involvement and hypothesize three distinct routes responsible for an HMP: a cognitive, an affective, and a cognitive-affective route. Simultaneously collected representative survey data from the U.S., Norway, and France employing country-invariant measures provide clear evidence that the three routes each and independently drive the HMP. Theoretical and methodological implications of these findings are discussed.

Combining the Situational Theory of Publics and Theory of Reasoned Action to Explore Nonprofit Support: A Replication • Brooke W. McKeever, University of South Carolina; Geah Pressgrove, University of South Carolina; Yue Zheng, University of South Carolina • Through replication with a nationally-based respondent pool (N=1,539) and extension of programmatic research aimed at understanding the intersection of the situational theory of publics and theory of reasoned action, this study provides early empirical support for a possible Theory of Situational Support with a new criterion variable. By combining variables from both theories, predictive power of the model is improved when measured in the context of nonprofit fundraising events. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

In the mood to search: A conceptual examination of how emotions influence health information seeking • Jessica Myrick, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill • This paper argues that theory development in health information seeking is currently stunted because the field has not fully explored concepts from the literature on emotions. The basics of emotion theory and connections with health information seeking are presented. This paper also encourages scholars to examine emotions in addition to anxiety/fear as search motivators. The argument is made that theory is lacking on the topics of how people search for health information and what happens after those searches.

Fearing a threat but hoping for the best: Revising the Extended Parallel Process Model based on emotion theory • Jessica Myrick, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill • For more than two decades, the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM) has guided research on fear appeals. However, theories of emotions and empirical evidence point to important conceptual modifications that would improve the EPPM’s explanatory power. This paper proposes six revisions to the EPPM and presents initial experimental data to test the propositions. The data largely support the propositions and point to future work to further develop theories of fear appeals.

Modeling a Participatory Campaign Communication: Communication Mediation and Anti-smoking Behavioral Intention • Kang Namkoong, University of Kentucky; Seungahn Nah, University of Kentucky; Rachael Record, University of Kentucky; Stephanie Van Stee, University of Kentucky • Drawing on the theory of planned behavior (TPB; e.g., Ajzen, 1985, 1988, 1991) with a communication mediation model (McLeod et al., 1996; McLeod, Scheufele, & Moy, 1999; Shah, Cho et al., 2007; Shah, McLeod et al., 2007), this study examines direct and indirect effects of a community-based participatory campaign on anti-smoking behavioral intention and how communications mediate the participatory campaign process. Through an experimental design with randomization, the study affirms that the TPB is an effective model to predict anti-smoking behavioral intention. Furthermore, it finds that communication does mediate the effects of the participatory campaign intervention on anti-smoking outcomes, which is well suited to the theory of planned behavior.

Online Advertisements and Conceptual Implicit Memory: Advances in Theory and Methodology • Temple Northup, University of Houston • Three experiments were conducted to further our understanding, both theoretically and methodologically, of conceptual implicit memory within the advertising context. Results suggest that not only is providing specific encoding instructions not necessary to induce conceptual or semantic processing, but also that there were no differences based on whether the experimental procedure was conducted in a laboratory or online. Together, these results have implications for increasing the ecological validity of this type of research.

How does Interactivity persuade? An Experimental Test of Interactivity on Cognitive Absorption, Elaboration, and Attitudes • Jeeyun Oh, Penn State University; S. Shyam Sundar, The Pennsylvania State University • It is generally assumed that interactivity can create higher involvement in interacting with media. However, it is debatable whether this heightened degree of user activity can translate into engagement with content, and further, whether it can influence persuasion outcomes. This paper examines whether two different types of website interactivity can motivate users to cognitively engage with anti-smoking messages. A 3 (Message interactivity: High vs. Medium vs. Low) X 2 (Modality Interactivity: Slider vs. Control) factorial-design lab experiment was performed to test the persuasive effects of interactivity on the stimulus website (N = 167). Results showed that Modality interactivity led to more positive interface assessment and greater cognitive absorption. These two factors, in turn, contributed to more favorable attitudes toward the website and even toward the anti-smoking messages. The presence of slider interaction technique significantly reduced the amount of message-related thoughts after browsing. In contrast, message interactivity enhanced message elaboration for participants, especially those with low involvement in the message topic. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

Aljazeera and The Hostile Media Effect: Credibility and Interactivity • Eisa Al Nashmi, Kuwait University; David Painter, Full Sail University; Jessica Mahone, University of Florida • Based on the hostile media effect theory, this experimental investigation manipulated source attribution to determine how receiver characteristics affected credibility and interactivity. Although the reports’ content was identical, the results indicate Aljazeera was perceived as less credible than CNN, especially among those with unfavorable Arab attitudes and high Arab interest. The results also suggest partisanship, involvement, and source, key elements of the hostile media effect, may trigger increased use of the Internet’s interactive features.

Seeking the Sweet Spot: Optimal combinations of gain-loss and motivational frames to promote vaccination during an epidemic • Eun Park • To investigate ways to maximize the effects of message frames in health campaigns for promoting vaccination in an epidemic, this study tested effects of message combinations of gain- and loss-frames and motivational frames, which include intrinsic and extrinsic goal frames in self-determination theory. The study also attempted to examine the moderating role of level of issue involvement. An experiment using a 2 (frame: gain and loss) x 2 (motivation: intrinsic and extrinsic) x 2 (issue involvement: high and low) x 4 (multiple messages) x 2 (order) mixed subject design was conducted. The results showed that motivation plays more of a leading role in igniting positive attitude and intention toward vaccination than gain-loss frames. To be specific, a message combination of gain frame and intrinsic motivation was superior to other kinds of combinations in terms of promoting vaccination.

Effect of Vocal Similarity on Automatic Attention to Voice Changes: Experimental Results and Industry Implications • Robert F. Potter, Indiana University; Edgar Jamison-Koenig, Indiana University; Teresa Lynch, Indiana University; Matthew Falk, Indiana University; Sharon Mayell, Indiana University; Katherine Krizan, Indiana University • Past research has shown that when one speaker is replaced by another in an auditory message listeners exhibit an orienting response identified by a specific pattern of cardiac deceleration. The orienting response is thought to provide an automatic allocation of processing resources to the encoding of the new voice in the auditory environment. To date, no one has investigated how the tonal similarities of the voices making up the formal feature of the voice change impacts orienting or information processing of the message. A 3 (Vocal Difference) x 2 (Location of Voice Change) x 2 (Repetitions) within subjects experiment was designed to explore this issue. Four non-professional speakers were selected based on their levels of vocal difference and produced twelve radio announcements. These announcements were then edited so that there were Low-, Medium-, and High-Vocal Difference voice changes occurring either in in the first or last 20-seconds of the message. Seventy-four subjects listened to the stimuli individually and had their heart rate data recorded time-locked to the media presentation. After a distraction task, recognition memory measures were taken. Results show that the tonal difference between voices does have an impact on both cardiac orienting and recognition memory for message audio. Furthermore, results suggest a change in processing strategy among listeners over the course of the sixty-second messages. Implications for message producers are provided.

A Historical Test of Media System Dependency: Governor Sir Thomas Brisbane’s Experiment in Press Freedom • Andrew Pritchard • The relatively isolated circumstances of colonial Australia provide a natural laboratory for applying media system dependency theory following the end of government restrictions on the press. Quantitative content analysis of newspapers suggests publishers were more concerned with exploiting the end of their dependence on the government as censor than with minimizing their remaining dependence on the government as advertiser. Additionally, the analysis demonstrates the importance of accounting for unique historical circumstances in MSD theorizing.

Studying Facebook: The ethics of drawing a sample in the networked age • Sue Robinson, University of Wisconsin-Madison; Manisha Shelat, University of Wisconsin-Madison; David Wilcox • This article documents the benefits, limitations and ethics of using Facebook as a sampling frame for research. Drawing a sample from 102 journals and 13 disciplines, this research found the social networking site (SNS) comprises a site of inquiry, sample and methodological technique all in one. Although student surveys dominated as the primary tool for half our sample, this evidence showed nine other approaches, some very innovative. However few (4%) considered the public-versus-private and other ethical conundrums regarding data mining on Facebook sites. None fully capitalized on the networked opportunities innate in the SNS. Creating a working typology from a sampling of projects, this study discusses the ethics around visibility, replicability, traceability, sampling, contiguity of research space and the notion of informed consent in drawing a sample from Facebook and provides recommendations for scholars.

Introducing a Software-Based Method to Assess and Manipulate Visual Attention: Feasibility and Initial Validation • Lelia Samson, Indiana University; Erick Janssen • This article introduces a newly developed, software-based method to assess and manipulate visual attention. The method uses circular, transparent outlines (or ‘bubbles’) that move over the content of visual stimuli (e.g., images, video). To evaluate the feasibility and validity of this new method, a sample of 50 men was presented with same- and opposite-sex erotic stimuli in self-directed and manipulated visual attention conditions while their psychophysiological responses were recorded. Participants were instructed to select a bubble of their choice by using a computer mouse which kept selected content visible while the rest of the screen was dimmed. Only one bubble was made available during conditions in which visual attention was manipulated. Findings revealed that participants could successfully perform the experimental task and that their spontaneous, or self-directed, visual focus was consistent with their sexual orientation, as has been found in previous research. Furthermore, the new method successfully manipulated visual attention, which was reflected in the participants’ psychophysiological response patterns. The benefits of the newly developed application include the ability to measure and direct visual focus in multiple participants at a time. The advantages of using this method in communication, marketing, and other social science research are discussed.

Heuristic-systematic processing and the third-person perception of persuasive messages • Lelia Samson, Indiana University; Robert F. Potter, Indiana University • This study focuses on the cognitive processes underlying third-person perception (TPP), providing a more comprehensive understanding of how this robust media effect occurs. It provides empirical evidence suggesting that individual perception of the likely influence of media messages on self and on others adheres to the conceptualizations suggested by Chaiken’s Heuristic-Systematic Model (HSM; Chaiken, 1980; 1987; Eagly & Chaiken, 1993). The HSM claims that mental shortcuts activated during heuristic processing have the economic advantage of requiring comparatively little cognitive effort and time. We use this claim to guide hypotheses about response latency to questions about perceived influence of the persuasive messages. Participants (N = 151) were randomly assigned to a condition priming systematic processing or to a condition with no such prime. They then watched a series of 10 television ads, providing appraisals of their effect on self and on others after each. Response latency data were also collected for each appraisal. Results support an HSM-like process underlying the third-person perceptions, with subjects in the no-priming condition providing quicker responses overall, and shorter response latency in all participants when estimating the impact of persuasive messages on others than on themselves, indicative of greater heuristic processing.

The Peripheral Elaboration Model: How Incidental News Exposure Predicts Political Participation • Syed Saif Shahin, School of Journalism, University of Texas at Austin; Magdalena Saldaña, The University of Texas at Austin; Homero Gil de Zúñiga, University of Texas at Austin • Using U.S. two-wave-panel-data, this paper proposes a model to explain the mechanism through which incidental news exposure leads to political participation. It shows that heuristic cues in news items can trigger cognitive elaboration among media users, leading them to reflect on the news they stumble upon, even when they were not motivated to use the media for news and learning. Such “peripheral” elaboration mediates the positive link between incidental news exposure and political participation.

Reframing Gatekeeping: Proposing a Theoretical Link between Gatekeeping and Framing • Edson Tandoc, University of Missouri-Columbia • Framing and gatekeeping are common keywords in journalism research, yet their theoretical intersection has not been sufficiently explored. From qualitative interviews with newspaper and online journalists, this study explores influences on framing in the news and locates framing within the gatekeeping process. Frames influence whether or not a message passes a gate as much as they are also outputs of the gatekeeping process themselves.

The Facebook Experience: A phenomenology of Facebook use • Edson Tandoc, University of Missouri-Columbia; Patrick Ferrucci, U of Missouri • Based on the diaries and interviews of five Facebook users, we found that the phenomenology of Facebook use can be divided into three phases: managing intentions, experiencing the consequences of actions, and feeling a range of emotions. We propose that the theoretical framework we found in this study—of understanding the experience of Facebook as an experience of varying degrees of personal control—can be applied to understanding other social experiences as well.

Mapping an Audience Centric World Wide Web: A Departure from Hyperlink Analysis • Harsh Taneja • Studies of the hyperlink structure of the World Wide Web reveal a highly centralized core-periphery structure, with sites from developed nations at the center and those from the developing world at the periphery. This paper argues that hyperlinks merely reflect how the Web is structured by webmasters, and may play little role in structuring navigation pattern of web users, which may be driven by other cultural factors. To test this thesis, two networks of 1000 globally most popular Web Domains are constructed, one where ties are based on hyperlinks and the other using an “audience centric” approach with ties based on duplicated audience traffic between these domains. Analyses of the two networks reveal that unlike the centralized core-periphery structure suggested by hyperlink analysis, cultural factors such as language and geography drive actual audience flows resulting in a highly decentralized clustered network.

Finding Political Opinion Leaders in Both Online and Offline Environments • Stephanie Jean Tsang, University of Wisconsin-Madison; Hernando Rojas, University of Wisconsin – Madison • Most studies on opinion leaders in our field applied the personality strength scale developed by Noelle-Neumann (1983). However, such general scale might not be as helpful in predicting opinion leaders with regard to politics and current issues. Moreover, with the rise of online information seeking and giving, it is essential to examine whether our existing scales are capable of spotting the digital opinion leaders with regard to politics. Utilizing survey data collected in Colombia in 2012 (N = 1031), our findings suggest that the personality strength scale informs us little about political opinion leaders both offline and online, when compared to the issue-specific scale developed by Childer (1986). The theoretical implications of the findings are discussed.

Testing a model of sexual health information seeking via text messaging • Jessica Fitts Willoughby, University of North Carolina – Chapel Hill • Text message services are becoming an increasingly popular way to disseminate health information. A theory of information seeking through text messaging is posited based on previous theory and tested with adolescents (n=870). Intentions to use a text message service for sexual health information were influenced by an adolescents’ uncertainty discrepancy, affect, and evaluations related to the service (e.g., attitudes, credibility), although efficacy evaluations did not have a direct effect on intent. Implications are discussed.

Giving and Receiving Emotional Support Online: Communication Competence as a Moderator of Psychosocial Benefits for Women with Breast Cancer • Woohyun Yoo, University of Wisconsin – Madison; Kang Namkoong, University of Kentucky; Mina Choi, University of Wisconsin – Madison; Dhavan Shah; Stephanie Jean Tsang, University of Wisconsin-Madison; Yangsun Hong, University of Wisconsin – Madison; Michael Aguilar; David Gustafson • This study examines the moderating role of emotional communication competence in the relationship between computer-mediated social support (CMSS) group participation, specifically giving and receiving emotional support, and psychological health outcomes. Data were collected as part of randomized clinical trials for women diagnosed with breast cancer within the last 2 months. Expression and reception of emotional support was assessed by tracking and coding the 18,064 messages that 236 patients posted and read in CMSS groups. The final data used in the analysis was created by merging (a) computer-aided content analysis of discussion posts, (b) action log data analysis of system usage, and (c) baseline and six-month surveys collected to assess change. Results of this study demonstrate that emotional communication competence moderates the effects of expression and reception of emotional support on psychological quality of life and breast cancer-related concerns in both desired and undesired ways. Giving and receiving emotional support in CMSS groups has positive effects on emotional well-being for breast cancer patients with higher emotional communication, while the same exchanges have detrimental impacts on emotional well-being for those with lower emotional communication competence. The theoretical and practical implications for future research are discussed.

<<2013 Abstracts

Sports Communication 2013 Abstracts

The Legend that fell from his Bicycle: The Effects of Fanship on Athlete Support and Non-Profit Giving • Greg Armfield, New Mexico State University; Kristina Drumheller; R. Nicholas Gerlich; Enyonam Osei-Hwere, West Texas A & M University; Emily Kinsky • Once the most famous cyclist in America Lance Armstrong and the Livestrong Foundation, which he founded have suffered a fall from grace in recent months. Lance Armstrong after years of denial has admitted to using Performance Enhancing Drugs (PED) and was asked by his Livestrong Foundation to resign from Chairman of the Board, and later resign from the Board. Now with out their iconic leader this study explored the current perceptions of Lance Armstrong and the Armstrong foundation as well as contemplating the foundations future.

From Pride to Smugness and the Nationalism Between: Olympic Media Consumption Effects on Nationalism Across the Globe • Andrew Billings, University of Alabama; Natalie Brown, University of Alabama; Kenon Brown, University of Alabama; Qing Guo, Chengdu Sport University; Mark Leeman, Northern Kentucky University; Simon Licen, Washington State University; David Novak, Erasmus University; David Rowe, University of Western Sydney • To measure the effects of Olympic media viewing, six nations (Australia, Bulgaria, China, the Netherlands, Slovenia, and the United States) were surveyed in the five days immediately after the 2012 London Olympics. A total of 1,025 respondents answered questions pertaining to four measures of nationalism: patriotism, nationalism, internationalism, and smugness. Amount of Olympic viewing resulted in significantly higher scores for patriotism, nationalism, and smugness, but not internationalism. Additionally, differences by nation are reported, revealing considerable differences in nationalism measures among the six nations studied; for instance, the United States was the lowest of the six nations regarding internationalism, yet highest of the six nations regarding smugness. Conclusions related to cultivation theory and the role of Olympic media content are offered.

When Crises Change the Game: Establishing a Theory of Sports Crisis Communication • Natalie Brown, University of Alabama; Kenon Brown, University of Alabama • In order to conduct a proper evaluation of sports-related crises, scholars have called for a sports-specific crisis communication theory that moves beyond the corporate focus of Coombs’ (2012) Situational Crisis Communication Theory and the individual focus of Benoit’s (1995) Image Repair Theory. Coombs’ (2012) SCCT includes three vital parts that are used to systematically evaluate crisis response: (1) a list of crisis types that are grouped by the level of responsibility attributed to each; (2) a list of possible crisis response strategies, (3) a theoretical link between the two lists. Thus, this study used two questionnaires to formulate three different clusters of sports crises that encompassed twelve different crisis types: Environmental/Individual Crises (low crisis responsibility), Rules and Norms Violations (moderate crisis responsibility), and Organizational Mismanagement (strong crisis responsibility). These clusters provide the necessary foundation for a sports-specific crisis communication theory by evaluating the level of organizational blame that exists when a crisis occurs.

Does Culture Matter in Sport? The Moderating Role of Cultural Identity in Self-Expressive Identification and Sport Engagement • Kuan-Ju Chen, University of Georgia; Joe Phua, University of Georgia • This research examines and extends the literature of sport fandom and self-expressive identification with cultural identity among Asian sports fans. Study 1 tested the moderating role of cultural identity between player identification and team identification. Study 2 examined sports fans’ perception of sponsor-player fit and positive brand outcomes. The synthesis of both studies contributes to establishing the “fan psychology” of Asian sports consumers who identify with Asian athletes and its impact on their buying behavior.

Intermedia Attribute Agenda-Setting in the Newspaper of Record: Horse-Racing Coverage in 2012 • Bryan Denham • In 2012 the New York Times published a series of investigative reports addressing doping and fatal breakdowns in U.S. horse racing. This study examined the extent to which the Times transferred the salience of certain story attributes to regional and national news outlets. In addition to the Times itself, national news organizations included the Los Angeles Times and the Washington Post, as well as CNN, NBC and NPR, with regional coverage coming from the Albuquerque Journal. Among national news outlets, reports appearing after the Times began its investigation were significantly more likely to mention (a) an injured or deceased horse, (b) equine drug use, and (c) a suspension or disciplinary action taken against one or more individuals associated with horse racing. The study concludes that, in addition to its capacity to transfer object salience, the New York Times also stands to affect how other news organizations characterize issues and events.

Practicing promotion: A case study of a professional athlete’s Twitter use • Jason Genovese, Bloomsburg University of PA • This case study focuses on NFL star Darrelle Revis’ use of Twitter. Revis mainly devoted tweets to interacting with fans, friends and other athletes and to promoting his brand and that of his main sponsor, Nike. While this study extends the definition of what constitutes a promotional tweet, it also suggests that professional athletes may be overlooking Twitter’s value as a way to bypass traditional sports media for the purposes of sharing information.

The Essence of Social Media Strategy in Big 10 Athletic Departments: A Phenomenological Approach • Makayla Hipke; Frauke Hachtmann, University of Nebraska-Lincoln • This phenomenological study used a qualitative approach to develop an understanding of the essence of social media strategy developed and deployed in Big 10 athletic departments. In particular, this study attempted to understand what the participants experienced with the phenomenon and how they experienced it. The sample included four Big 10 athletic department officials that held social media leadership positions in their respective programs. The data consisted of in-depth interviews, which were analyzed using a phenomenological approach, consisting of horizontalization, clusters of meaning, textural and structural descriptions, and a narrative of the essence of the phenomenon. Six themes emerged, including (1) connecting with target audiences, (2) varied approaches in coordination of postings, (3) athletic communication as content gatekeepers, (4) desire to incorporate sponsors and generate revenue, (5) focusing on building loyalty through engagement, and (6) challenges of negativity and metrics.

More of a Numbers Game than Ever? A Longitudinal Examination of the Change in Frequency, Type, and Presentation Form of Statistics Used in NFL Broadcasts • Dustin Hahn; Matthew VanDyke, Texas Tech University • Though there remains great interest in the structure of sports media, no study has examined the use of statistics within these broadcasts. This study examines NFL broadcasts across its 50 year history in order to identify changes in frequency, type, and presentation form. The study revealed an emphasis on individual player statistics and recognized an increase in on-screen graphics while noticing a decrease in aural references among other results. Implications are discussed.

Diversifying the sports department and covering women’s sports: A survey of sports editors • Marie Hardin, Penn State University; Pamela Laucella, Indiana University; Steve Bien-Aime, Penn State University; Dunja Antunovic, Pennsylvania State University • This study involves a survey of sports editors about gender-related issues in hiring and coverage. The results suggest that the values and beliefs of sports editors have shifted over the past decade in ways that could lead to more opportunity for women as journalists and to eventual improvements in coverage of female athletes and women’s sports. They also suggest when sports editors commit to hiring women, they find women who can move up and become leaders.

Sports and Gangs: The Color-Blind Construction of Deviant Blackness in Sports Illustrated and CBS News • Justin Hudson, University of Maryland, College Park • This project critically analyzes a joint report by CBS News and Sports Illustrated on the issue of gangs and sports. Far from informing the public on the dangers of street gangs and their perverse influence on high school and college sports, the report serves as an example of how African American male athletes are stereotyped as deviant without the use of overt racial language.

How the Cleveland Call & Post Framed LeBron James Before and After The Decision • Paul Husselbee, Southern Utah University; Ray Jones, Southern Utah University • Using framing as a theoretical framework, this study focuses on how the Cleveland Call & Post portrayed LeBron James both before and after he announced his decision to leave Cleveland for the Miami Heat in 2010. The study aims is to determine whether the black press framed James with a valence that was favorable, neutral, or unfavorable, and to determine to what extent, if any, the black press maintained its traditional role as black advocate.

From bad buck to White hope: Mediating Sonny Liston, 1958-1965 • Phillip Hutchison, University of Kentucky • This study illustrates how mainstream journalists employed racial stereotypes to depict controversial African American boxer Sonny Liston in the early 1960s. The historical-critical analysis employs Raymond Williams’ theory of hegemony to account for the vacillating media portrayals of the boxer over time, particularly before and after Muhammad Ali emerged as a social problem for White America. This perspective highlights both the practices and the social fissures that defined sports and media promotions during that era.

Sports Spectatorship and Mood – Analyzing the Impact of Televised Sports on Viewers’ Mood and Judgments • Johannes Knoll, Würzburg University; Christiana Schallhorn, Würzburg University; Holger Schramm • Feelings evoked by watching sport television influence viewers’ judgments, following feeling-as-information theory. The present study investigates mood effects of viewing televised football FIFA World Cup games on personal as well as economic estimations of viewers. A quasi-experimental design was employed, assessing moods and estimations of viewers before and after a win and a defeat of the German national team. The results support feeling-as-information theory, as viewers reported enhanced mood and estimations after watching the victory.

Was Jackie Robinson Signed to Right a 40-Year Wrong? • Chris Lamb, Indiana University-Indianapolis • On October 23, 1945, the Montreal Royals, the Brooklyn Dodgers’ AAA team, announced it had signed Jackie Robinson, ending professional baseball’s color line. Branch Rickey, the Brooklyn president, said that he had given a lot of thought to racial discrimination since his days coaching baseball at Ohio Wesleyan University in 1903. Rickey recalled that during one road trip to South Bend, Indiana, a hotel clerk denied the team’s black ballplayer, Charles “Tommie” Thomas, a room. Rickey asked if the ballplayer would be allowed to sleep on a cot in his room. Later that evening, Rickey saw Thomas rubbing his skin, tearfully saying, “Black skin. Black skin. If only I could make them white. Rickey said the scene haunted him and he vowed he would sign blacks if given the opportunity. Did the South Bend incident really happen? How was Thomas treated as a black player at Ohio Wesleyan? More importantly, why did Rickey wait 40 years to right a wrong? This paper looks at Rickey’s claim by determining that his interest in confronting racism was indeed long standing. In addition, Rickey may have rarely, if ever, mentioned Thomas to reporters in the decades preceding the signing of Robinson, the ballplayer was more than a passing acquaintance in Rickey’s long and significant life. The research for this paper comes from newspaper and magazine articles, biographies, and, from Ohio Wesleyan University archives, including newspaper coverage of Thomas between 1903-1906 in the college’s newspaper, the Transcript.

“Talent Wins Games, But Teamwork Wins Championships”: The Effects of Cross-Border Strategic Brand Alliance on Sports Brand Evaluation • Jin Kyun Lee, University of Wisconsin Oshkosh; Taesoo Ahn, Merrimack College; Wei-Na Lee, The University of Texas at Austin • This experimental study examines the effects of country-of-origin (COO) fit on consumers’ attitudes toward sports brands in cross-border strategic brand alliance (SBA). Cross-border SBA positively influenced attitudes toward the partner in low COO fit condition. In high COO fit condition, support for the effect of cross-border SBA was found for the partner brand, not the host brand. This study finds that cross-border SBA is helpful for the partner brand in enhancing brand attitudes.

God’s (White) Quarterback: Tim Tebow, Religion and Enduring News Values • Michael Mirer, University of Wisconsin • Quarterback Tim Tebow “led the league in controversy” during 2011, a distinction often credited to controversy about his very public faith. This paper argues that Tebow’s faith was less a factor in the coverage than his status as a symbolic representation of conservative white racial identity. Using Gans’ enduring values in news coverage, it argues that Tebow tapped into a version of “small-town pastoralism” that accompanied political shifts in the U.S. since the 1970s.

What Sports Journalism Scholars Need to Know: Four Areas of Student-Athlete Privacy Invasion • Sada Reed, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill • This paper explains the laws that have been applied to four common types of student-athlete privacy invasions: Education records, names or likenesses, surveillance, and forced disclosures of information. By understanding how the law has been applied to these cases, sports journalism scholars can better understand how student-athlete privacy invasion cases will be interpreted in future cases. This is of particular interest, as technological advances may result in new legal and ethical challenges. Covering these events may be problematic for journalists if they do not understand how the law has been applied in the past.

Running With Social Media: Social Media Use, Athletic Identity, and Perceived Competence • Joanne Romero; Thomas Kelleher • Applying theory from communication and sport psychology, this study identified relationships between social media use and other factors related to marathon running. Dual samples of marathoners were surveyed. Results indicated social media use and athletic identity were correlated, and both factors were associated with observability of peers’ marathon activity via social media. Observability correlated with perceived competence, but perceived competence did not correlate significantly with actual competence. A model for future research is proposed.

From Yellow to Blue: Exploring Lance Armstrong’s Self-Presentation on Twitter • Marion Hambrick, University of Louisville; Evan Frederick, University of Southern Indiana; Jimmy Sanderson, Clemson Universityh • This research explored how cyclist Lance Armstrong used Twitter to self-present during 2012, a turbulent year in his career, as he was subjected to investigations from cycling governing bodies. Armstrong’s tweets during 2012 were subjected to a thematic analysis. Results indicated that Armstrong’s self-presentation allowed his followers to see his athletic commitment, personality, and advocacy efforts. The results suggest that athletes and celebrities who display a multi-faceted self-presentation embolden identification and attachment with followers and introduce competing media narratives surrounding their identity.

Welcome to the Big Leagues: An Examination of the Sports Homepage Content Architecture of Large-Market News Organizations • Tim Wulfemeyer, Amy Schmitz Weiss • This study examines the content architecture of the sports homepages of large-market news media organizations to determine what online features (multimedia, interactivity, social media) are being used to attract and inform audiences. Results show that newspapers and television stations are using multimedia, interactivity, and social media more than radio stations; however, the majority of the news media organizations are not maximizing the use and potential of such features.

Brand New Game: An Exploratory Study of How Sports Reporters are Using Social Media to Create a Personal Brand • Brad Schultz, University of Mississippi; Mary Lou Sheffer, University of Southern Mississippi • A theory of branding was applied to see if conditions exist for sports reporters to brand themselves separate from their media outlets. A questionnaire was sent to sports reporters (and non-sports reporters) to measure their attitudes related to branding. Results indicated that sports reporters place a high value on branding. Relevant findings include an emphasis on uniqueness to create a personal brand, and the need for media outlets to become more proactive with social media.

Post, Post, Post for the Home Team: Incentives for Beginning and Continuing Discussion in Baseball Blogs • Aaron Veenstra • Sports fan blogs provide key new outlets for fan engagement with live games and with each other. This study examines how and how much fans became engaged with discussion of live baseball games in 2012, across 16 SBNation.com blogs. Three areas of influence are examined – team-related and schedule-related pre-game factors, and in-game factors. Results show team success and weekday game attract new discussion participants, while high scoring and weekend games prompt the most extensive participation.

The tweet life of Erin and Kirk: A gendered analysis of professional sports broadcasters’ self-presentation on Twitter • Melinda Weathers, Clemson University; Jimmy Sanderson, Clemson Universityh; Pauline Matthey; Alexia Grevious; Maggie Tehan; Samantha Warren • Social media has been embraced by the sports world at an extraordinary pace, and as such, has become a way for sports broadcasters to redefine their roles as celebrities. However, given the gender bias inherent in sports, it is plausible that differences exist between female and male sports broadcasters’ self-presentation on Twitter. This study employed content analyses, guided by Goffman’s (1959) seminal theory of self-presentation to compare Erin Andrews and Kirk Herbstreit’s tweets during the 2012-2013 college football season. Findings indicate that both broadcasters self-presentation fell along traditional gender lines as Andrews primarily discussed personal aspects, whereas Herbstreit largely provided sports-related commentary and analysis. The results suggest that although Twitter provides an avenue for female sports broadcasters to break down gender barriers, it currently serves to reify their roles in sports broadcasts.

Shut out by coaches • Scott Winter, University of Nebraska-Lincoln • Sports editors, columnists and beat reporters from newspapers who cover football teams from major Bowl Championship Series conferences find their access to players and coaches diminishing or diminishing dramatically since they began their careers. Though they attribute limited access to many factors – from the exclusive access of television contracts and in-house university media to the influx of nontraditional media and general media-relations interference – the journalists primarily blame their inability to do their jobs effectively on coaches. Some of them believe in fighting back, particularly at public institutions, but others argue that newspaper journalists must simply get more creative. In an exploratory study, this paper seeks to find the causes of access problems for newspaper sports journalists and start a conversation about possible solutions.

<<2013 Abstracts

Religion and Media 2013 Abstracts

Silencing Religious Dialogue: Religious Communication Apprehension among Muslims in the United States • Mariam Alkazemi, University of Florida Using the spiral of silence as a theoretical framework, the current study explores the degree to which the mass media influences dialogue about religion among Muslim Americans. Survey data were collected from members of religious and cultural organizations across the United States in the summer of 2012. Participants (N=166) responded to an electronic questionnaire that addressed several variables, including media use, religiosity, willingness to communicate about religion, tolerance for disagreement about religion, and receiver’s apprehension about religion. The results show that Muslims who watch more television are less likely to be willing to communicate about religion within the context of an interpersonal relationship. The current study contributes to the scholarship of media and religion by providing evidence of the spiral of silence phenomenon when the minority group is a religious one.

Use of Online Social Networking Channels for Religious and Political Communication:Examining the Distinct Role of Intrinsic, Extrinsic and Quest Religiosity Under Varied Circumstances • Mian Asim, University of Florida In order to make more accurate determination of the role of personal religiosity on online social networks for religious communications, extrinsic, intrinsic and quest religiosity were identified, measured treated separately in hierarchical multiple regression models. Subsequently, religious communication was replaced by political communication under the same conditions to draw parallel comparisons. Results indicate that people have special circumstantial reasons to adopt online social networks as a routine communicative medium to incorporate in their respective religions.

Religion, Popular Culture and Social Media: The Construction of a Religious Leader Image on Facebook • Ioana Coman; Mihai Coman In both media and religious studies, the investigation of the image the religious leaders have in popular culture, benefited unequally from researchers’ interest. Starting from recent Applebee’s social media crisis, which was triggered by a pastor, the present study investigated the frames and themes Facebook users employed in order to give meaning to the crisis, attribute responsibility, and more important, define the role of a religious leader in daily life.

Religious Leaders in Crisis: An Analysis of Image Restoration Strategies and Strategies • Melody Fisher The following study employs content analysis to examine the crisis communication responses and audience reception of religious leaders involved in scandal. Benoit’s Image Repair Strategies and the Contingency Theory are used to determine the strategies and stances of mega-church leaders: Jim Bakker, Ted Haggard, Eddie Long, Henry Lyons and Jimmy Swaggart. News framing theory determined media and audience reception of the religious leaders’ crisis communication responses. The study concludes that the Religious leaders’ dominant strategies were bolstering and denial, and their media portrayals were balanced.

Relying on Divine Intervention? An Analysis of Church Crisis Management Plans • Hilary Fussell Sisco, Quinnipiac University; Randi Plake, Quinnipiac University; Erik Collins, School of Journalism & Mass Com., University of South Carolina Research suggests (Kirkpatrick, 2011) that most individual churches have not taken the steps necessary to create coherent crisis management plans that take into account the concerns of their major stakeholders. Employing Coombs’ (2007) three-phase approach to crisis management as a guideline, the researchers conducted a qualitative analysis of church crisis management plans to investigate how prepared these organizations are for a potential reputational crisis

Muslim American Youth: Media Consumption and Identity • Patricia Hernandez, California Baptist University Several studies have examined minority media portrayals and the impact on youth; however, there is a lack of research including religion as a minority group. Religion is understood to be a key aspect of racial and ethnic identity. This article explores the relationship between Muslim American Youth identity and media consumption. In addition the article demonstrates that media is one element of culture that can shape and constrain religious identity, ethnic identity, self esteem, and perceived discrimination.

Broadcasting Sharia: American TV News’ Illustration of Social Identity and the Emergence of a Threat • Jennifer Hoewe, The Pennsylvania State University; Brian J. Bowe, Michigan State University; Naheda Makhadmeh, Michigan State University Using social identity theory, this study examined the portrayal of sharia on ABC, CBS, and NBC. A ten-year content analysis showed that sharia was continually paired with mentions of the United States, reinforcing its representation as the in-group, and non-Western countries, forming an out-group comparison. A significant and positive relationship between mentions of non-Western countries and connotatively negative topics positioned individuals associated with sharia – most often Muslims – within the out-group.

Overstating the “Mormon Problem”: Media coverage of Mitt Romney’s faith identity in the 2012 presidential campaign • Jesse Holcomb, Pew Research Center A content analysis of media coverage during the 2012 presidential campaign finds that attention to candidate Mitt Romney’s Mormon faith was infrequent, yet when it appeared, was often negative in tone, and tied to a narrative of evangelical distrust. The study concludes that media figures may have overstated the notion that Mormonism was a liability for conservative evangelical voters, who were concerned about economic and social issues more than religious identity.

The discourse of ‘umma’ as defined by daily Islam • Faizullah Jan, School of Communication, American University, D.C. News publications of militant organizations in Pakistan discursively create identities through a set of antagonistic relationships, articulating the identities of us versus them. The identity of umma, or global Muslim community, is created in opposition to the ‘Other’, which has real-life consequences for religious minorities within Pakistan and for the peace in the region and the world at large. These publications construct an ‘enemy’ whose identity is purely negative and cannot be represented positively in a given discursive formation. I have used Laclau & Mouffe’s (1985) discourse theory to analyze the discourse of daily Islam, which is published by a pro-al Qaeda militant organization. The main argument of this paper is to stress the importance of social antagonism when an identity of “us” is created in opposition to a constitutive outside. This constitutive outside becomes “them” or the “other”, which is demonized and dehumanized as the result of a successful articulation or ‘chaining’ of the subject in the flow of discourse.

Misconception of Barack Obama’s religion: A content analysis of cable news coverage of the president • Joseph Kasko, University of South Carolina; Webster Larry, University of South Carolina; Heflin Frank, University of South Carolina A 2010 Pew Research poll found 18 percent of people wrongly identified Barack Obama as Muslim and only 34 percent correctly identified him as Christian. This was a shift from previous polls that showed roughly half of respondents could identify his religion. This work examines cable news coverage of Obama’s religion from November 2007 to July 2010. The authors suggest that media coverage of Obama’s ties to Islam may have helped to fuel the misconception.

Hijab Hip Hoppers: Constructing Narratives of Struggles and Identity Through Hip Hop Music • Nancy Katu-Ogundimu This paper is a textual analysis of the lyrics of selected female Muslim rappers from the United States and Europe. The paper examined how music as a strategic communication tool is providing a platform for female Muslim rappers to construct narratives about their struggles and identities as post-September 11 Muslims. Findings reveal that Muslimahs are challenging traditional Islamic narratives about their gender, religion and career choice.

Religion on Social Networking Media • Hyojin Kim, University of Florida; Mian Asim, University of Florida This paper reports findings of an exploratory study that religious involvement such as frequency of worship and membership in a religious organization are significant predictors of individuals’ engagement in religious activities on social networking sites as well as on the Internet. In addition, variations in individuals’ cultural orientation are found to be significantly related to the degree of individuals’ online religious activities. Suggestions for future research and implications for utilizing social networking media as an active channel of religious communication are discussed.

Tebowing: The Role of Religious Primes on Disposition Formation and the Appreciation of Sports News • William Kinnally, University of Central Florida; Megan Fitzgerald, Nova Southeastern University The purpose of this study was to use priming and affective disposition theories to examine how religious primes in sports news can influence judgments of media characters (disposition formation) and appreciation of the media content. Participants (396) were randomly assigned to read one of three sports news features in which an athlete expresses a religious association (either Christian or Muslim) or no religious association. Disposition toward the athlete was more positive for the articles including the expression of religious affiliation compared to the control article. However, the article in the Christian condition was evaluated more positively than the other two articles. Linear regression was used to examine the impact of sports interest, religious affiliation, and religiosity schemas on disposition and appreciation for each condition. Religiosity and sports interest explained disposition toward the athlete and appreciation of the article in the Christian condition while only religiosity explained appreciation of the article in the Muslim condition. This study extends the literature by examining how attribute cues such as religious affiliation in media coverage of athletes can prime cognitive and affective constructs that relate to disposition formation and media appreciation.

What Are They Really Selling? A Content Analysis of Advertisements During Religious Television Programming • Stephen Gray, The University of Kansas; Alexandra Inglish; Tejinder Singh Sodhi; Tien-Tsung Lee, University of Kansas This study quantitatively analyzed the content of television commercials aired during religious programs to determine the categories of products being promoted and the primary method used by advertisers to appeal to highly religious consumers. Medical and life related products are the largest category. Fear-related appeals occurred in the advertisements at the high rate of 81%. The results suggested that marketers attempt to appeal to Christian fundamentalist viewers with fears, anxieties and doubts.

Death, Rebirth, Love, and Faith: Theological Narrative in Secular Cinema Kangming Ma, Hampton University Scripps Howard School of Journalism and Communications • As a narrative medium and art form, film has been one of the best ways in which any aspect of culture can be reflected and become rich theological resource. This paper examines how themes in five secular films—freedom of will, death, loneliness, love and faith—echo those in the Bible. The results show that today it is still possible for Christians to influence the society by interpreting the divine message transcended through secular films.

Having the last word, but losing the culture wars: Mainstream press coverage of a canceled evangelical benediction • Rick Moore, Boise State University This study examines how mainstream news media reported the withdrawal of a popular pastor from the 2013 Obama inaugural ceremony. Louie Giglio was originally chosen for a role in the event, but withdrew when focus was placed on a sermon he once delivered about homosexuality. Analysis of framing and sourcing of the stories raises serious questions about the role media played in reporting about this skirmish, which is clearly part of the larger culture wars.

“The Grandest, Most Compelling Story of All Time!”: Dominant Themes of Christian Media Marketing • Jim Trammell, High Point University This manuscript analyzes the marketing campaigns of five best-selling Christian books and albums to identify their dominant themes. The literary/critical analysis notes how Christian media marketing lauds the artists as Christian role models, projects themes of inspiration and empowerment onto the media, and addresses the media’s aesthetic qualities. Ultimately, the marketing campaigns perpetuate a definition of “Christianity” that privileges how the consumer feels about him or herself over other Christian beliefs or themes.

Downloadable and Streaming: Using the PodCred Framework to Assess Religious Podcasts • Richard D. Waters, University of San Francisco; Anneliese Carolina Niebauer, University of San Francisco Through a content analysis of one-half of the top religious podcasts in iTunes (n = 90), this study examines whether the PodCred framework can be used to determine which podcasts are more popular and rated more favorably than others. Findings indicate that religious podcasts moderately incorporate the four dimensions and reveal that PodCred dimensions significantly correlate to increased downloads but not necessarily to user ratings. Findings are connected to literature on religious communication online.

<<2013 Abstracts