Public Relations Divisions
Comparison of Indirect Sources of Efficacy Information in Pretesting Messages to Prevent Drunken Driving • Ronald B. Anderson, University of Texas at Austin • This experiment tested the impact of two forms of symbolic modeling and verbal persuasion on self-efficacy beliefs and intentions to prevent a friend from driving drunk. Three efficacy-information public service announcements were produced to raise participants; beliefs in their abilities to intervene successfully: a behavioral-modeling message, which demonstrated the prevention skills; a verbal-modeling message, which described the skills; and a persuasive message, which only encouraged intervention.
Beating the Odds: How the American Football League Used Public Relations to “Win” a War Against a Monopoly • William B. Anderson, University of Scranton • No professional sports group ever achieved acceptance as widespread within a single decade’s span as the American Football League (AFL). This study chronicles how the AFL used public relations strategies and tactics to garner public acceptance, which in turn helped convince the older National Football League to merge with the upstart league.
Overcoming the Stigma of Discrimination: Applying a New Management Philosophy and Integrated Communication To Restore The Reputation Of Denny’s Restaurants • Alik Anso, Richard Nelson and Stephen Matthews • Abstract not available.
The Effect of Prior Corporate Reputation on Public Attitudes Toward a Company • Public Suspicion as a Mediating Variable • Jiyang Bae, University of Missouri-Columbia • This study attempted to verify whether prior corporate reputation affects public perceptions toward corporate philanthropic messages and ultimately affects public attitudes toward the company. The study’s five hypotheses were all supported with an experiment method. 72 undergraduate students were participated in this study. Participants inferred corporate charitable giving as a mutually beneficial activity when a company had a good reputation (H 1). Participants inferred corporate charitable giving as a self-interested activity when the company had a bad reputation (H2).
Cultural Awareness: Hispanic Public Relations Practitioners’ Perceptions of Effective Communication with Hispanic Publics • Cristina Proañlo Beazley, University of Louisiana at Lafayette • As the Hispanic publics continue to grow in the United States, public relations departments must be prepared to communicate effectively with them. This exploratory study examines cultural awareness from the viewpoint of Hispanic public relations practitioners who communicate with Hispanic publics as part of their practice. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with eleven Hispanic public relations practitioners who work with Hispanic publics.
Building Relationships with Child Publics: Study of the Content of Nutrition Websites for Children • Denise Bortree, University of Florida • Abstract not available.
Finding a Conceptual Basis for Communicating about Terrorism: Is Terrorism ‘Extreme’ Activism? How do we Respond Ethically? • Shannon A. Bowen, University of Houston • Abstract not available.
Engineering the Continuation of a Non-judgmental U.S.-China Relations in the Tumultuous Post-Cold War World: An Overview of the Chinese Public Relations Campaign in the U.S. in 1990s Xiaowei Chen, Louisiana State University • This case study of the Chinese public relations campaign examines the geopolitical-ideopolitical context, identifies the key stakeholders, interprets their message strategy and issue management, and finally, illustrates how the Chinese public relations contributes to the delinkage of the U.S.-China trade from human rights issue.
A Study of Journalists’ Perception of Candidates’ Websites and Their Relationships with the Campaign Organization in Taiwan’s 2004 Presidential Election • Yi-Ning Katherine Chen, National Cheng-Chi University • This investigation is designed to gain insight into what the perceptions are for journalists in using a candidate’s website as a news gathering tool. Drawing upon the somewhat limited research to date, this study also seeks to explore how journalists’ perception of the websites affects their relationships with the campaign organization. The results show that the some of the perceptions of such websites, as related to the relationship components, suggest that a candidate’s website may enhance this relationship.
Closing the Deal: The Use of Snow & Benfords’s Core Framing Functions on Activist Websites • Erik L. Collins, University of South Carolina, Lynn M. Zoch, University of Miami and Daniel C. Walsh, University of South Carolina • The researchers used an adapted version of the core framing functions model first introduced by Snow and Benford (1988) in conjunction with a content analysis of Websites to discover whether activist organizations are using methods described in the theory to strengthen the communication on their Websites.
Ethical Discussion in Peer Reviewed Public Relations Journals: A Content Analysis • Benton Danner and Michael A. Mitrook, University of Florida • Content analysis concerning the nature of ethical discussion in peer reviewed public relations journals was performed on a total of 721 articles from four scholarly journals covering the period 1998-2004.
An Evolutionary Model of Organization-Activist Relationships • Elizabeth Dougall • University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill • The propositions of an evolutionary model of organization-activist relationships are advanced anticipating associations between variations in the public opinion environment of an organizational population and the evolution of organization-activist relationships. Variations are described using four dimensions: stability (turnover of issues), complexity (the number of issues in the issue set), intensity (volume of media coverage), and direction (favorability of media coverage for the focal population).
Legal Implications of IMC for Public Relations •Kathy R. Fitzpatrick, DePaul University• The application of First Amendment commercial speech doctrine to integrated marketing communication (IMC) demonstrates that the integration of public relations with advertising and marketing may dilute the constitutional protection afforded corporate speech. This analysis of U.S. Supreme Court decisions shows that by combining political expression, i.e., public relations, with commercial expression, i.e., advertising and marketing, a corporation may expand the range of communications that may be defined and regulated as commercial speech.
The Status of Public Relations Research in the Leading Journals between 1995 and 2004 • Eyun-Jung Ki and Hyoungkoo Khang, University of Florida • This study analyzes the trends, patterns and rigors of research studies pertaining to public relations through a content analysis of published public relations articles from two leading public relations journals between 1995 and 2004. Four hundred and three articles from the two journals were collected. Each article was coded by the year of its publication, the name of the journal, author(s)’ name, affiliation, and country of author(s)’ affiliation, research topics, research methods, sampling methods, response rates, intercoder reliability, and statistical analysis.
Exploring Town-Gown Relations: Community Relations in a University Setting • Sei-Hill Kim, Brigitta R. Brunner and Margaret Fitch-Hauser, Auburn University • Analyzing data from a telephone survey of local residents, this study examined the role of community relations in higher education. Our data supported the idea that various contributions to local communities may produce a favorable pubic image of a university. More importantly, residents who were more aware of the contributions showed greater willingness to support the university.
The News Release Format For The 21 Century: A Receiver-Based Model For The Electronic Medium • Thomas Klipstone, University of South Carolina • A content analysis of electronic news releases shows that electronic news releases are basically an electronic version of traditional print public relations material that is not being formatted or structured to fit the qualities and advantages of the electronic medium. This study reviews the current status of the electronic news release format and suggests an electronic news release format suited to take advantage of the qualities of the receiver-based medium.
Christina’s Doin’ It… So Should I? • The Nature of Celebrity Health Advocacy and Advice in Media • Julie C. Lellis, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill • Abstract not available.
Crisis Communications Preparedness Among U.S. Organizations: Activities and Assessments by Public Relations Practitioners • Rhegan McDaniel and Kirk Hallahan, Colorado State University • A survey of U.S. public relations practitioners (n=126) found that three-quarters of their employer organizations have a written crisis communications plan and that organizations, as a whole, were reasonably prepared to engage in crisis communications. Preparedness was measured based on the presence of a crisis plan as well as a tactics index; a training index; indices related to the maintenance of lists of employees, media and stakeholders; and the monitoring of the print and broadcast media and the Internet.
Assessing and Managing Reputation among Multiple Stakeholder Groups of a Health Care Organization Seen Through the Lens of Identity and Identification • Angela K. Mak, Iowa State University • This paper uses PeaceHealth Medical Group as an example to assess a health care organization’s reputation among various key stakeholder groups seen through the lens of identity and identification. An elite interview and eight focus groups (i.e. donors, volunteers, community leaders, local community, support staff, media, nurses, and doctors) were conducted. The different dimensions of primary and secondary reputation from stakeholder groups revealed that a reputation held by a specific stakeholder group is based on the strength of its relationship with the organization.
The Syllogism of Apologia: Rhetorical Stasis Theory and Crisis Communication • Charles Marsh, University of Kansas • Rhetorical stasis theory – the process of identifying a debate’s core issue – can provide a hierarchical structure for crisis response strategies. The author proposes that the accusation in a crisis situation – the kategoria — has a syllogistic form, allowing crisis managers to decide whether to attack an accusation at its minor premise level, major premise level or conclusion. Stasis theory posits three content-related issues categories.
Is the Press Legitimizing the “Truth”? An Examination of the Third Party Endorsements of the “Truth” National Anti- tobacco Campaign • Jensen Moore and Fred Vultee, University of Missouri-Columbia • This study used discourse analysis to examine the positive press coverage (i.e. third party endorsements) of the “Truth” national anti-tobacco campaign. Thirty-nine national and regional articles from 1999-2005 were analyzed. The findings provide insights into the central themes, identifiable images, and dominant discourse presented by the media about the campaign. Results of this study are important because little is known about the legitimizing force of the press in regard to these campaigns.
Why do Students Major In Public Relations? A Study of Factors Influencing a Student’s Choice of Major, and Gender Similarities and Differences • Gina J. Noble, Oklahoma State University • This study surveyed public relations majors to determine the factors influencing the selection of their major in an effort to help public relations educators, advisers and counselors better understand the motivations and expectations of these students. The study attempts to provide information regarding why students decide to major in public relations, how students perceive the major and its job opportunities, common misperceptions regarding the profession, and gender similarities and differences of students selecting the major.
Sources and Synergies: News Media Discussion of Public Relations and Ethics • Bonnie Parnell Riechert, University of Tennessee • News media discussion of public relations and ethics is investigated in a computer-assisted content analysis of articles mentioning both “public relations” and “ethics” in The New York Times from 1988-2004. Themes in coverage are identified. The Public Relations Society of America and its code of ethics are represented in the coverage, indicating some success in frame sponsorship. The phrase “public relations” is used in a variety of ways; implications for practitioners and educators are discussed.
Effects of Endorsement Type and Expertise Indicators on Web Credibility • Amy Robinson-Russ and Marilee Long, Colorado State University • This study investigated the effects of endorsement type and author expertise on online credibility. It was hypothesized that subjects would perceive an online message endorsed by a third party (news organization) as more credible than one endorsed by a first party (corporation), and that subjects who received additional author information would assign higher credibility to the message than those who received the author’s name. Results showed no significant difference in how subjects perceived message credibility.
The Dialogic Potential of Weblogs in Relationship Building • Trent Seltzer, University of Florida • Previous research has revealed a gap between the relationship-building potential of traditional Websites, the objectives of public relations practitioners, and the actual design of organizational Web sites. A content analysis of 50 environmental weblogs was conducted to identify the existence of dialogic principles that can be used to effectively build relationships online. Comparisons between weblogs and traditional Web sites suggest that weblogs may incorporate these principles to a greater degree than traditional Web sites.
The Death of the Models: A Meta-Analysis of Modem Dimensions in Public Relations • Bey-Ling Sha, San Diego State University • In recent years, the venerated models of public relations have been reconceptualized as dimensions of public relations behavior. This article examines the internal reliabilities of items across three studies constructing the “classic dimensions” of two-way, symmetrical, ethical, interpersonal, and mediated communication – as well as the “cutting-edge dimensions” of social activities and conservation – concluding with recommendations of specific items shown by meta-analysis to be the most valid measures of the new dimensions of public relations.
Crossing boundaries: Comparing online media relations of Fortune 100 companies’ U.S. vs. China corporate sites • Ying Sun, Ohio University • While Web sites have become important corporate communications tools globally, no research has addressed the application of the Web to media relations in an international setting. This exploratory study compared media relations strategies as evident in the U.S. and Chinese corporate sites of American companies. Using content analysis, this paper examined how these sites address journalists’ information needs and facilitate two-way symmetrical communication, and investigated how country-specific contexts influence the application of public relations models
Strategic Public Relations Based on a Scenario Approach: A Case of an Insurance Company • MinJung Sung, University of New York • Abstract not available.
Lowering the Bar: Privileged Court Filings as Substitutes for Press Releases in the Court of Public Opinion • Samuel Terilli, Sigman Splichal and Paul Driscoll University of Miami • In the civil lawsuit against Kobe Bryant for sexual assault, the judge admonished lawyers for engaging in “public relations litigation” – the use of pleadings to attract media attention and try cases in the court of public opinion. This paper looks at the legal ramifications of such practices. It concludes that lawyers and public relations professionals can responsibly use court documents to communicate with the public, so long as they do not abuse the process.
Lobbying as Advocacy Public Relations and its “Unspoken” Code of Ethics • Kati A. Tusinski, University of Oregon • This paper examines lobbying as a form of advocacy public relations. Interviews and document analysis are used to illustrate the advocacy function of lobbying and questions the ethics of such work. This research fills two visible gaps in the public relations body of knowledge by continuing to develop advocacy as a function of public relations and by contributing to the development of lobbying as a profession by studying the ethical frameworks lobbyists employ to their work.
Organizational Credibility as a function of Source Trust • Edward Vieira and Susan Grantham, University of Hartford • This study examined the role of affect and reason in cognitive involvement, comprehension, message credibility, and subsequent attitude formation. The results indicate that the model was driven by comprehension and involvement in processing the message. The non-profit designation (versus for-profit) was significantly linked to level of involvement with the message and subsequently source credibility and a positive attitude toward the topic.
Cross-National Conflict Shifting: A Case Study of the DuPont Teflon Crisis in China • Yimin Wang and Juan-Carlos Molleda, University of Florida • The purpose of this paper is to illustrate and support the theory of cross-national conflict shifting through a case study of a transnational crisis, the DuPont Teflon crisis in China. This recent corporate crisis originated from the United States due to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s administrative action against DuPont, which instantly shifted to China where it transformed into a consumer product safety crisis. A triangulation of qualitative and quantitative methods was used.
Fund Raising on the Internet: A Content Analysis of ePhilanthropy Trends on the Internet sites of the Organizations on the Philanthropy 400 • Richard D. Waters, University of Florida • To evaluate the current status of ePhilanthropy, a stratified random sample of the Chronicle of Philanthropy’s “Philanthropy 400” was content analyzed for variables identified in practitioner and scholarly literature on accountability, fund-raising practices, and communication strategies. Analysis found that the top fund-raising organizations provided their annual reports, organizational goals, and mission statements while second tier organizations were more likely to use a sales and marketing approach by using e-commerce technology to process on-line donations.
The Practitioner Roles of Fund Raising: An Assessment of Gender Differences • Richard D. Waters and Kathleen S. Kelly, University of Florida and Mary Lee Walker, Consultant Orlando, FL • A national study of members of the Association for Healthcare Philanthropy found that Kelly’s (1998) adaptation of public relations roles-liaison, expert prescriber, problem-solving process facilitator, and technician-account for the daily activities of fund-raising practitioners. Similar to public relations studies, all but the last role were found to be highly correlated, indicating a two role typology might be a better descriptor. One-way ANOVAs revealed that males enacted managerial roles more than females; however, no significant differences were found for the technician role.
Web Presence of Universities: Is Higher Education Sending the Right Message Online? • Elizabeth M. Will and Coy Callison, Texas Tech University • Web sites of the 3738 U.S.-based colleges and universities were sampled and analyzed to determine how higher education employs the internet to communicate to key publics overall and students in particular. analysis revealed prospective donors are the most often-targeted public followed by faculty/staff. Prospective and current students followed. In better news to students, the five items students most often seek on the Web were the five most common items linked from university home pages.
A Benchpoint Global Analysis of How Research is Used in Public Relations Throughout the World • Donald K. Wright, University of South Alabama and Michelle Hinson, University of Florida • Although research has been an important part of public relations for more than half a century, the use of research, measurement and evaluation in the field varies dramatically. While many have advocated the use of research through public relations textbooks, the scholarly literature contains few studies measuring how research actually is used in public relations.
An Analysis of Nonprofit Organizations’ Web Pages for Public Relations: Focus on Media Relations, Donor Relations, and Interactive Communication Features • Hye Min Yeon, University of Florida • This study is to examine how the 100 largest nonprofit organizations utilize their Web sites for donor relations, volunteer relations, media relations and their interactive communication features. The result of this study revealed that most of selected organizations were effectively using the Web sites and donor relations were utilized the best. However, there is no relationship neither between public relations activities and grouped Web sites based on the revenues, nor between interactive communication features and the grouped Web sites.
Dictating the News: Understanding Newsworthiness from the Journalistic Perspective • Lynne M. Zoch and Dustin W. Supa, University of Miami • This study looks at previous research done in journalism and public relations to identify eight factors that determine newsworthiness. A content analysis of news releases from public and private corporations was then used to determine if they contained the eight factors identified by the research. The analysis indicated that only two of the eight factors were being used regularly in the releases, and that the majority of the releases would not be considered newsworthy by journalists.
Public Relations Writing: What do Agencies Want? • Kurt Wise, DePaul • This study explored the perceptions of public relations professional working in agency settings concerning the writing skill of entry-level practitioners and public relations writing pedagogy. Focus group participants indicated writing for the Web required a different approach than other writing tasks in an agency setting. Professionals also contended educators spend too much time emphasizing news releases and not enough time on other types of writing such as telephone and/or email pitches.
What Do They Get When They “Give Back?” A Three-Year Study of Public Relations Student Attitudes Toward Civic Engagement • Lisa T. Fall, University of Tennessee • The purpose of this three-year study is to assess how using what students learn in the classroom during internships influences their attitudes toward certain civic engagement issues. Results demonstrate that having more opportunities to use what they learned while on the job significantly predicts career choices as well as attitudes toward who they believe benefits most (themselves, organization, supervisor, community, target public/s) and how valued they believe their contributions are to their employer and to them personally.
Why are More Women than Men Attracted to the Field of Public Relations? Analyzing Students’ Reasons for Studying PR • J. Rebecca Folmar and Lois A. Boynton, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill • This quantitative study explores why more young women than young men are attracted to the collegiate study of public relations and choose to join the public relations workforce professionally. Women’s reasons for being attracted to public relations included: it is a profession for which they feel well-suited, allowing opportunities for relationship building, interpersonal communication, and creativity; and it is a broad, portable career path that allows opportunities for advancement as well as flexibility for family demands.
The Gatekeeper Interview Assignment: Teaching Public Relations Students How to Write for the News Media and to Conduct Media Relations Effectively • Elizabeth A. Johnson and Lynne M. Sallot, University of Georgia • This study uses the results of two focus group discussions, and telephone and e-mail interviews with 33 students who had completed “gatekeeper interviews” in public relations writing courses to judge the pedagogical value of the assignment. The gatekeeper interview requires students to interview in the newsroom working journalists who make decisions about using content that has a public relations practitioner influence in the news.
Teaching (About) International Public Relations: An Examination of Individual and Institutional Attributes of Public Relations Educators in the United States • Angela K. Mak and Jane W. Peterson, Iowa State University • This paper updates Parker’s (1995) international public relations (IPR) education study by surveying PR educators on the AEJMC PRD mailing list. Results show significant changes in the past ten years in international perspectives in PR courses, the number of IPR courses offered by schools, and individual and institutional attributes between educators who teach IPR and those who do not. Suggestions for PR educators, school administrators, and graduate students in the US are discussed.
Building a Stronger PRSSA chapter: What Self Determination Theory Tells Us About the Importance of Motivation and Need Satisfaction • Robert S. Pritchard, Vincent F. Filak and Lindsay L. Beach, Ball State University • This study uses self-determination theory to predict the impact of need satisfaction and intrinsic motivation on PRSSA members. While higher levels of need satisfaction universally predicted more positive ratings of both the PRSSA chapter and adviser, Teahan award winners were significantly more positive in their ratings of all of these variables. Furthermore, students who felt more intrinsically motivated reported a greater likelihood that they would persist in PRSSA and transition to PRSA upon graduation.
Sources and Synergies: News Media Discussion of Public Relations and Ethics • Bonnie Parnell Riechert, Tennessee • Abstract not available.
Portrayal of Public Relations in Mass Communication Textbooks • Candace White and Thomasena Shaw, University of Tennessee • A qualitative textual analysis of how public relations is portrayed in the most commonly used textbooks in introductory mass communication courses was conducted to see if portrayal has improved since Carolyn Cline’s similar study in 1982. The theoretical premise was that the literature indicates that journalists are socialized to hold negative attitudes toward public relations, and that socialization begins in the academy. Results show portrayal has improved, but negative attitudes continue to be expressed in textbooks.
Survival in Paradise: How Local Identity Helped Save the Honolulu Star Bulletin • Ann Auman, University of Hawaii • This study analyzes identity and culture at the Honolulu Star-Bulletin and how these helped save it from a closure attempt by Gannett Co. Inc. This paper theorizes that distinctive attributes related to the paper’s identity, history and cultural and political influences that were unique to Hawaii kept it afloat. This study analyzes interviews with newsroom staff members and articles to illuminate the Star-Bulletin’s identity and its connection to its survival.
Shielded From the Feds? An Examination of the Proposed Federal Shield Laws • Courtney Barclay, Florida • Journalists are facing an unprecedented use of federal subpoenas to compel the disclosure of confidential and non-confidential information. The lower federal courts, in determining the extent of protection of a reporter’s privilege, have been inconsistent. However, Congress may finally be ready to defend the reporter’s privilege–creating a federal shield law. This paper analyzes the two bills proposed before Congress in 2005 that, if passed, would create a statutory reporter’s privilege.
Hype or Hope? Washington Post Coverage of Hormone Replacement: 1950-2004 • Marlene Cimons, Maryland • The purpose of this study was to examine more than a half-century of Washington Post coverage of hormone replacement therapy (HRT). A content analysis and critical reading found positive themes during early years; risks were reported later, a harbinger of the results of the 2002 Women’s Health Initiative. Within an agenda setting framework, it appears the media reported the dangers, but readers did not take them seriously until the coverage became too prominent to ignore.
Newsroom Marriage Encounters: The Extent to Which Cross-Media Partnerships Display Convergence-based Behaviors • Larry Dailey, Lori Demo, and Mary Spillman, Ball State • This national study of newspaper editors and television news directors provides a snapshot of the state of news convergence. The study found almost 30 percent of newspapers and half of television news departments have convergence partnerships. It suggests that a few partnerships are relatively committed to their convergence efforts, while some are still trying to define them or have partnerships in name only. Finally, it finds the competitive spirit between newspaper and television newsrooms remains intact.
Framing of the Iraq War in the Online New York Times • Daniela Dimitrova, Iowa State • This study examined the framing of the 2003 Iraq War on the home page of the New York Times. The content analysis revealed that violence of war and military conflict frames dominated the coverage overall. Human interest stories and rebuilding of Iraq frames were also common. Missing from the coverage were the reasons leading up to the war. A change in frames occurred over time, indicating a shift in focus from episodic to thematic frames.
Beyond Props and Flak Jackets: A New Model to Define Modern Parachute Journalism • Emily Erickson and John Hamilton, Louisiana State • The common understanding of parachute journalism posits a large media organization whose cutbacks have obliterated its foreign bureaus and forced it to send out ad hoc reporters to do superficial coverage of crises abroad. But this ignores a greater variety in the nature and performance of these reporters and assignments. This study examines how newspapers are engaging in parachute journalism today, and proposes a typology that acknowledges the breadth and complexity of the phenomenon.
Analyzing the Federal Shield Law Proposals: What Congress Can Learn from the States • Anthony Fargo, Indiana • After a rash of cases in which journalists faced jail time for refusing to reveal confidential sources, two bills were introduced in Congress to create a federal privilege. This analysis of the bills finds they are similar. However, one provides a broader definition of who would be protected and the other would discourage subpoenas for reporters’ phone and computer records. Both bills appear to avoid many of the problems that have befallen state shield laws.
An Analysis of the Bush Administration’s Social Security Propaganda Campaign in Major U.S. Newspapers • Lillie Fears, Arkansas State • This investigation uses Jowett and O’Donnell’s 10-Step plan for analyzing Bush administration’s Social Security propaganda campaign as it is revealed in major U.S. newspapers. The plan assists the analysts in identifying several propaganda tactics within the president’s proposal, including its purpose, target audiences, media techniques, and counterpropaganda. In addition, the plan offers useful guidance for evaluating the Bush proposal.
Plagiarism Persists Despite Journalists’ Changing Attitudes • Fred Fedler, Central Florida • Well into the 1900s, it was common for newspaper reporters and editors to copy one another. For years, journalists accepted the practice as necessary and normal. Changes in journalists’ attitudes were gradual as society, technology, and the newspaper industry changed. Today, plagiarism is almost universally condemned, yet eliminating all plagiarism may be impossible. Most newspapers have no written policies or adopt policies that simply prohibit plagiarism without defining it or providing useful guidelines.
Male and Female Sources in Newspaper Coverage of Male and Female Candidates in U.S. Senate Races in 2004 • Eric Freedman, Frederick Fico, and Brad Love, Central Michigan • This study assessed how the largest dailies in states with female Senate candidates in 2004 used male and female expert sand non-expert, uncommitted sources in covering campaigns. Male nonpartisan sources appeared more frequently and prominently than female sources. Female reporters cited male nonpartisan sources more often than did male reporters; reporters of both genders cited female sources equally rarely,. There was a negative correlation between gender diversity in sourcing and both newsroom diversity and circulation.
Why Journalism Students Don’t Know Grammar • Gerald Grow, Florida A&M, and Glen Bleske, California State-Chico • Many college journalism teachers find themselves teaching high school grammar because students never mastered the skills. This paper discusses how grammar education at high school and college levels changed in recent decades, describes some ways of teaching grammar, and reports results of a pilot study of journalism students and their views about grammar skills. The survey indicated that confidence and anxiety may play key roles in how journalism students learn or do not learn grammar.
The Influence of Newspapers on Rural Economic Development • C. Ann Hollifield, Hugh J. Martin, and Cunfang Ren, Georgia • This study tests the theory that mass media have positive effects on local economic development. Rural areas lost newspapers over the 10 years studied. The presence of local daily newspapers in rural counties was related to lower poverty and higher retail sales, while circulation from non-local papers was negatively related to local retail sales. Weeklies had no impact on economic development. Consolidation of daily newspapers in rural areas may undercut the economic sustainability of communities.
Interactive Content & Online Newspapers: A Content Analysis of Online Versions of Korean and U.S. Newspapers • Moonki Hong, Yongrak Park, and Steven McClung, Florida State • Interactivity is considered as the best approaches for contribution of online journalism. Analyzing interactive features in the 116 online versions of Korean and U.S. newspapers in March 2005, the researchers found that U.S. online newspapers need to provide more “active” interactivity content increasing users’ involvement. This study measured two different interactivity levels according to users participation based on online reading and writing.
Jesse James and Late-Nineteenth Century Missouri Newspapers: They Never Did His Legend Wrong • Cathy Jackson, Norfolk State • This descriptive study notes the journalistic and folkloric rise of Jesse James, a Missouri native, who robbed and killed, yet became an American outlaw hero. Through the use of folklore and sociological theories, this study places him and stories written about him as products of Missouri’s crisis-filled, post-Civil War society. An analysis of 36 Missouri newspapers from 1866-1882 reveals stories infused with heroic motifs, insuring that James achieved hero status during his life and in history.
An Experimental Investigation of the Hostile Media Effect in Singapore • Wei Ling Koh, Diana Wong, Joel Yong, and Stella Chia, Nanyang Technological University • This study examines hostile media perceptions, which suggests the tendency for partisans from both sides of a controversial issue to regard the same media coverage as biased against their own viewpoint. Our data found support for hostile media perceptions and also showed that personal opinion remains the main contributing factor for perceived media bias.
Making Sports News: A Case Study of Sports Newsworkers • Dan Kozlowski, North Carolina • Utilizing data from fieldwork in the sports department of a metropolitan daily and interviews with sportswriters, this paper argues that what becomes sports news in the daily press is the product of a convergence of organizational bureaucracy, routines institutionalized to accommodate the exigencies of newswork, and an enigmatic conception of the audience, created and projected on the reader and then used to explain news judgment.
Says Who? Examining the Use of Anonymous Sourcing in News Stories • Martin Kratzer Renee, and Esther Thorson, Missouri • Recent media scandals and the new sourcing policies of three national elite newspapers have focused attention on the use of anonymous sources in newspapers. This content analysis reveals that there has been a decline in the number of anonymous sources from 2003 to 2004; however, the renewed focus on sourcing in the newspaper industry has not extended to the network industry where the number of unnamed sources has increased.
Cancer Stories in Black vs. Mainstream Newspapers: Is There a Public Health Perspective? • Jeongsub Lim, Jiyang Bae, Charlene Caburnay, Jon Stemmle, Shelly Rodgers, Doug Luke, Glen Cameron, and Matthew Kreuter, Missouri • This study compared the content of cancer news stories in black and mainstream newspapers to examine the presence of public health facts. The method was a content analysis of 24 Black and 12 mainstream newspapers, randomly selected from 24 cities in the U.S. Public health facts included prevention, mobilization information, perspective, monetary care, and consequences of cancer. Black newspapers provided more public health facts about cancer perspective and personal behavior mobilization than did mainstream newspapers.
Media Frames and Fairness and Balance of Five U.S. Newspapers’ Coverage of Same-Sex Marriage • Xudong Liu, Louisiana State and Xigen Li, Arkansas State • A content analysis of 209 stories on same-sex marriage found overall coverage of same-sex marriage was fair and balanced. Source dominance of the stories was associated with balance of the coverage. The stories framed as thematic were more likely to be fair and balanced than the stories framed as episodic. The findings did not support the general belief that prestige newspapers do better than high circulation newspapers in fairness and balance of news coverage.
Walking in Step to the Future 2005: Views of Journalism Education by Practitioners and Educators • Ernest Martin, June Nicholson, Paula Otto, Jeff South, Judy Turk, and Debora Wenger, Virginia Commonwealth • This 2005 Internet survey of 343 journalism educators, newspaper editors and television and online news executives contrasts views about preparation of students for current and future jobs by showing gaps between what employers’ value most in job applicants and what educational programs are providing. Second, it addresses newsroom challenges that are shaping the industry and journalism education. Third, it examines views on blogging and on newsroom support for First Amendment legal disputes.
Model of the Practice of News Immediacy by Web Newspapers • Brian Massey, Utah • Research tends to take a discrete view of the Web-newspaper practice of immediacy. This article proposes a holistic approach that encompasses the journalistic, commercial, audience and organizational-decision sides of the practice. It represents that approach in a model that conceives of Web-news immediacy as involving dimensions of “time,” “form” and content,” and starting with a “trigger” decision within the newspaper organization. Also discusses are influences that may work on that decision.
Connecting With Readers: Why Newspapers Should Consider Incorporating Blogs Into Their Online Content • Liz Matson, Northeastern • This paper argues that blogs can be an extension of a newspaper’s daily news reporting and a means of connecting with the audience in a more immediate way. Using examples of current newspaper blogs, the paper presents six ways a newspaper can incorporate blogs into the editorial content of the paper’s Website. The paper also presents a content analysis of 81 major metro and national newspaper Websites, which was undertaken in March 2005.
Young Adults’ New Sense of Community Calls for a New Newspaper • Rachel Davis Mersey, North Carolina • Relying on sense of community research and utilizing a uses and gratifications lens, this research asserts that the frame of relevance for young adults is markedly different from that for traditional newspaper consumers, and that the root of this is a revised sense of community, which relies on the idea that relationships–not place–build communities. This geographically-unbound perspective calls for continued research and perhaps ultimately a departure from the conventional newspaper.
What’s Good for Business is Good for America? The Framing of Outsourcing in Business Newspapers and General-Interest Newspapers • Joshua Mound, Ohio • When offshore outsourcing created controversy, it became not just a business matter, but a social and political issue framed by the press in numerous ways. Through the comparison of multiple groups of publications–each consisting of two general-interest newspapers with demographically different audiences and one business newspaper, all from the same city–this study examines the way in which the variables of class and business-orientation affect the framing of outsourcing.
Covering Campaign Finance: A Content Analysis of Articles, Editorials and Columns on the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002 • Samuel Murphey, Christina Collison and Anthony Albrecht, Truman State • This paper analyzes the framing of the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002. We use content analysis methodology to analyze 96 news articles, editorials, and columns from seven newspapers. Our research shows that newspapers emphasized the legislative process frame more often than justification or issue frames. Further, most newspaper coverage was of a reactionary rather than a proactive nature. The findings prove that significant changes are needed to inform the public about legislative policy making.
Newshole Changes in Three Large Newspapers with Different Ownership Patterns • Geneva Overholser, Esther Thorson, Yan Jin, and Yonghoi Song, Missouri, and Steve Lacy, Central Michigan • This paper examined the Front and Metro newshole in Cleveland Plain Dealer (privately owned), Philadelphia Inquirer (publicly traded), and Minneapolis Star Tribune (owned by two-tiered companies) in 1987 and 2001 (before 9-11) to test the hypothesis that differential profit pressure known to exist in the three ownership patterns would impact the size and distribution news in the newshole. The results are discussed in terms of economic theory relating ownership to newspaper quality indexed by newshole.
When the Barbaric Becomes Sublime: Early New York Times Coverage of the Iraq War • Victor Pickard, Illinois • The historical account of U.S. press coverage of events leading up to and during war suggests the press plays an integral role in bolstering the case for military operations to an often-ambivalent public. Through careful reading of New York Times coverage of the early stages of the Iraq War, this paper examines one news tendency——namely, the technologizing of war——in the process of rendering the phenomenon of war as something natural and awe-inspiring.
Watchdog or Good Neighbor? The Public’s Expectations of Local News Paula Poindexter, Don Heider and Maxwell McCombs, Texas • After an earlier study found the public expected the press to be a good neighbor, the present study set out to determine what that meant. The survey revealed being a good neighbor was strongly valued by women, African-Americans, and Hispanics and over half wanted more coverage of education, health and medicine, science, and arts and culture. Concerns included crime and social issues. Television was viewed as best able to address the public’s concerns.
Mental Map Making: The Role of Black Newspapers in Shaping Perceptions of Cancer in Black Community • Qi Qiu, Cynthia Frisby, Shelly Rodgers and Glen Cameron, Missouri • Using case study meta-analysis, content analysis of black and mainstream papers was combined with survey findings from the same newspaper markets to explore news coverage in relation to mental maps of cancer. Findings indicate that cognitive and affective media attributes were associated with audiences’ cancer knowledge and attitudes, supporting second-level agenda-setting. Less positive black newspapers correlated with higher levels of cancer anxiety among black women. Exposed to more positive headlines, white women had less fear.
The Public’s Views of Ethics in Managing ‘Letters to the Editor’ • Bill Reader and Daniel Riffe, Ohio • This survey poses questions about attitudes toward the importance of LTEs and about ethics related to LTE selection, specifically letters that might be “hostile” toward the respondent’s personal views. Results show that political/ideological views have almost no bearing on attitudes toward the ethics of publishing letters, with most people supporting publication of divisive letters. The exception was with a letter advocating racial segregation, which most respondents said would be “highly unethical” to publish.
It’s Gametime: The Maslach Burnout Inventory Measures Burnout of Sports Journalists • Scott Reinardy, Missouri • A survey (N = 249) of newspaper sports journalists utilized the Maslach Burnout Inventory to examined burnout. Sports journalists suffer moderate rates of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, and have a high rate of personal accomplishment. Sports editors have a higher rate of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization than sports writers or desk personnel, and a lower rate of personal accomplishment. Younger, less experienced sports journalists at smaller newspapers suffer a higher rate of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization.
More Heat Than Light: A Case Study of Crime-Victim Identification in Theory and in Practice • Kathleen Richardson and Herb Strentz, Drake • This project had intended to study how newspaper identification of accusers in sexual abuse cases affected victim willingness to report crimes. Instead the research became a case study of the efficacy of such identification and the usefulness of statutory access to police records. The study found that police kept most reports of abuse secret, and suggests that debate over victim identification sheds more heat than light when it comes to news coverage of sexual abuse.
‘Journalism is a Loose-Jointed Thing’: A Content Analysis of Editor & Publisher’s Discussion of Journalistic Conduct Prior to the Canons of Journalism • Ronald Rodgers, Ohio • With a category system drawn from the ethical elements listed in the Canons of Journalism, this analysis examined Editor & Publisher’s discussion of the problems of journalism on its editorial page in the more than twenty years leading up to ASNE’s adoption of that code in 1923. This study confirmed the presumption that code was a culmination of the ongoing and historical discourse in the newspaper industry’s primary trade journal.
Second Servings: Online Publication and Its Impact on Second-Day Leads in Newspapers • Jack Rosenberry, St. John Fisher • A content analysis comparing contemporary newspaper leads to ones from 15 years earlier, before Internet publication became commonplace, determined that use of “first day” (direct/summary) leads has declined over that time. The findings support an argument that newspapers’ print editions have become a permanent second-day publication concurrent with the rise of the 24-hour news cycle and the phenomenon of newspapers using their online editions to break news.
The Popular Ideology of Freedom of Expression: An Analysis of Newspaper Political Columns • Thomas Schwartz, Ohio State • This paper addresses the literature on public attitudes toward freedom of expression by analyzing 139 columns by 31 nationally syndicated newspaper columnists in an attempt to describe what the paper calls a popular ideology of freedom of expression. The paper explains what seem to be the conservative and liberal views but also notes “new right” and “feminist-critical” subgroups.
The Influence of Expert Opinion on Media Coverage of the Heisman Trophy Race • Trent Seltzer and Michael Mitrook, Florida • This study examines the 2001-2003 Heisman Trophy races to determine the relationship among the agendas of expert opinion, media coverage, and Heisman voters. The study analyzed 717 media stories, 50 AP college football polls, and 40 Rocky Mountain News expert opinion polls. The results provide support for the agenda-setting and framing influence of expert opinion and media coverage on the Heisman vote, suggesting the important role of expert opinion in the agenda-setting and framing process.
Taking Up Space: Growing Newspaper Groups, Their Markets, and the Makeup of Local Content • Joshua Shear, Syracuse • In this paper, the author predicts that large newspapers groups prefer economies of scale to putting reporters on the streets at each of their newspapers, and that certain types and subjects of news will be more prevalent in group-owned papers than their independent counterparts. Relationships are also predicted between market variables and story topics. The author’s hypotheses are rejected, but interesting relationships are discovered in post-hoc analysis.
Stepping Back from the Gate: Online Newspaper Editors and the Co-Production of Content in Campaign 2004 • Jane Singer, Iowa • In their coverage of the 2004 political campaign, editors of Web sites affiliated with major U.S. newspapers continued to emphasize the provision of credible information. But they moved toward seeing that information less as an end product and more as a basis for user engagement, participation, and personalization. This study suggests a way that journalists might preserve their gatekeeping role in our democracy while simultaneously accommodating the interactive nature of the Internet.
Use of Anonymous, Government and Other Types of Sources in Newspaper Investigative Stories • Miglena Sternadori, Missouri • The study content analyzed winning and non-winning newspaper articles entered in the annual contest of Investigative Reporters and Editors from 1995 to 2002. Sourcing patterns were compared, and — contrary to expectations based on normative prescriptions — winning stories used more anonymous sources than non-winners. The frequency of use of government-affiliated sources was about the same. Occasional granting of anonymity appears to continue to be an acceptable practice in investigative reporting, especially in stories on government wrongdoing.
The Right of Review: Signs of Growing Cooperation with Sources • Duane Stoltzfus, Goshen • In thirty years since James W. Tankard Jr. and Michael Ryan considered the accuracy of science coverage in newspapers and challenged the accepted wisdom about prepublication review, it would appear that journalists have moved closer to an approach favored by the two researchers. A survey of the top 50 newspapers in the country shows that the majority often give staff members significant freedom to negotiate prepublication review.
Slave Reparations Dismissed in the News: An Examination of Reparations Coverage in Daily U.S. Newspapers • Venise Wagner, San Francisco State • This study examines coverage of the issue of slave reparations in daily U.S. newspapers. Using content analysis of articles pulled from Jan. 1- Dec. 31, 2002, the study explored how print press treated the story, assessing placement of stories, length, story types, use of sources and the inclusion or exclusion of contextual elements that portray the history of slavery, the legacy of slavery and the economic outcomes of slavery.
The Internet’s Influence on Newspaper’s Agenda: A Content Analysis of News Coverage in the New York Times, 1999-2003 • Xiaopeng Wang and Ying Sun, Ohio • From the inter-media agenda setting perspective, the authors conducted a content analysis to examine the general picture of how online information affected traditional media’s agenda and whether newspapers treated the Internet as a reliable source. The authors found that political entities have utilized new information technology to maintain and promote their interest. In the newspaper newsrooms, the Internet was regarded as a new medium, but not a reliable news source.
The Dominance of Bearish News? Investigating the News Coverage Against the State of the Economy • Denis Wu and Anita Day, Louisiana State • This paper investigated the economic coverage of four local and two national media. Most economic news were found negative in nature. The local media are more likely than the national media to deliver a rosy picture of the economy. Government budget and company performances are two dominant topics, although local and national media differ on the angle used to report on the topics. The New York Times was found to reflect more closely the economy.
Neutral Reportage’ as a Libel Defense • Kyu Youm, Oregon • The “neutral reportage” doctrine immunizes the press from liability for republishing in a neutral manner “newsworthy” allegations made by any “responsible” speaker about public figures. The debate about the validity of neutral reportage as a constitutional libel defense continues, although it was first enunciated in 1977. On March 28, 2005, the U.S. Supreme Court refused to rule on the validity of the neutral reportage doctrine. This paper reexamines the uniquely media-friendly libel defense.
Shaping Feelings: Newspaper Agenda Setting, Level 3: A Hypothesis • Jason Yu and Donald Shaw, North Carolina • We hypothesize that agenda setting exists at the level of affect, agenda setting, level 3. Using New York Times and Gallup Poll data, we found evidence that the affect associated with news messages is transferred to audiences. The study suggests that newspapers may suggest to readers how to feel about topics, a step beyond agenda setting, level 1 (objects), and agenda setting, level 2 (attribute framing).
The Framing of the 2004 Olympic Games in the U.S. Press • Thimios Zaharopoulos, Washburn U• This examines the framing of the 2004 Olympic Games as reflected in the coverage on the New York Times web site. It reinforces views about news media practices that emphasize conflict frames reflecting news values like balance and deviance; and economic consequences frames. However, frames Olympic organizers desired were hardly reflected in the coverage. Certain news frames are related to more contextual coverage, to more negative tone of coverage, and to shorter news coverage than others.
Similar Content, Different Packages: Covering the 9/11 Attack in U.S. and British Major Newspapers • Li Zeng, Arkansas State • This study examined the coverage of the “9/11” attack in U.S. and British major newspapers during the first week after the event. It found that the newspapers in the two countries portrayed the same event in different ways. British newspapers tended to provide more background information through features stories. In both story headlines and non-commentary stories, British newspapers were more likely to use a characterization word to describe the perpetrators than their U.S. counterparts.
Mass Communication and Society Division
Missing the Market: Character Salience in Television Program Websites • James R. Angelini, Debbie P. C. Goh, Jason A. Rosow, Tyler Dodge, Wenchang Deng, Na Zhou and Susan Tyler Eastman, Indiana University, Bloomington • The television media promote primetime programs in ways that reflect different target markets. Analysis of the gender, ethnic, and age demographics of 1306 images of characters on the six broadcast networks’ 124 program websites showed close similarities between old and new media in gender and ethnicity stereotyping but not in age stereotyping. In addition, an index of character and program salience measured the relative prominence of characters by demographic type.
Cultivating Fear: The Effects Of Television News Public’s Fear Of Terrorism • Fernando Anton, Iowa State University • Based on cultivation theory, this study analyzes the relationship between television news exposure and the creation of fear in TV audiences. The results showed that heavy television news viewers are more scared of terrorism than light viewers. They also hold a larger number of erroneous beliefs about facts related to terrorist incidents and are more likely to change their behavior due to fear. Differences in cultivation levels among viewers of the six main national TV networks were also found.
Political Advertising and the Third Person Effect: Investigating the Behavioral Consequences of Negative Political Ads • Stephen Banning, Guy Golan, and Lisa Lundy, Louisiana State University • Political advertising has emerged as a key component of the modern presidential campaign. The current study examines the perceived influence of negative and biographical political advertisements on potential voters. A judgment task experiment of 340 individuals who were shown four ads from the 2004 Bush/Kerry campaigns provided some evidence as to the perceived effects of television presidential ads.
Cable Battleground: Analysis of Coverage for the 2004 Presidential Election on CNN and Fox News • Jacqueline Bates, Syracuse University • A content analysis was designed to explore cable shows’ stories on policy and campaign issues during the 2004 presidential election. Both CNN and Fox News were compared for airtime of policy and campaign issues as well as airtime devoted to the candidates. Through this research project, it was found that CNN and Fox News are highly similar in their coverage of policy issues and candidates, but they differ in the coverage of campaign issues.
Make Me Over: Third-Person Perception About Body Image and Endorsement of Plastic Surgery in Self and Others • Kimberly L. Bissell, University of Alabama and Ron Leone, Stonehill College • Research examining the social effects of mass media as it relates to body image distortion often considers some behavioral components, specifically excessive dieting, bingeing, and exercising, but little is known about the degree in which women turn to plastic surgery to correct or reshape their bodies. Using a survey of college women, participants were shown an image of a thin-ideal swimsuit model and asked to project how repeated exposure to images like the one viewed would affect themselves and others.
Who’s Got Game? Exposure to Entertainment and Sports Media and Social Physique Anxiety in Division I Female Athletes • Kimberly L. Bissell, and Katie Hines, University of Alabama • This study compared college female athletes’ exposure to two types of media, and looked for possible associations with social physique anxiety, an affective trait that could be present in women who have eating disorder tendencies. Our survey of Division I female athletes yielded very inconsistent patterns with regard to the type of media that is more likely to be related to higher levels of physique anxiety.
Managing Impressions of Ethnic Diversity: Is Diversity a Differentiation Tactic on Collegiate Home Pages? • Lori Boyer, Louisiana State University • This study is an empirical analysis of whether colleges and universities use ethnic diversity as a self-presentation tactic. The Web site home pages of a random sample of 40 academic institutions were examined for written and visual references that regarding students of African American, Hispanic or Asian backgrounds. Findings suggest ethnic diversity was more likely to be present in the photographs rather than in the text. Results are discussed from the self-presentation theoretical perspective.
Third-Person Effect and Censorship of Web Pornography • Li-jing Arthur Chang, Jackson State • The study, which surveyed 710 respondents in Singapore, found that third-person effect played a role in the support for the censorship of Web pornography. Other factors found to predict the support for the censorship measure include gender, age, and Internet use. In addition, the study also confirmed past empirical evidence about the link between third person effect and undesirable media content, and the association between third person effect and the social distance between self and others
Youth Perceptions of their School Violence Risks • John Chapin, Penn State University • In order to gauge youth perceptions of school violence, the study links two perceptual bias literatures: third-person perception and optimistic bias. The intersection of the two literatures may be especially beneficial in understanding how adolescents process and interpret mass media public health messages and subsequently engage in risk behaviors or self-protective behaviors in health contexts. Findings from a survey of 350 urban adolescents indicate shared predictors of third-person perception and optimistic bias (age, self-esteem) as well as differences (knowledge).
Attention, Perception, and Perceived Effects: Negative Political Advertising in a Battleground State of the 2004 Presidential Election • Hong Cheng and Dan Riffe, Ohio University • Based on a statewide telephone survey conducted two weeks prior to the November 2004 presidential election, this study probes Ohioans’ attention to and perception of the 2004 presidential election advertising, and their perception of effects of those negative political ads. Citizens in this “battleground” state had a very high level of awareness of the campaign and campaign advertising, and characterized the campaign advertising as more negative than in the past.
An Examination of Third Person Effect with Q Methodology: How Does My Ideal Body Image Differ from the Perceived Ideal Image of Others? • Yun Jung Choi and Jong Hyuk Lee, Syracuse University • The third person effect was examined with the Q methodology. Participants were asked to sort images of women to represent their ideal image and their perception of other’s ideal image. The third person effect was observed in the study. People’s their own ideal Q sort loaded on one factor while their Q sorts representing their perception of others’ ideal image loaded on another factor.
Risk Communication: The Importance of Source Diversity to Credible and Interesting Reporting • Raluca Cozma Louisiana State University • An experiment was conducted to explore the effects of government versus multiple sources on perceived credibility of and interest in risk stories. It also analyzed the effects of sources on participants’ assessment of government credibility and source reasonableness. The study investigated the effects of demographic characteristics of participants on the same variables, and tried to determine if there was any statistical correlation between credibility and interest. It also analyzed the effects of human-interest reports on credibility and interest.
Advertising Exposures and Message Types: Exploring the Perceived Effects of Soft-Money Political Ads • Frank Dardis, Heidi Hatfield Edwards, and Fuyuan Shen, Penn State University • This experimental study examined third-person effects of negative political attack advertising and its relationship with ad type (issue vs. character), exposure level and attitudes toward campaign finance reform. After being exposed to one, three, or five independently sponsored attack ads from the 2004 Presidential Election, subjects were found to overestimate the effects of negative political advertising on others vs. self.
Hyper-Masculinity as Political Strategy: George W. Bush, the “War on Terrorism,” and An Echoing Press • David Domke University of Washington • Scholars have demonstrated the centrality of masculinity as an ideology in the American presidency, but have devoted insufficient attention to the manner in which presidents use specific forms of masculinity in strategic ways to control the mass media environment and circumscribe public sentiment.
First-time Eligible Presidential Voters’ Perceptions of Politics, Patriotism, and Media • Jacqueline M. Eckstein, Miglena Daradanova, Peter J. Gade, University of Oklahoma • This Q-methodology analysis seeks to help explain the attitudes of a large and important group of the political electorate-first-time presidential voters. This cohort, also called Generation Y by scholars and social pundits (Klinger, 1999; Morton, 2001; Shepherdson, 2000), is the largest group of first-time presidential voters in U.S. history (Rosenberg, 2004).
Multilevel Models of the Impact of News Use and News Content Characteristics on Political Knowledge and Participation • William P. Eveland and Yung-I Liu Ohio State University • Studies indicate that election news has changed for the worse since the 1960s. But, little research has examined the impact of this “decline” in the quality of news on the effects of news use on positive outcomes such as political knowledge and participation. This study employs multilevel modeling to test the hypothesis that news media effects vary over time as a function of news media content. The data provide little support for this hypothesis.
Rationalizing War A Path Analysis Model of Agenda Building • Shahira Fahmy, Southern Illinois University, Juyan Zhang, Monmouth University and Wayne Wanta, Missouri School of Journalism • This agenda-building study employed a path analysis model to examine the three-way relationship among the president, the media and the public on the Iraq War issue during the Bush administration. Findings suggest President Bush reacted to public opinion by emphasizing the five most important rationales for war: War on terror; Prevention of the proliferation of V/MD; Lack of inspections; Removal of the Saddam regime; Saddam is evil.
Show the Truth and let Al Jazeera Audience Decide Support for Use of Graphic Imagery Among Al Jazeera Viewers • Shahira Fahmy and Thomas J. Johnson, Southern Illinois University • This survey examines Al Jazeera viewers’ perceptions of the network’s presentation of graphic and war-related visuals and whether viewers perceive the network provides visual information they cannot find in national Arab media and CNN. Nearly nine in ten supported the use of graphic imagery, saying watching those visuals was a good decision for them and that Al Jazeera provides a unique source of visual information. Further, media reliance, press freedom and political interest predicted support for use of graphic imagery.
News (Un)Scripted: An Analysis of Support and Blame in The Wake Of Two Shooting Deaths • Vincent F. Filak and Robert S. Pritchard, Ball State University • Using Gilliam et al’s (2000) theoretical framework of crime news as script, this case study examined the response postings (n=389) left on a newspaper’s website regarding two fatal shootings. An analysis of the postings found differences in placement of blame and support based on whether the incident followed standard script patterns. Postings regarding a shooting that fit the script were more likely to attribute blame to the assailants as individuals and offer sympathy to the victim’s family.
An Empirical Investigation of the Relationships Among Fear and Efficacy of Breast Cancer, Media Use, and Knowledge About Breast Cancer Prevention in Caucasian and African American Women • Kenneth Fleming and Cynthia Frisby, University of Missouri-Columbia • This study examines the relationships among attitudes toward breast cancer, knowledge about the disease, religious beliefs, and use of various news media channels in Caucasian (n=240) and African American (n=206) women randomly selected in eleven metropolitan areas in the U.S. Results show that magazines were negatively related to fear of breast cancer, and radio was positively related to efficacy of the disease for African American women. Use of the Internet was a predictor of efficacy for Caucasian women.
Media, Civics & Social Capital in a Hispanic Community: The Case of Santa Ana, California • Dennis Foley and Tony Rimmer, California State University • This study explores relationships between community activity and media use among Hispanics with data from a 2002 survey in Santa Ana, California (N=209). Survey questions were adapted from a Robert Putnam 2000 national benchmark survey from which Putnam developed his notions of social capital. Community activity and media use were both low and positively related. Education was the only factor to show positive correlations with both community activity and media use. Cultural dimensions, including language, were also expected to reveal influences. They did, but with minimal effect. The implications of the findings in this unique community raise concerns about the possibility of building “social capital” — the norms of reciprocity and trust necessary for community life.
“Always a Bridesmaid and Never a Bride:” Portrayals of Women of Color as Brides in Bridal Magazines • Cynthia M. Frisby, University of Missouri-Columbia • Bridal advertisements from 2000-2004 were content analyzed as an extension of a study reported in a book titled White Weddings that assessed the portrayals of African American women as brides in bridal magazines from 1959 – 1999. Data obtained show that the proportion of Caucasian women as brides was greater than the number of ads featuring Black women as brides. Significant differences were also found on the ethnicity of the model used on the cover of magazines.
Political Correlates of Daytime Talk Show Viewing • Carroll J. Glynn Ohio State University, Bruce W. Hardy and James Shanahan, Cornell University • This study examined the influence of daytime talk shows on opinion formation, from a cultivation perspective. Specifically, we examined how exposure to daytime talk shows and the extent that these shows are perceived as real are related to support for government involvement in family issues. Not only did we find that both exposure and perceptions were positively related to levels of support, we found a mainstreaming effect toward a liberal position.
Political Knowledge, Civic Engagement, and Media Use Across Election Campaigns • Robert Kirby Goidel and David D. Kurpus, Louisiana State University • Understanding the role of the media in informing and engaging the public in democratic political processes has been at the core of empirically based mass communication research. Yet, despite a considerable body of literature, we know surprisingly little about how patterns of media use differ across elections (presidential, senate, and mayoral) within a single election season, and media use translates into civic engagement.
Second Level Agenda Setting and Political Advertising: Investigating the transfer of issue and attribute saliency during the 2004 U.S. presidential election • Guy Golan, Louisiana State University and Spiro K. Kiousis, University of Florida and Misti L McDaniel, Louisiana State University • The current study examines the agenda setting function of televised political advertisements during the 2004 U.s. presidential election. Adding to the growing research on second level agenda setting, we examined how the advertising agendas of the Bush and Kerry campaigns may have impacted public evaluations of the two candidates. Our results provide support for the agenda setting hypothesis as well as mixed support for the second level hypothesis.
Framing Private Lynch: Establishment and Tenacity of the Hero Frame During War • Josh Grimm University of Texas-Austin • Following the rescue of Jessica Lynch, a soldier captured during the invasion of Iraq, media outlets incorrectly sensationalized events surrounding her capture, imprisonment, and rescue. Using Lule’s components of a hero, newspaper articles and news transcripts were analyzed for these attributes, and a Web forum was studied to gauge reaction. A hero frame was present in the press and, for at least a portion of the population, the frame was a stubborn one.
Coverage of Illusion: Framing the Pre-Iraq War Debate • Jacob Groshek, Indiana University • This study examined how two leading news outlets framed the pre-Iraq War debate. Not only was opposition seldom framed in a substantive manner, neutral and supportive coverage were also rarely framed substantively. These findings suggest that the public was given little basis for participating in policy deliberation and that the media made more effort to illustrate how the policy was going to be implemented, rather than why it should (or should not) be implemented.
Have the Cows Gone Mad: Are They Sick, Down, or Diseased? A Content Analysis of Newspaper Articles Discussing the First U.S. Mad Cow Outbreak • Michel M Haigh, Michael Bruce and Elizabeth Craig, University of Oklahoma • This study examines the media’s portrayal of the mad cow disease outbreak of 2003. It specifically examines whether the newspaper coverage of the news event differed between the east/west coasts and the Midwest. The differences examined include: tone, framing (episodic, thematic, economic, health, treatment, or causal), affect, and source credibility. Results indicate a variety of differences in tone, framing, emotion, and source credibility between the east/west coasts versus the Midwest newspapers coverage.
How Activists Persuade; Examining Differences in Message Factors in the Abortion Debate • Abby Gail Hendren, University of Florida • With the trend toward examining persuasion effects from a consumer-marketing perspective, the heated public debate about abortion provides opportunities to examine the precursor to effects, the message itself, within the context of a controversial issue. Through content analysis of NARAL and NRLC ‘5 press releases, significant differences in the persuasive message factors employed by the groups were found. Additionally, differences emerged between the groups’ discussion of abortion decision-making, and the specific issues addressed by each group.
The Perception of Freedom of the Press in the Eyes of the Media: A Comparative, International Analysis of 242 Ethical Codes • Itai Himelboim, University of Minnesota and Yehiel (Hilik) Limor, Sapir College • This study explores perceptions of freedom of the press of those who practice it: journalists and media organizations. References to freedom of the press in codes of ethic worldwide were analyzed based on characteristics of organizations and the political-economic status of countries. Findings show that journalists express concerns regarding their freedoms, regardless the level of freedom of the press in the country. In developing countries, codes show concerns primarily about the most fundamental freedoms.
Effects of Positive vs. Negative Self-Efficacy Statements in Humorous Anti-Alcohol Abuse Ads • Myiah Hutchens Hively, Moon J. Lee, and Yi-Chun “Yvonnes” Chen, Washington State University • This study investigated the effects of self-efficacy statements in different types (positive vs. negative) of taglines in humorous anti-alcohol abuse advertisements based on individuals’ sensation seeking tendency. An experiment was conducted with 114 college students. Results indicate that positively reinforced messages consistently demonstrated better results than the negatively reinforced advertisements; however, results were mixed for the effects of self-efficacy statements. Implications, limitations and directions for future research are discussed.
Sin, Wrath, and Death Ritual Interrupted: Press Coverage of the Tri-State Crematory Scandal • Janice Hume, University of Georgia • Abstract not available.
Embeds’ Perceptions of Censorship: Can You Criticize a Soldier Then Have Breakfast with him the Next Morning? • Thomas J. Johnson and Shahira Fahmy • Southern Illinois University • This study examines a survey of embedded journalists worldwide to explore their opinions about freedom of the press and the degree to which they believe their reports were censored during the Iraq War. Our findings suggest most journalists took a social responsibility approach to freedom of press during the Iraq War, saying the needs of the media and military need to be balanced. Embeds reported that they experienced little censorship in Iraq and said they did not self-censor their stories.
Web Site Story: An Exploratory Study of Why Weblog Users Say They Use Weblogs • Barbara K. Kaye, University of Tennessee • This paper examines the uses and motivations for accessing Weblogs. Rather than relying on motivations from pre-existing scales measuring traditional media or Internet use that need to be adapted for weblogs, this study asked respondents in an open-ended format for reasons why they connect to weblogs.
Motivations for Online News Sites: Uses and gratifications of online news sites for political information • Daekyung Kim and Thomas J. Johnson, Southern Illinois University Carbondale • This online study examined the motivations for why politically interested Internet users during the 2004 presidential campaign were using mainstream news sites, independent Web-based news sites, and Weblogs, and attempted to discover which factor predict motivations for using the news Web sites. Convenience/information seeking appeared as the strongest motivations for using news Web sites. The findings also indicate that each of the news Web sites satisfies different needs.
A balancing act: Predicting support for requiring Internet filters in public libraries and schools • Jennifer L. Lambe, Mynah S. Lipke & Elizabeth M. Perse, University of Delaware • Although the First Amendment seems absolute, it is balanced with other important interests. Protecting children from Internet pornography has been a struggle for Congress. The Children’s Internet Protection Act (CIPA) requires public libraries and schools to place filters on computers with Internet access to receive funding for new technologies. This study examines variables predicting public attitudes about such filters. News framing, internet pornography use and liberal-conservative self-ranking are among the statistically significant predictors.
Here and There around the World: Proximity and Scope as News Values • Jong Hyuk Lee, Gang (Kevin) Han, Pamela J, Shoemaker, Syracuse University and Akiba A. Cohen, Tel Aviv University, Israel • Based on the data of What’s News, a cross-national news definition project, this study introduces the concept of scope to enrich the dimensions of proximity, as a news value and examines the extent to which news items exhibit these two as well as how they may be related. Other two news values, deviance and social significance are also discussed regarding their interaction with both proximity and scope.
Rethinking Voter Rationality: Presidential Debates and Voter-candidate Issue Alignment • Nam-Jin Lee, Christopher C. Long, Seungmin Shin, Seung-Hyun Lee, and Dhavan V. Shah, University of Wisconsin-Madison. • Research on presidential debate has proposed several conflicting mechanisms leading to issue alignment-a process in which voters bring their issue positions and candidate choice into alignment, with varying implications for voter rationality.
Party affiliation, political ad perceptions and political involvement: Evidence from the 2004 Presidential campaign • Sangki Lee and Fuyuan Shen, Penn State University • This research used a data from a survey during the 2004 presidential campaigns found that party affiliation was a significant factor in how individuals perceived the negativity and truthfulness of political ads. Specifically we found that people respond to negative political ads in accordance with their partisanship. Furthermore, it was found that party affiliation has significant effects on how negative perceptions of ads influence political involvement. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings will be addressed.
Advanced Learning and Online News: A Test of Cognitive Flexibility Theory • Wilson Lowrey and Kyun Soo Kim • University of Alabama • This study employs cognitive flexibility theory (CFT) from the field of education psychology to test learning effects from varying online story formats. According to CFT, when case examples from a knowledge area are interwoven with conceptual perspectives, learning should be more easily applied across diverse settings. Experiment findings revealed significant interaction effects with degree of prior Web use and degree of prior knowledge of story content, but a weak main effect from varying story format.
Awakening the Civic Parent: The School and Family in Political Socialization • Michael McDevitt, University of Colorado at Boulder and Spiro Kiousis, University of Florida • This paper explores whether schools-through the prompting of student-parent conversation-can awaken the civic parent of an adult, a role identity that might otherwise remain dormant. Results validate a theoretical model in which a school intervention engenders political involvement directly, but also indirectly through the long-term cultivation of civic parenting. Results are derived from a field study of Kids Voting USA as taught to high school students and parents in Arizona, Colorado, and Florida.
Evidence of Media Saturation Among a Group of 10th Graders in Beijing • Jay Newell and Ma Qing, Iowa State University • A foundational assumption of post-modem thought is that societies worldwide are awash in mass media. However, the suppositions of media saturation have yet to be defined or tested. For this research, indicators of electronic media saturation were considered to be the ubiquity of electronic media devices, the proximity of devices to their users, and the constancy of media device use.
Perceptions of Seafood/Fish Safety and Media Effects in China • Lan Ni, University of Maryland • Using qualitative interviewing, this study examined how people in China perceive the safety of seafood and fish and how the media play a role in the communication of such risk. Consistent with the western risk literature, the findings basically confirmed the importance of personal relevance in risk perception and the necessity of multiple level efforts or a “holistic approach” in risk reduction. The unique finding about risk information overload demands further research on risk prioritization.
Mass Media, Religion, and Support for Civil Liberties: The Case of Muslim Americans • Erik C. Nisbet, James Shanahan, and Ronald Ostman, Cornell University • This paper examines associations between mass media use and individual predispositions, such as ideology and Christian religiosity, with public support for restrictions on Muslim American civil liberties. Using a national survey conducted in November 2004, we demonstrate how attention to TV news regarding the War on Terrorism and religiosity are both associated with increased support for restrictions.
Middletown Media Studies: A Comparison of Concurrent Media Exposure across Three Research Methods • Robert A. Papper, Michael E. Holmes, Mark N. Popovich and Michael Bloxham, Ball State University • Concurrent media exposure (CME) is an emerging concern in audience research for media professionals and scholars. We apply three methods–telephone survey, media diary, and observation–to reveal features of CME such as its frequency and duration in a typical media user’s day and patterns of concurrent media pairings. Results reveal differences in the profile of CME across research methods and underscore the roles of television as a “universal presence” and telephone as a “universal priority” in shaping patterns of CME.
The Differential Effects of Entertainment Television on College Women’s Satisfaction in Weight and Self-Esteem: The Moderating Role of Body Mass Index and Perceived Importance of Physical Appearance • Jm Seong Park, and Michael F. Weigold, University of Florida • The present study investigated how women’s body mass index (BIVH) and perceived importance of physical appearance moderate the relationship between entertainment media use variables, including both passive exposure to entertainment programming and active use of entertainment referents, and body-image dissatisfaction and self-esteem. Based on a survey with 198 female undergraduates, the study found that importance of physical appearance moderated the comparison to self-esteem link, while BMI moderated the exposure to body image dissatisfaction link.
Ideology and Source Credibility: Partisan Perception Bias in Believability of CNN, Fox News and PBS • Zengjun Peng, University of Missouri • This paper examines the relationship between partisan ideology and perception of source believability within the framework of hostile media effect. Results show that partisan ideology significantly influenced people’s perceived believability of three news outlets of CNN, Fox News and PBS (News Hour with Jim Lehrer). Liberals are more likely to rate CNN as believable while conservatives tend to endorse Fox News. Partisan ideology, however, does not make a difference in the evaluation of PBS.
Individual Differences in Perceptions of Internet Communication • Jochen Peter & Patti M. Valkenburg, University of Amsterdam • Drawing on a survey among 687 adolescents, we investigated (a) to what extent their perceptions of Internet communication differ and (b) which background variables (i.e., age, gender, social anxiety, loneliness, need for affiliation) underlie these differences. We focused on how adolescents perceive the controllability, reciprocity, breadth, and depth of Internet communication in comparison with face-to-face communication.
Advertising evaluations and perceived media importance in political decision making • Bruce E. Pinideton, David Cuillier, Yi-Chun “Yvonnes” Chen, Rebecca Van de Vord, Myiah Hutchens Hively, Erica Austin and Ming Wang • Washington State University • Scholars often blame the news media and negative campaign commercials for increasing citizens’ apathy and disinterest in politics. This study examined the relationships among people’s perception of media and advertising, and their political apathy, complacency, efficacy, and involvement through a telephone survey of randomly selected voters in Washington state. Results indicate that perceptions of advertising usefulness positively associated with apathy and the perceived importance of political advertising as a source of election information associated with complacency.
Social capital and mass media effects: A reexamination of the relationship between social capital and newspaper, television and Internet use • Maria Raicheva-Stover, Washburn University • It is a central argument in this study that communication carries wide implications for social capital, yet this link has not been examined in sufficient depth. On the basis of existing literature, this study conceptualizes social capital as consisting of two complementary categories – structural and cognitive. Furthermore, the study uses improved measures of newspaper, television and Internet use to predict the two types of social capital.
The making of the 2004 U.S. President: A Matter of Ethnic Differences, Faith or Political Identification? • Raiza A. Rehkoff, Georgia State University • During election years, religion and politics have to be seen not as separate but interrelated factors, especially when parties politicize issues at the intersection of religion and politics like gay marriages, abortion, Iraqi invasion and death penalty. Building on social identity theory, this study examines religious, political identities and news media exposure as predictors for presidential voting intentions and attitudes toward politicized issues among African American and non-African American new voters during the 2004 presidential election.
Television and Political Alienation in Japan: Lazarsfeld and Merton’s Narcotizing Dysfunction Revisited • Shinichi Saito, Tokyo Woman’s Christian University • Expanding on Lazarsfeld and Merton’s (1948) narcotizing dysfunction, this study examined whether viewing television cultivates political alienation. Data from a survey conducted in Tokyo revealed that frequent viewers were more likely to be politically apathetic and feel politically inefficacious. Among viewers who did not watch the news on public television, television viewing was also related to cynicism. We examined the implications of our findings and provide some directions for future research.
First-Person Shooters and Third-Person Effects: Early Adolescents’ Perceptions of Video Game Influence • Erica Scharrer and Ron Leone • Perceptions of the potential for negative influence from six specific video games that varied in rating (from E for Everyone to M for Mature) were measured in a sample of 118 sixth and seventh graders. Results support a third-person perceptual gap that grew as the rating of the game became more restrictive. The presence of parental rules about video games was a positive predictor of perceptions of influence on self and others.
‘We’ll Never Save Enough’: the Effect of Media Use on Prospective, Retrospective, Sociotropic, and Pocketbook Economic Attitudes • Rosanne Scholl, University of Wisconsin-Madison • This study examines the relationship between media exposure and perceptions of personal and sociotropic economic vitality. Using multi-wave panel data from the DDB-Needham Lifestyle Survey, this study shows that media exposure is associated with greater optimism about the current state of the national economy, but greater pessimism of “pocketbook” judgments about one’s own current economic situation. Media use was not related to prospective judgments about future personal and societal economic health.
Television Consumption and Gender Role Attitudes in Late Adolescent Males • Jay Senter, University of Kansas • Using the cognitive information-processing model and cultivation theory as a basis, this study examined the potential connection between late adolescent males’ television consumption and their attitudes about masculinity. Participants kept track of their television viewing for a week and then responded to an attitudes questionnaire. The data yielded a correlation between the amount of sexual content the participants consumed and the likelihood that they accepted stereotypical portrayals of masculinity as normative.
Communication, Consumption, Contentment, and Community: A Non-Recursive Model of Civic Participation and the “Pursuit of Happiness” • Dhavan V. Shah, University of Wisconsin-Madison, R. Lance Holbert, University of Delaware, Lucy Atkinson, Eunkyung Kim and Sun-Young Lee, University of Wisconsin • Theories of social capital and civic culture suggest that life satisfaction has a positive and, perhaps, reciprocal set of influences on engagement in cooperative activities. However, as Coleman and Galbraith assert, contentment, especially stemming from economic affluence and compensatory consumption, may diminish inter-reliance, weaken the strength of social ties and ultimately reduce civic volunteerism.
The Rise of Network Public Opinion as a Social and Political Force in China • Zixue Tai, Southern Illinois University – Edwardsville • This paper examines the role of the Internet in creating a brand-new social platform where Chinese citizens can debate hot issues of the day. It demonstrates through recent cases that since public opinion on sensitive issues may not be readily available elsewhere due to official sanction and control, popular sentiments as expressed in online forums, chatrooms and BBS often serve as a barometer for politicians, government functionaries and lawmakers to gauge public opinion.
Community Newspapers as Members of the Local Growth Coalition: Framing Discourse Surrounding Community Initiatives • Michael L. Thurwanger, Bradley University •This study analyzed news and editorial coverage by newspapers serving Illinois communities seeking selection as prison sites. Analysis of frames and their sponsors support the existence of an effective alliance within these rural communities fitting the local growth coalition model proposed by Logan and Molotch (1987). Consistent with that model, the study provided strong evidence of membership and participation by the newspapers in those local growth coalitions and advancement of their economic growth agendas.
Democratic Consequences of Hostile Media Perceptions: The Case of Gaza Settlers • Yariv Tsfati and Jonathan Cohen, University of Haifa • In this paper, we examine the consequences of the hostile media phenomenon and advance the argument that people’s perceptions of hostile coverage shape their trust in mainstream media institutions. Media trust in turn affects trust in democracy and willingness to accept democratic decisions.
Communication Channels and Agenda Diversity: The Impact of “Display” and “Research” Sources on the Public Agenda • Ester DeWaal and Klaus Schoenbach, University of Amsterdam • As display channels, television, print newspapers, radio and magazines offer pre-selected and pre-ordered information about topics of the public sphere. “Research” channels, such as online news sites, online newspapers and videotex, allow, but also require more autonomy from their users. Consequently, overlooking topics one is not interested in should be easier. So, display channels should contribute to more diversity of the perceived public agenda.
Explaining Charitable Giving During Times of Crises: An Exploration of Two Psychological Paradigms • Richard D. Waters, and Jennifer Lemanski, University of Florida • A survey of two Red Cross chapters’ donors revealed that donors to the December 2004 tsunami relief efforts were more likely to experience feelings of cognitive dissonance than non-donors and their donations resulted in a consonance restoration. Testing the mere exposure theory, it was found that increased exposure to news concerning the tsunami did not correlate to increased donations. This study found support for Festinger’s hypothesis that individuals avoid situations that increase feelings of dissonance.
Nationalism as a McLuhanite Message in the Online Sphere • Xu Wu, University of Florida • Forty years ago, Canadian social scientist Marshall McLuhan first declared that “the medium is the message.” What kind of message has the online medium brought to the cyber world and to the real world? Is there any room or time left for the continual existence of nationalism? Moreover, what nationalists can do and have been doing in utilizing the online technology to promote their causes? Relevant literature and cases were reviewed and analyzed in answering these questions.
Zooming in on American Civic Life: Modeling Social Capital from Internet Dependency Relations and Internet Current Affairs News Consumption • Jin Yang, University of Memphis And Jyotika Ramaprasad, Southern Illinois University • Focusing on social capital from Internet dependency relations (IDR) and Internet current affairs news consumption perspectives, the study explored the role of the Internet in American civic life and its contributions to social capital resources, using structural equation modeling. It found complex relationships among IDR, Internet current affairs news consumption, and social capital.
A Meta-analysis of Coping Strategies for Reducing Children’s Media-Induced Fright • Yinjiao Ye, University of Alabama • This investigation meta-analyzed the effect of coping strategies on reducing children’s media-induced fright reactions. Results confirmed the estimation in the literature that for children approximately from 7- to 11-year-old, cognitive strategies worked better than non-cognitive strategies and had a moderate effect (r = -.34) in reducing their media-induced fear. For children approximately younger than 7-year-old, results suggested although non-cognitive strategies tended to be more effective than cognitive strategies did, no significant difference existed between these two types of coping strategies.
Web Repertoires and Audience Concentration • Jungsu Yim, Seoul Women’s University • This study focuses on presenting the evidence of an association between Web repertoires and audience concentration that has been hypothetically suggested in some past studies. The result is that Web repertoires formed in an individual respondent level lead to audience concentration in an aggregate level. The result implies that television audiences in the multi-item media environment will face the similar environment to the Web.
Nationalistic Ambiguity in the Shadow of Occupation: Newspaper Opinion Pages as Meaning-Makers about Post-War Iraq • Mervat Youssef, Amani Ismail and Dan Berkowitz, University of Iowa • In times of nationalistic ambiguity, media discourses function as a forum for casting diverse voices that negotiate meaning about developing events. The manifestation of this process is explored through two moments that generated such ambiguity within the American community: The Abu Ghraib prison abuse and the Nick Berg beheading in 2004. Findings suggest that mediated opinion discourses often serve as a mechanism which facilitates the maintenance of community cohesion around shared values through group differentiation.
<< 2005 Abstracts
Protecting the Public Policy Rationale of Copyright: Reconsidering Copyright Misuse • Victoria Smith Ekstrand, Bowling Green • This paper addresses the doctrine of copyright misuse, an affirmative defense to infringement. This analysis revealed that courts (1) have been reluctant to find in favor of defendants who claim copyright misuse and (2) have interpreted the doctrine narrowly on the basis of antitrust considerations. However, more recent decisions suggest a greater willingness to rule for defendants claiming misuse.
The Protection of an Author’s Work: Press Coverage of the Emergence of Copyright during the Mid-Nineteenth Century • Gary C. Guffey, University of Georgia • The Copyright Act of 1831 is considered the basis of modern U.S. copyright law. Although there was strong support for the law portrayed in the newspapers and magazines from 1820 to 1840, many writers found trouble with the ultimate effects of the law. According to the articles an author’s exclusive rights expanded to include greater domestic protection but failed to develop the financial structure necessary to support the creative talents.
Blocking the Sunshine: How the FOIA’s “Opaque” Deliberative-Process Exemption Obstructs Access to Government-Held Information • Martin E. Halstuk, Penn State University • This paper seeks to shed light on FOIA Exemption 5, which applies to “inter-agency or intra-agency” documents. The purpose of this exemption is to protect the government during litigation. Therefore, it embodies several common law privileges from discovery, mainly the deliberative-process privilege, the attorney work-product privilege and the attorney-client privilege. This research project focuses on the deliberative-process privilege because it is the most broadly worded and most often invoked of the Exemption 5’s privileges.
When Is an Invasion of Privacy Unwarranted Under the FOIA? An Analysis of The Supreme Court’s “Sufficient Reason” and “Presumption of Legitimacy” Standards • Martin E. Haistuk, Penn State University • This paper examines a 2004 Supreme Court decision, Favish v. National Archives Administration, which concerns a FOIA request for the death scene photos of former Clinton White House Deputy Counsel Vincent Foster, who committed suicide. The Court held that FOIA’s privacy exemptions extend to Foster’s family members and, therefore, the government could withhold the pictures. This paper concludes that the Court’s recognition of privacy rights for family members of the dead was not unreasonable.
Step Out of Line and the “Man” Will Come and Take You Away: Using “Speech Zones” to Control Public Discourse in 21″ Century America • Paul Haridakis and Amber Ferris, Kent State University • We review the use of Speech Zones in which narrowly prescribed areas are designated as acceptable places for expression, and large areas, regardless of whether they have been traditional public forums in the past are deemed off-limits for public discourse. We argue that the use and level of acceptance of speech zones to control public discourse in the 21st century provides a gauge of the current level of societal commitment to free speech.
Press Protection in the Blogsophere: Applying a Functional Definition of Press to News Web Logs • Laura J. Hendrickson • This paper discusses how a functional definition of “the press” might broaden the scope of who qualifies to include some news web logs. The author further discusses the implications of this for either increasing the number 01’ news outlets who qualify for press privileges or, in the event the press ultimately is indistinguishable as an institution, for diminishing special protections – such as shield laws or access to important news events – that the press traditionally has enjoyed.
Soldier Or Citizen In The Digital Age? How Access to Technology and the Embedded Media Program Effect First Amendment Protections for Speech and the Military’s Authority to Restrict it • Anaklara Hering, Florida • When defining First Amendment protections for military personnel, courts balance the need for a viable military against preservation of rights for those called to arms. Most often, national security wins at the expense of speech, however embedded war correspondents and sophisticated communication devices present challenges to these precedents. This article explains the rationale that holds service members as soldiers first and citizens second and proposes education before the press loses its access to the battlefield.
Telemarketing Regulation and the Commercial Speech Doctrine • R. Michael Hoefges, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill • Federal appeals courts have ruled constitutional both the federal ban on unsolicited telefax advertising and the national do-not-call registry under the First Amendment. The Supreme Court has declined requests to review these decisions. Thus, for the time being, these federal regulatory schemes stand as examples of constitutional limitations on telemarketing that preserve the rights of advertisers and marketers while protecting the concomitant right of consumers to receive – and not receive – these and other targeted communications.
Unconstitutional Review Board? Considering a First Amendment Challenge to IRB Regulation of Journalistic Research Methods • Robert L. Kerr, Oklahoma • This paper considers how IRB regulations on journalistic research methods might fare if subjected to the judicial scrutiny of a First Amendment challenge. Through analysis of relevant case law, this article considers the critical elements likely to be at issue and finds the regulation suspect on multiple constitutional grounds. Regardless whether the plaintiff in this hypothetical challenge could in fact prevail, however, the analysis offers substantial evidence that such regulations are glaringly at odds with American free-speech traditions and values.
A Multilevel Approach to Spam Regulation: Federal Preemption, State Enforcement, and CAN-SPAM • Martin G. Kuhn, North Carolina • Prior to the passage of the CAN-SPAM Act of 2003 thirty-six states had enacted their own anti-spam statutes. This paper asks how the preemption and enforcement provisions in the Act limit existing state legislation, shape emerging state statutes, and define a new role for the state attorneys general in anti-spam enforcement.
First Amendment and Libel in Emerging Democracies: Case Study of Kyrgyzstan • Svetlana Kulikova, Louisiana State University • This paper is an attempt to analyze the libel law application in the post-Soviet republic of Kyrgyzstan (Central Asia). Comparative analysis of the Kyrgyz constitution and libel cases in light of the US First Amendment demonstrates that in a generally permissive legal environment and in the absence of public figure concept, public officials can effectively use the libel law to suppress criticism of the government, silence oppositional media and re-introduce self-censorship among journalists.
Non-Discriminatory Access and Compelled Speech: Drawing the Distinction in the Cable Open Access Debate • Nissa Laughner, University of Florida • This paper focuses on whether mandatory open access for competitive ISPs on cable broadband systems constitutes a form of compelled speech It reviews Supreme Court precedent relating to compelled speech; it also uses two district court decisions addressing the compelled speech question as case studies by which to identify relevant issues; it then proceeds with an analysis of whether open access is content-neutral or content-based, and whether gatekeeping concerns arise in the broadband context.
[Bleep], Lies and Videotape: Motion Pictures Edited for Content as a Window on the Control of Culture • Joshua Lewis, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge • The paper offers an analysis of the recent phenomenon, enabled largely by digital technology, of editing motion pictures to remove graphic violence, sexual situations and foul language for the home viewing market. The paper argues that, especially in the context of the increasing fortification of intellectual property laws, coupled with the concentration of media ownership in a handful of corporations, third-party editing should be found to be a non-infringing use of legally acquired media content.
“Son of Sam” Goes Incognito: Emerging Trends in Criminal Anti-Profit Statutes • Christina M. Locke, University of Florida • Laws preventing criminals from profiting from crimes, especially by telling their stories, exist in most states. Twenty-eight states have laws similar to the original “Son of Sam” law declared unconstitutional in 1991. However, a growing number of states have eliminated references to expressive materials from their anti-profit statutes. Analysis of procedural provisions of the laws reveals that the goals of preventing criminal profiteering and compensating victims are thwarted by the way the laws are administered.
File Sharing in Canada vs. The United States: A Laissez-Faire Alternative or a Different Path to the Same Place? • Bryce J. McNeil, Georgia State • Peer to peer (P2P) technology tests limitation of copyright law. This has caused significant debate in North America. This paper examines how differences between fair use (U.S.) and fair dealing (Canada) create two distinct copyright law environments. It is concluded that assuming Canada will remain the laxer of the two on P2P proprietors is presumptuous. Further observation of fair dealing in practice is needed to understand how and if Canada will differ on copyright stances.
Media Access to Juvenile Courts: The Argument for Uniform Access • Emily Metzgar Louisiana State • This paper advocates uniform media access to the nation’s juvenile courts, including both delinquency and dependency hearings, based on consideration of juveniles’ due process rights; Supreme Court decisions on media access to legal proceedings; the nature of the juvenile justice system; and the media’s role in raising awareness of public policy issues. Ultimately this paper recommends establishment of presumptive access policies for all juvenile courts and encourages more comprehensive media coverage of juvenile justice issues.
The Sky Is Not Falling: The Media Community Must Stop Automatically Crying “Trend” When A Court Rejects A Reporter’s Privilege Claim • Fabian James Mitchell, Louisiana State • Judith Miller’s 2004 jailing was met with protest and speculation about what repercussions this ruling could have on existing reporter’s privilege. The media’s coverage of her fight and their cries of “trend” are emblematic of the misinterpretation and mischaracterization of rulings this paper denounces. Reporters’ instinct to uphold their ethical standard of protecting sources is so deep-rooted in their professional thinking that they are prevented from thinking objectively outside of their own rights and neutrally assessing court rulings.
Social Norms and the Copyright law: An Analysis of Fan Web sites • Kathleen K. Olson, Lehigh • This paper examines online fan site authors’ attitudes toward copyright as revealed in survey responses and through content analysis of the sites themselves in order to determine how the authors use the copyrighted works of others in their sites and to discover the social norms regarding copyright that dominate the fan site culture online.
Publish at Your Peril: International Law Inconsistencies Present Legal Conundrums for Media Interests • Ashley Packard, University of Houston • Transnational cases involving conflicts over jurisdiction, choice of law and enforcement of foreign judgments indicate a disparity in approaches between the United States and other countries that courts cannot bridge. Governments will have to negotiate a solution. Attempts to reach consensus on an intergovernmental jurisdiction and judgments treaty through the Hague failed in 2001. However, developments within European Community and U.S. law signal that international agreement might be more attainable than only few years ago.
Narrow Lanes Ahead?: An Examination of Public Access to Information about the Transportation of Hazardous Materials in a Post-9/11 World • Amy Kristin Sanders, University of Florida • This paper discusses the public’s ability to access information about the transportation of hazardous materials with regard to changes in law and policy since the 2001 terrorist attacks. Central to this discussion is the implementation of the Critical Infrastructure Information Act of 2002 and its potential effect on the public’s ability to request information regarding HazMat transportation under federal FOI provisions. In addition, the Department of Homeland Security’s 2004 rule-making pertaining to critical infrastructure information will also be examined.
Out of the Closets and into the Courtroom • Holiday Shapiro University of Minnesota • Outing, the forced disclosure of a person’s lesbian, gay, bisexual or trangendered (LGBT) orientation, has practically since its introduction been a part of our case law. This paper analyzes the evolving law of outing. It discusses the avenues of redress available to outing targets, provides an overview of the case law, reviews the decision by the U.S. Supreme Court in the 2003 case Lawrence v. Texas, and reflects on how the Lawrence decision may change outing law.
Mandatory Internet Filtering in Public Libraries: The Disconnect Between Technology and Law • Barbara H. Smith, Kansas State University • In 2003, the Supreme Court upheld the Children’s Internet Protection Act, which mandates the installation of filtering technology in public schools and public libraries that accept certain types of federal funding for technology. However, filtering technology is incompatible with law, and most likely always will be, as human beings need to interpret and apply the law, something that technology will never be able to do.
Reporters Skating On Judge Posner’s Thin Ice in a Branzburg Maze • Samuel A. Terilli, University of Miami • Recent events and cases, from the outing of Valerie Plame to leaks about the anthrax investigation, are forcing a reexamination of reporter-source confidentiality and Branzburg v. Hayes. Judge Posner’s decision in McKevitt v. Pallasch and several other recent decisions have interpreted Branzburg narrowly, questioned the existence of any First Amendment privilege, and directed the press to other sources of law for protection. These decisions represent persuasive authority that the press should not ignore.
The First Amendment And Internet Filters: A Study Of Boston Area Public Libraries After Implementation Of The Children’s Internet Protection Act • Anne Trevethick and Dale Herbeck, Boston College • This paper reports the results of a study of 126 public libraries in the Boston area undertaken in an attempt to determine whether the adoption of the Children’s Internet Protection Act restricted adult access to protected expression. Among the notable findings, the study found that the CIPA produced a nominal increase in the number of libraries installing filters on all Internet-connect computers and that librarians were willing and able to disable filters for adult patrons.
Humanitarian Law Project v. Ashcroft – National Security in the Homeland vs. Human Rights elsewhere • Roxanne S. Watson University of Florida • In 1996 the Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act (AEDPA) was passed, making it a crime to provide assistance to terrorist groups. A group of citizens challenged the AEDPA as an infringement on First Amendment rights and argued that the system by which the terrorist groups were designated under the AEDPA violated due process. The author traces the court decisions, arguing that there is no constitutional right to associate with terrorists but the right to due process should be observed.
Vicarious Liability and the Private University Student Press • Nancy J. Whitmore, Butler University • The lack of a First Amendment prohibition regarding administrative interference with the student press leaves a private university open to legal liability from the content of student publications through the doctrine of vicarious liability. Given the trend in vicarious liability law, university policies that grant private university students the right to make all editorial decisions are not likely to protect a private university from liability for torts committed by its dependent student press.
Tile Clash Between U.S. and French Law it Cyberspace: Judicial Line-Drawing on First Amendment Boundaries • Kyu Ho Youm, University of Oregon • The notion of the borderless Internet is more often tested these days. The ongoing Yahoo! case is illustrative. It involved a French court’s order of 2000 to Yahoo! to ban display of Nazi insignia on its sites. On March 25, 2005, the entire Ninth Circuit heard oral arguments in the case. This paper examines the key issue underlying Yahoo!
Cultural and Critical Studies Division
“Stoke The Joke” and his “Self-Appointed White Critics:” A Clash of Values on Network Television News 1966-1970 • Mary Blue, Loyola University and Vanessa Murphree, University of South Alabama • The three television networks framed the events of the civil rights movement and offered them to a nation seeking understanding. With Stokely Carmichael, news coverage changed. Carmichael threatened established values and challenged the moderate movement. This paper is about a clash of ideologies and the values upon which they are based – black power versus television. It examines the network television news coverage of Carmichael from 1966 – 1970, focusing on the struggle for hegemony.
The Salt River Ticket Democratic Discourse and Nineteenth Century American Politics • Dr. Mark Brewin, University of Tulsa • The topic of the paper is genre of nineteenth century campaign communication called Salt River Tickets. The tickets, which mocked the opposing side through caricature and irony, were passed out to those who supported the losing candidates in the days following Presidential elections.
Rebirth of a Nation: Race, Myth and the News 2005 • Rockell A. Brown, Xavier University of Louisiana, Kim LeDuff, Hampton University and Christopher Campbell, Ithaca College • This paper revisits a 1995 study that found local television news to perpetuate racist myths about people of color. The authors examined 17 hours of local news recorded in nine American cities in January 2005. Their textual analysis argues that local TV journalism continues to reify the attitudes of contemporary racism. The authors also describe the growing body of work in Critical Race Theory and its implications for the study of race and media.
Amusing Ourselves to Death or Some Young Voters’ New Subculture – The Phenomena of The Daily Show During the 2004 Presidential Election • Ying-Ying Chen, University of Texas at Austin • The Daily Show, a news satire, became a regular news source for some well-educated young voters during the 2004 U.S. presidential election. This study found a new model of political communication challenges the paradigm of mainstream news media. A subculture of young people is looming through its shared values of the show. These young people identify more dissatisfaction with political discourse than others.
The Author, the Text and the Genre: A Genre Analysis of Qiong Yao’s Huanzhu Gege • ShaoChun Cheng, Ohio University • In the Chinese world, Taiwan’s cultural worker Qiong Yao is a household name, and her popularity has long been built on her romantic novels, film adaptations, and TV drama productions. Her most popular work so far is definitely the TV drama series Huanzhu Gege (Huanzhu Princess). In this paper, I try to make sense of the popularity of Huanzhu Gege in the Chinese communities through analysis of the genre.
May the Circle Stay Unbroken: Friends and the “Presence of Absence” as a Rhetorical Reinforcement of Whiteness • Phil Chidester, Illinois State University • Whiteness has been largely conceived as a subject position that is discursively negotiated, yet rarely explicitly addressed in the social discourse. Friends demonstrates how media texts as forms of visual rhetoric may reinforce notions of racial identity without speaking race. Presenting the closed circle as a visual metaphor, Friends turns to “the presence of absence” to perpetuate whiteness as a subjectivity that claims an exclusive racial position while maintaining its “purity” through active exclusion of the Other.
The New Civil (Liberties) War: John Ashcroft’s use of the Mythic Hero Abraham Lincoln to Legitimize Government Secrecy and Reduced Civil Liberties • David Cuillier, Washington State University, • This critical discourse analysis examines the strategic and hegemonic use of a U.S. mythic hero, Abraham Lincoln, in the speeches of former U.S. Attorney General John Ashcroft to justify reduced civil liberties, empowering the dominant political and social structures. This study identified four mythic hero actions that provide a source of legitimacy for U.S. policy, suggesting that using mythic national heroes in political speeches is a powerful discursive strategy to favor the powerful and subjugate the disadvantaged.
When Pictures Get Legs: The Search for Meaning in Iconic Images from Conventional and Unconventional News Sources in Iraq • Dennis Dunleavy, San Jose State University • This study evaluates news images, created from divergent sources, signifying visually prescribed norms in society. Semiotic analysis is used to tease out the normative function of media images. In this analysis, an image depicting a hooded Iraqi prisoner made by a combatant and an image made by embedded journalist of a soldier smoking a cigarette after battle are evaluated. Ultimately, this paper argues that news photographs confer meaning through reinforcing prescribed social, moral and cultural values.
Communicating Values: The Influence of Corporate Sponsorship of the 3-Day Walk for Breast Cancer • Heidi Hatfield Edwards, Penn State University • Between 1998 and 2002, Avon, the cosmetics company, sponsored a series of extreme fundraising events to raise money for breast cancer.’ The scope of the Avon 3-Day Breast Cancer Walks was massive, including thousands of participants, contributors, and spectators. In four years, more than 58,000 participants walked in the three-day, 60-mile event in cities throughout America.
C-SPAN, See White: A Critical Analysis of Washington Journal’s Guests • Chinedu (Ocek) Eke, Elon University • This study critically examines C-SPAN’s Washington Journal for the month of June 2004. By having an overwhelming number of white males as guests on the show, CSPAN legitimizes this group while marginalizing non-whites and women. Using cultivation analysis as a theoretical framework, this author proposes that the lack of minority or women experts on television relegates them to old stereotypes that suggest they have little or nothing to offer. This research challenges that notion.
Unraveling The Knot: Hegemony, Gender, and Weddings in Mass Media • Erika Engstrom, University of Nevada, Las Vegas • This paper examines the hegemonic messages about weddings and women disseminated by The Knot, the “#1 wedding website with brand extensions in magazines, books, and, with the cable outlet Oxygen, the reality television program Real Weddings from the Knot. The author unravels the various cross-over alliances of the Knot and analyzes the program’s content in terms of its promotion of wedding consumerism and a hegemony of femininity which emphasizes female beauty and role as consumer.
“What Is Your Favorite Word?” Celebrity, Orality, And Memory Inside The Actors Studio • Kevin Esch, University of Iowa • The talk show Inside the Actors Studio aspires to transcend its genre in an American media landscape dominated by banal, disposable celebrification. The show’s central contradiction, operating on multiple levels, is between its earnest, sophisticated discussions of the craft of acting and the commodification of the talk show format and film and television celebrities. How the show and its host negotiate this conflict becomes itself a kind of historiography of American acting culture.
“Anti-Aging” Magazine Advertising and the War on Nature • Kim Golombisky, University of South Florida • This essay examines “anti-aging” skincare advertising in women’s magazines to wonder about the representational politics of midlife women. If culture defines beauty as a woman’s greatest asset and defines beauty by youth, then it is no surprise that anti-aging advertising consists of a battle cry to wage a high-tech war on aging.
A Saidian Interpretation of Hi International • Clay Guinn, University of Houston • This study uses Edward Said’s theories to explore the cultural imperialism of Hi International, a glossy teen magazine funded by the U.S. State Department as an instrument of public diplomacy in the Middle East. While the publication’s goal is to expose its audience to American cultural exports, this literary analysis suggests that its language echoes a hegemonic Orientalism. Hi casts the Muslim world as an “Other” that desperately needs Western education and acculturation.
Manly Phil-osophy, Womanly Television; Hegemonic Masculinity and Dr. Phil’s “Tell It Like It Is” Talk Therapy • Lori Henson and Radhika Parameswaran, Indiana University • This paper analyzes Dr. Philip McGraw and his popular self-help talk show, Dr. Phil, to show the discursive ways in which television’s representations of therapeutic empowerment contribute to the production of hegemonic masculinity in post-Sept. 11 America. Conducting a textual analysis of McGraw’s media performance and episodes from the talk show, we argue that Dr. Phil offers a new version of masculinity that appears to incorporate sensitivity and responsibility.
Normative Aims for Journalistic Art Criticism • Thomas Hove, University of Wisconsin-Madison • This paper explores political and intellectual reasons for what Elkins (2003) calls “the flight from judgment” in journalistic criticism about the visual arts. Journalists are educated and trained according to a sociological perspective that regards artistic values and aesthetic experiences with suspicion. The author argues that if future journalists are not trained to make informed judgments about artworks and to articulate subjective aesthetic responses, journalism will continue to disregard the private and social benefits of art.
Images and Sounds as Representation in Print Media: Locating Power and Identity in Image-Sound Relationships • Katy June-Friesen, University of Missouri-Columbia • This paper explores how print media reflects and produces identities through relationships of images, sounds, and printed language. Visual and sonic representations are employed in media to construct concepts of race, gender, and class through social practices of seeing and hearing. Bringing together visual theories and theories of sound in culture, I argue we should look more closely at print media representations of visual and sonic culture as sites of power and inter-textual meaning making.
Habitus and Symbolic Power: Media representations of Africa’s AIDS and medication Issue • Euichul Jung, Rutgers University and Joo-ah Ahn, Dongshin University • This study critiques how Africa’s AIDS and medication issue is portrayed in different types of newspapers. It looks into the interconnection between the political economy of intellectual property and the AIDS crisis in Africa. As Bourdieu (1984; 1998) argues, the media’s symbolic power is essential in the confirmation of differences between social groups and classes.
Feminist Discourse and The Hegemonic Role of Mass Media: A Study of Newspaper Discourse About Two South Korean Television Dramas • Sumi Kim, University of Minnesota • With various social changes, there has been a notable cultural trend in which feminist concerns have been conveyed through many popular culture texts in South Korea since the early 1990s. In response to popular feminism, many different social groups and organizations have been engaged in the formation of feminist discourse, among them the mainstream media.
Reporting on “A Grieving Army of Americans”: The Symbolic Role of the Ordinary Citizen in News Coverage of Ronald Reagan’s Death • Carolyn Kitch, Temple University • For a week following Ronald Reagan’s death in June 2004, a series of official and vernacular rituals dominated American journalism. Through a rhetorical and narrative analysis of nearly 1,000 reports from the nation’s leading news organizations, this study explores how this coverage escalated and shifted from historical summary to nostalgia -becoming a story that focused not on the dead former President, but on “ordinary mourners” who turned out by the thousands to talk to reporters about the meaning of America.
Bollywood and the diaspora: The flip side of globalization and Hybridity in the construction of identities. • Anup Kumar, University of Iowa • Bollywood movies are just symptomatic of a larger phenomenon of media organizations, from India, China, and the Arab countries, reaching out to émigré audiences in the West. The paper suggests that in a way this has flipped the binary dialectic of global/local to local/global. An in the process is constructing deterritorialized-imagined communities’ and ‘hybrid identities’, in a post-national context of globalization, free of the geography of nation-states.
Face-to-face Sexual BZranding: Female Employees Discuss Erotic Codes Used in Promotional Activities • Jacqueline Lambiase, Texas Tech University • This study analyzes the codes of sexualized dress, entertainment environments, and flirtatious behavior expected by mainstream corporations for some promotional work. Narrative interviewing of female workers, coupled with theme analysis and with theory on sexual scripts, reveals the powerful hidden directives that management issued to sexualize commercial spaces. Women became objectified employees, and sexual appeals were intentionally used hand-in-hand with more traditional, sanctioned selling behaviors to build brands and to attract attention.
Sensationalism, Race and the Decline of Objectivity in the Wen Ho Lee Affair • J. Patrick McGrail, Susquehanna University • Two trends – the consolidation of media companies into fewer hands, with the resultant need to extract more profit from their news divisions, and the concomitant decline of newspaper readership forced newspapers in the 1990s to rely on entertainment values, especially sensationalism, that are anathematic to the ethical value of objectivity. In the case of falsely accused scientist Wen Ho Lee, this may have taken the form of shoddy reporting and race-baiting, even by the New York Times.
Members of the Club: Drawing a Boundary of Whiteness around the ASNE • Gwyneth Mellinger, Baker University • This paper performs a discourse analysis of the way in which membership criteria inadvertently fashioned the American Society of Newspaper Editors into a racially segregated organization. Using the theoretical framework of whiteness, this project also demonstrates how this exclusionary mechanism was maintained over time and helped to preserve the ASNE as an all-white, and later as a predominately white, organization, despite the ASNE’s own efforts to diversify the newspaper industry.
(Dis)Empowerment in Sex and the City • Fernando Paragas, Ohio University • This textual analysis explored femininity as a social construct as portrayed in Sex and the City, and concluded that despite outward appearances of empowerment, the show’s characters were ultimately disempowered individuals who, even as they found strength from each other, continued to be pawns to patriarchy. It contributes to the literature on postmodern feminism, or on how women must realize that their purported exercise of power against the patriarchy could actually serve to strengthen it.
The Impact of Big-Budget Cinema Production on the Aotearoal New Zealand Film Industry: a Historical-Contemporary Discussion • Robert Peaslee, University of Colorado, • This paper examines the Aoteroaf New Zealand film industry, which has recently experienced a tremendous influx of attention, capital, and praise, due in large part to the Lord of the Rings trilogy and the resulting “Frodo” Economy. By examining historical periods in which similar booms have occurred, and addressing the history of biculturalism in the AJNZ national cinema, the discussion raises many questions about governmental attempts to capitalize on the industry’s newfound notoriety through various acts of cultural policy and financing.
The Blindspot in the Political Economy Versus Cultural Studies Debate • Janice Peck, University of Colorado at Boulder • This paper revisits the “cultural studies vs. political economy” debate between Nicholas Garnham and Lawrence Grossberg and argues that neither perspective has resolved the core question dividing them-how to think the relationship between “the cultural” and “the economic”-because both conceive these as distinct areas of human activity. I propose the way beyond this dualism lies in a materialist theory of signification found in the work of Raymond Williams, Maurice Godelier and Jean-Paul Sartre.
“If This Were All I Knew… How Alternative-Media Users Imagine the Mainstream Audience • Jennifer Rauch, Long Island University • This discourse analysis examines how two audience groups-activists who used alternative media and non-engaged students who consumed mainstream news-constructed disparate interpretations of a network TV news program. Focused interviews revealed that unlike the students, the activists consciously recognized the polysemy of news texts. The active, resistant readers played games of interpretation such as role-playing, inventing dialogue and using conditionals contrary to fact (e.g. “if’). They distanced their own interpretations from those of imagined normal viewers-a strategy demonstrating the third-person effect.
Statewide Public Affairs Television: Developing an Ideal Type • Karen M. Rowley, Louisiana State University • Statewide public affairs television systems now exist in 20 states. These systems provide coverage of their respective legislatures in much the same way that C-SPAN covers the U.S. Congress. However, funding mechanisms, structures, and programming vary among these systems. Using information gathered as part of previous research, this project re-examines the data pertaining to funding, structure, and programming in an effort to determine the most effective operational model for these systems.
Imagining Contemporaries: The Emergence of a Global Identity • Adina Schneeweis, University of Minnesota • This study explores the way a global identity is imagined by individuals, independent of national or regional identities. Using Romanians as a case study, in-depth interviews were conducted to determine how and why these Romanians, living in their home country or abroad, come to form a global identity, if any.
The Media Framing of the ‘Mean Girl’: Implications of the Race, Gender, and Class Constructions of Mean Girls as Explored in the Glenbrook North Hazing Incident • Shayla Thiel, DePaul University • The influx of literature about “mean girls” that culminated in a popular film of the same name has done much to further stereotypes about race, gender, and class within popular culture. This paper focuses on the infamous Glenbrook North High School shown worldwide on videotape.
Invisible Cycle of Scapegoating: U.S. Media Coverage of Immigration “Panics” 1929-1994 • Christopher N. Williams, University of Texas at Austin • This study analyzes media coverage of four 20th century immigration “panics,” in which undocumented immigrants served as convenient scapegoats for larger social ills. The study argues that a significant and under-researched aspect of these events was the role played by the major U.S. mainstream media – including the New York Times, the Washington Post, the Los Angeles Times, US. News and World Report and the Saturday Evening Post – in perpetuating this scapegoating process.
Service Learning Across the Curriculum: A Collaboration to Promote Smoking Cessation • Jean M. Grow and Joyce M. Wolburg, Marquette University • This paper focuses on how pedagogy, service and scholarship can be combined across the advertising curriculum through service learning, which invigorates collaboration between faculty members, student teams and advertising professionals. The authors demonstrate how service-learning projects integrate curricula (pedagogy) using a community-based client (service), ultimately leading to scholarship and professional outcomes. Specifically, this study analyzes the launch of a service learning based smoking cessation campaign on a mid-west college campus.
Ethical Justification: Too Frequently a “Black Hole” in Advertising Education? • David L. Martinson, Florida International University-North Miami • Ethics involves making judgments, judgments about good and bad, right and wrong. Advertising practitioners have long struggled in an attempt to balance their responsibilities vis-a-vis persuasive communication efforts on behalf of clients against their responsibilities to be genuinely truthful in regard to impacted third parties.
Advertising Professionals in the Classroom: Comparing Electronic versus In-Person Visits • Jay Newell Iowa State University • Advertising industry experts are invited to speak in professional programs on an on-going basis. However, there is scant research to establish the pedagogical advantages of guest experts in the classroom, and little investigation into the effectiveness of new technology such as videoconferencing to effectively bridge the distance between media company offices and university classrooms. This exploratory research, using elaboration-likelihood model factors, tracks the acceptance of 10 guest speakers by students (N=86) in multiple advertising courses over 3 semesters.
Student Teams as Therapy Groups How progress and conflict follow strikingly similar patterns. • Tom Weir, Roy Kelsey, and Susan Weir, Oklahoma State University • This study attempts to draw comparisons between college students working closely in a team environment with patterns of interaction in psychotherapy groups. The literature indicates similarities in the process of both types of groups. Data is gathered from a student group using the GCQ (short form) (MacKinzie, 1983). Important similarities are found between the scores of the student group and those demonstrated for therapy groups, indicating that the group learning process involves similar fundamental stages.
Advertising and Audience Offense: The Effects of Media Type and Potentially Offensive Products, Services and Themes • Frank K. Beard, University of Oklahoma • A growing research literature suggests when and why audiences will be offended by advertisements. The content analysis reported in this paper tests hypotheses derived from the literature using actual consumer complaints about real advertisements. Findings supported four of the study’s five hypotheses, supporting conclusions that audience members are more likely to be offended by offensive themes than the products, services or ideas advertised; some themes are predictably more offensive than others.
Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Advertising for Stigmatized Illnesses • Soontae An and Hyun Seung Jin, Kansas State University • This study examined the effects of direct-to-consumer (DTC) prescription drug advertising on consumers’ perceptions toward stigmatized illnesses, erectile dysfunction and overactive bladder. Telephone interviews were conducted to assess individuals’ media consumption level, attention to DTC ads, perceived prevalence of erectile dysfunction and overactive bladder, and attitudes toward these stigmatized illnesses. The results showed that those with high DTC ad attention tended to estimate the likelihood of having those illnesses high, and the heightened perceived prevalence led to less stigmatization.
Cancer Ads: A Comparison of Advertising Strategies in Black vs. Mainstream Newspapers • Jiyang Bae, Crystal Y. Lumpkins, Shelly Rodgers, Glen Cameron, University of Missouri-Columbia, Doug Luke, and Matthew Kreuter, St. Louis University • The primary purpose of this study was to compare cancer-related ads in Black vs. mainstream newspapers to determine whether there were differences in advertising strategies used. Advertising strategies that were examined included sociocultural factors (collectivism, religiosity and racial pride), appeal (emotional, informational), referral to resources (website, 800 number, brochure), and angle (local, regional, national). The method was a content analysis of 24 Black and 12 Mainstream newspapers, randomly selected from 24 U.S. cities.
Examining the Source Element at the Interpersonal Level: A Case Study of the Body Donation Campaign in Taiwan • Hao-Chieh Chang, Chinese University of Hong Kong • This study examines the source strategies employed in the body donation campaign in Taiwan. Typical studies on the source element of campaigns focus on the effects of source qualities on persuasion. Specifically, the “who” and “what” factors were assessed to evaluate the source effect. This study explores how the campaign sources at the interpersonal level deliver the message to the target. In-depth interviews with four interpersonal sources were conducted.
The Effect of Negative Publicity on Consumers’ Brand Evaluations: The Moderating Role of Corporate Advertising • Yoon Yong Cho, and Shelly Rodgers, University of Missouri-Columbia • The purpose of this research was to examine the effects of negative publicity on consumers’ attitudes toward the corporation and its brands. The moderating effect of corporate advertising as a counter strategy for recovering negative image was also examined. The method was an experiment. Negative publicity had a negative impact, and positive publicity had a positive impact on brand and company evaluations. However, negatively primed attitudes toward the company and its brand shifted in a positive direction after being exposed to corporate advertising.
From Big-Five Framework Perspective: Does Online Brand Have Personality? • Hwiman Chung, New Mexico State University And Youngjun Sung, University of Georgia • This paper examines the generalizability of Aaker’ s theoretical framework of the dimensions of brand personality (the five factors of Sincerity, Excitement, Competence, Sophistication, and Ruggedness) across online brands. In this study, which examined online brand personality dimensions, 308 subjects evaluated three global online brands by using 70 brand personality traits.
A Qualitative Investigation of Older Adults’ Perceptions of the Influence of D.C Advertising on Self and Others • Denise E. DeLorme, University of Central Florida, Jisu Huh, University of Minnesota and Leonard N. Reid, University of Georgia • A series of in-depth interviews was conducted to examine older adults’ perceptions of DTC advertising influence on themselves and others. Results give empirical voice to previous survey findings and provide additional evidence to support the third-person effect in DTC advertising. Older adults do not perceive DTC ad effects on themselves when asked directly, but do indicate behaving in DTC-ad-expected ways in particular situations. They also perceive different types of DTC ad effects on others than on themselves.
The Influence of Movie Genre on Audience Reaction to Product Placement • Steven David Garza and Coy Callison, Texas Tech University • Participants completed measures after viewing movie clips categorized by genre-comedy, drama, and science fiction. The experiment compared brand recall, brand liking, and opinions toward brand placement across genre. Humor research suggests product placements in comedies would be more effective than placements in other genres. Results indicate that comedy does not outrank other genres as a vehicle for product placement. Previous research findings were confirmed in that prominent placements were more successful than subtle placements.
The Third-Person Effect In Controversial Product Advertising • Keith Jensen And Steve Collins, University of Central Florida • This research seeks to determine if there is a third-person effect in the realm of controversial product advertising. Survey participants rated their perceived levels of personal offense to product categories as well as the expected offense levels of other groups of people. The results show a significant third-person effect for five of six product categories where an effect was expected. In the case of advertising for racial extremist groups, a first-person effect existed as predicted.
The Effects of Self-Efficacy Statements in Humorous Anti-Alcohol Abuse Messages Targeting College Students: Who is in Charge? • Moon J. Lee and Myiah Hutchens Hively, Washington State University • This study examined the effects of self-efficacy statements in humorous, positively reinforced anti-alcohol abuse messages. The experiment was a post-test only design with 124 college students. Results indicate that highly rebellious individuals who watched ads with a self-efficacy statement (i.e. You are in control of the situation) indicated lower alcohol expectancies, higher risk perceptions, and higher intentions to change their drinking behavior than those in the non-self-efficacy condition.
Advertising Practitioners’ Opinions on Professional Training and Advertising Programs • Tien-Tsung Lee, Washington State University And William E. Ryan, University of Oregon • This study surveyed some of the most creative minds in advertising, asking them to assess the value of their educations and to share their opinions on a number of related topics. How well did their programs of study prepare them for work in advertising? Where should an advertising program be placed in the academy: journalism and communication departments, business schools, fine arts or design programs? What is the professional and personal value of an advertising degree?
Stoic and Aloof for Eternity: An Analysis of Multiple-Male Images in Men’s Magazine Advertising • Katie McRee and Bryan E. Denham, Clemson University • While existing research provides a wealth of information regarding the portrayal of females in advertising, relatively few studies have focused on images of males. The present research builds on the few studies that do exist, examining multiple-male images (n=291) in advertisements featured in four men’s magazines: Details, Esquire, GQ and Playboy. Content analysis revealed continued imagery of the stereotypical, aloof American cowboy in the context of advertisements, but also provided interesting data on the sexualized nature of male models.
Consumers’ Processing of Interactive Web Sites: The Effects of Motivation, Opportunity, Ability and Comprehension • Wendy Macias University of Georgia • This research is a pilot for a larger scale study of how consumers’ process branded Web site material. An experiment was conducted to test the effect that interactivity level had on comprehension. Additional covariates were tested to better understand the effect that motivation, opportunity and ability have on the processing capacity. The results indicate that, of the three processing variables, motivation (specifically the message attention part of advertising message involvement) had the greatest impact on comprehension.
Advocacy Advertising to Community Stakeholders: Perceptions of Risks, Benefits, and Trust in the Coal Industry • Barbara Miller and Janas Sinclair, North Carolina-Chapel Hill • Community stakeholders, who live where a business or industry is located, are an important audience for advocacy messages about industry benefits and risks. In focus groups, West Virginia residents defined risks and benefits of the local coal industry primarily in terms of community identity.
An Exploratory Study of Young American and Korean Consumers’ Intentions to opt-in to SMS Advertising • Alexander Muk, University of Wisconsin-Whitewater and Christina Chung, University of Southern Mississippi • The convergence of the Internet and wireless telephony and the fast adoption rate of the mobile phone have combined to present a new platform for advertising. SMS advertising uses push advertising strategy to deliver advertising messages to users’ mobile phones in text formats. It has considerable scope for one to one marketing based on the private and direct nature of the medium and situations of the users.
Is the Fruit Better if More Wasps Eat It: Exploring the Effects of Self-monitoring and Visual and Verbal Message Strategies on Social Approval Appeals • Jun Rong Myers, Soyoen Cho, Sela Sar And Ron Faber, University of Minnesota • This paper investigates the moderating role of self-monitoring and the effects of visual and verbal message strategies in social approval appeals in advertisement. An experimental study was conducted with undergraduate students (N=153) testing the interactive relationship between self-monitoring, verbal claims and visual cues of social approval appeal and persuasion effects. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed relating to advertising research and creative strategy.
The Effects of Consensus between Third-Party Endorsements on Audience Attitude and Behavioral Intent • Alex Wang, University of Connecticut • This study examines the process by which audiences integrate third-party endorsements into their product evaluations and how endorsement consensus affects this process. The results suggest that positive endorsements enhance audiences’ attitudes while audiences’ needs for consensus play a crucial role in determining how audiences will form their behavioral intents. Consensus is important because it determines whether a given product is perceived as meeting or falling short of product evaluations.
Promotion Of Destinations After Disasters: An Experimental Examination Of Communication-Evoked-Imagery Effects • Linda Wang-Stewart, Pacific Lutheran University • In facing the challenge of promoting tourism destinations damaged by disasters, this study was designed to examine the interaction effects of Communication-Evoked Imagery ads and memory. College students (= 116) participated in a 2 (Imagery) X 2 (Memory) X 3 (Countries) X 6 (Orders) within subject experiment. The results indicated significant main effects and interaction effects of imagery and memory congruency. The findings suggested that Communication-Evoked Imagery ads are effective to encourage audience’s information processing, especially in message-memory incongruent conditions.
The Effects of Ethnic identity on Audience’s Evaluation of HIV Public Service Announcements • Xiao Wang, and Laura M. Arpan Florida State University • An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of participants’ ethnic identity in the context of health communication. Results indicate there was a marginally significant interaction effect of black participants’ ethnic identity and source ethnicity on the evaluation of the overall credibility of the spokespersons, but not on the evaluation of public service announcements. No significant interaction effects were found among white participants on either of the dependent variables.
Military Recruitment Advertising: The Effectiveness of Advertising in Persuading Women to Consider the Military as a Career Option • Maura Mollet, And Tom Weir, Oklahoma State University • This study assesses the relative effectiveness of military recruiting advertisements to attract women to the military, and makes use of a combination of Osgood’s congruity theory (1955; in Severin and Tankard, 1988) and Goffman’s (1979) gender roles in advertisements. This study showed no consistent relationship between gender roles in recruiting materials and the likelihood that participants might consider military service, but did reveal interesting relationships among other variables.
The Influence of Humanlike Navigation Interface on Users’ Responses to Internet Advertising • Kenneth C. C. Yang, University of Texas – El Paso • The present study integrates literature from the interface design and Internet advertising effectiveness literature to examine whether a humanlike navigation interface will increase the effectiveness of Internet advertising. The study employs a post-test only with a control group experiment design to examine whether and how a humanlike navigation interface will have effects on users’ responses to Internet advertising.
Cultural Values Reflected in Chinese and American Web Service Advertising • Jie Zhang and Doyle Yoon, University of Oklahoma • This study examines cultural values and information cues as reflected in U.S. and Chinese Web service advertising appeals. Also, the distribution of service categories between the two countries is explored. Content analysis of the 836 service advertisements from 74 selected Chinese and U.S. Websites reveals that collectivism and individualism remain to be the most important cultural constructs differentiating Western cultures from East Asian cultures.
The Role of Involvement and Previous Evaluation in Attractiveness Match-Up Hypothesis • Yanjun Zhao And James Kelly, Southern Illinois University Carbondale • This study concerns the match-up hypothesis that effectiveness of an attractive model in an ad varies in product. This study was the first to consider the potential role of individuals’ previous evaluation and involvement about a product in the interaction between model attractiveness (more vs. less attractive) and product type (perfume v. vacuum) in advertising effectiveness.
The Effect of Fear Appeals in AIDS Prevention Ads on Attention, Interest, Liking and Intent to Adopt Recommended Behavior • Yanjun Zhao And Jyotika Ramaprasad, Southern Illinois University Carbondale • This study examined the influence of fear appeals as well as efficacy and relevance on ad attention, interest, and liking, as well as intent to behave (as per the recommended behavior–using condoms) in AIDS prevention advertisements. Results of a repeated measures experiment showed that fear appeal, efficacy and relevance were significant predictors of participants’ response. In addition, the study also found two interaction effects. Implications for practice in anti-AIDS/HIV advertising and experiment methodology were discussed.
Subliminal advertising: A reply to August Bullock’s not-so-secret sales pitch • Sheri Broyles, University of North Texas • On June 11, 2004, August Bullock posted a message on the AdForum listserve touting his new book The Secret Sales Pitch: An Overview of Subliminal Advertising. This posting created a great deal of discussion, proving what a hot topic subliminal advertising continues to be. This paper is a response to that book.
Effects of Gay-Themed Advertising Content on Emotional Response, Attitude Toward the Ad, and Changes in Attitude Toward the Brand • Joe Bob Hester, Rhonda Gibson, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill • The amount of gay-themed advertising is increasing, and there is much speculation about the effects on consumers, both gay and straight. But there has been very little mpirica1 investigation of the effects on individuals’ attitudes toward the brand advertised or toward the issue of homosexuality.
Are You Talking To Me?: Advertising Content Analysis of Queer Eye for the Straight Guy • Eunsun Lee, Jounghwa Choi and Teresa Mastin, Michigan State University • The study examines advertising strategies that advertisers employ to target gay consumers through mainstream media. A content analysis of commercials placed on Queer Eye for the Straight Guy, a gay-themed makeover cable TV show, was conducted. The result showed that advertisers use an implicit approach through gay window advertising and window advertising can be characterized by cues based on the stereotypes of gay consumers.
Celebrity Endorsers and Generation Y: New Insights for Advertisers • Olaf Werder and Stephynie Chapman Perkins – New Mexico • Abstract not available.
The Super Bowl: ‘Tis the Season for Self Promotion • Sue Westcott Alessandri • Abstract not available.
The Great Divide? Defining Multiculturalism and Globalization in Advertising • Frauke Hachtmann and Sloane Signal, University of Nebraska-Lincoln • As we move toward a truly global economy advertising practitioners must be equally comfortable communicating with multicultural audiences in the United States as well as different cultures abroad. The authors propose that communicating to and with global audiences should be seen as an extension of multiculturalism in the United States and not as separate areas of scholarship.
Against Advertising: Humorous Critiques in The Wall Street Journal Cartoons • Michael Maynard Temple University • The editorial page cartoon, when not overtly political, offers a compelling site for researching how a newspaper airs critiques of advertising through humor. Using the release mechanism theory of humor, this study content analyzes 2,959 Pepper… and Salt cartoons from the editorial pages of The Wall Street Journal and finds 82 cartoons targeting advertising.
Got Rights? PETA Says No: Nonprofit Issue Advertising and Celebrity Right of Publicity • Rachel Mersey, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill • This research examines the construct of commercial use as applied in right of publicity and First Amendment commercial speech cases to determine whether nonprofit issue advertising campaigns, such as PETA’s featuring former President Ronald Reagan and the tagline: “Win one for the Gipper: Animal fats DOUBLE your risk of Alzheimer’s,” would qualify either as a commercial use or for constitutional protection of the highest order, concluding that philosophical-based advertising is fully protected by the First Amendment.
From Subservient Chickens to Brawny Men: A Comparison of Viral Advertising to Television Advertising • Lance Porter and Guy Golan, Louisiana State University • The diffusion of the Internet into American homes along with the growing penetration of high speed Internet via cable and satellite have changed the very nature of online advertising. The current study focuses on one of the most recent online advertising phenomenon -viral advertising. The study provides an historical account of the viral marketing, provides a definition for viral advertising and then moves on to provide what may be the first empirical investigation of viral ads.
Advertising and the Pluralism of Indonesian Middle Class Identity: the Global-Local Nexus in Tempo Magazine • Janet Steele, George Washington University • An examination of advertising in Tempo magazine can offer clues to the global-local nexus in a developing country. Although Tempo’s readers are believed to be from the middle class, the advertising images are hardly monolithic. Some advertisements put being “Western” in the forefront, while others celebrate the local – suggesting the pluralism of middle class aspirations, and raising doubts about the notion of a capitalist “mono-culture.”
Outside the Box, Inside the Circle: Using the Six-Segment Strategy Wheel To Predict the Direction of Change in Message Strategies • Ronald Taylor, University of Tennessee • This research challenges the popular claim-“breakthrough creative”– made by advertisers and agencies that often accompany announcements of changes in message strategies. Based on analysis of 50 announced changes in strategy, this paper suggests that the direction of change in message strategy is predictable. Strategies are predictable because advertisers and their agencies tend to choose new strategies from a rather narrow range of many possible message strategies.
Celebrity Endorsers And Generation Y: New Insights For Advertisers • Olaf Werder and Stephanie C. Perkins, University of New Mexico • Generation Y has been found to be cynical toward campaigns using celebrities. The present study uses a case study design to document how college-age members of this cohort describe in their own words their beliefs about celebrity endorsers. The results of the study indicate that the fit and meaning transfer between celebrity image and ideal self-image are important for a Gen Y-oriented campaign. Findings and implications for advertising theorists and practitioners are discussed.
Content Comparison of Presidential Election Campaigns: Functional Approach to the Candidate’s and their Party’s Web sites and TV Spots • Doyle Yoon and Joseph Seth, University Of Oklahoma • This study attempted to examine how two presidential election camps utilize two media, television and the Internet, in 2000 and 2004 presidential election campaigns. Content analysis with both candidates’ and their parties’ television spots and Web sites of the 2000 and 2004 presidential election campaigns were conducted to examine the role of the Internet as a new tool for political campaigns, compared to television spots.
The Genealogy of an Icon • Margaret Young, Bradley University • Phoebe Snow was the first feminine iconic merchandising supermodel; the unrecognized prototype for all Ronald McDonalds to come. Her quiet demeanor, “lost in thought”, elegant image inspired poets, playwrights, marriage proposals, fashion designers, women and men young and old. Though she was not human in a flesh blood format, she was real. This paper traces her 70+ years through America pop culture.
Direct-To-Consumer Television Advertisements Of Prescription Drugs And Their Impact On Physician Prescription-Writing Tendencies • Jocelyn Kay Albertson, Iowa State University • This study explores the impact of direct-to-consumer television prescription drug advertisements on Iowa physicians’ attitudes toward drug products and their tendency to prescribe those products. Using the tenets of diffusion of innovations theory and the two-step flow hypothesis, the findings of this survey indicate that physicians are not in favor of televised DTC advertising of prescription products and that their negative attitudes are important contributors to their tendencies to prescribe products shown in the ads.
Content Analysis of Automotive Company Websites as Internet Advertising: A Cross-Cultural Study • Chan-pyo Hong, Youngrak Park and Kenneth Kim, Florida State University • A comparative content analysis was conducted on a total of 34 automotive company websites targeting Korean and US consumers in order to investigate the current contents (as attitude function-based advertising appeals) of the websites. Texts, hyperlinks, and images in the selected websites were analyzed on the theoretical basis of instrumental versus symbolic function dichotomy. The analysis of the results reveals that there are cultural differences in terms of two function-related items identified in the automotive websites.
Length Versus Frequency: Deconstructing Myths In Advertising Research • Yongick Jeong, North Carolina – Chapel Hill • This study examined empirically the impact of commercial length and frequency on advertising effectiveness. The results supported hypotheses that predicted advantages of frequency over commercial length in enhancing audiences’ brand recognition and advertising liking. Although both commercial frequency and length were found to be significant, the impact obtained by running an additional commercial was considerably higher than the impact acquired by increasing average and total commercial length. Marketing implications for the results are discussed.
Cultural Differences in Specific versus Diffuse Dimension: A Design and Message Comparison between American and Korean Brand • Jong Woo Jun And Hyung-Seok Lee, University of Florida • This study explores the differences in brand execution for different cultures, Korea and the U. S. The purpose of this paper is to identify the role of specific/diffuse dimension on brand-marks and taglines. The finding indicates that Korean brands are generally more diffusive than those of the U. S.
The Influence of Appraisal and Emotion on Message Effectiveness of PSAs • Yahui Kang, University of Pennsylvania • The study adopts a new approach to message effectiveness by adapting traditional appraisal studies to mass media context; treating appraisal as a measure of message content; and identifying message content that is more conducive to emotional reactions and message persuasiveness. Using Scherer’s appraisal theory, the appraisal-emotion link found in the interpersonal context is replicated in the media context. Negative emotions elicited by PSAs contribute to perceived message effectiveness. Implications for PSA designing are discussed.
Toward Developing Conceptual Foundations of Internet Brand Community • Juran Kim, University of Tennessee • Recently, Internet brand communities are attracting attention from advertisers. One purpose of this study is to offer conceptual foundations of Internet brand community by developing an integrated overview of the current research. Concepts from the Structuration theory are used for synthesizing the consumer behavior literature. This stud attempts to find and till the gaps between brand community and Internet brand community in the literature h’ considering critical characteristics of the Internet environment.
Drama as Mediator or Magnifier of Emotional Responses to Irritation in Advertising: An Exploratory Study • Jennifer L. Lemanski, University of Florida • An exploratory experiment manipulating ad format type (drama versus argument) and irritation level (low versus high) was conducted to learn more about the effects on attitude toward the ad and recall of the ad when drama and irritation are involved.
Elaboration Likelihood Model of Persuasion + Uses & Gratifications: An Enhanced Model of Comparative Advertising Effectiveness • Amy Shirong Lu, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill • This study draws from the Elaboration Likelihood Model of Persuasion and Uses and Gratifications to advocate a new model for the effectiveness of comparative advertising. The proposed model is highly conceptualized and awaits further theoretical input and more empirical testing. However, it is precisely the different natures of the ELM and U&G that make it important to find a way to bring together the two theories, which have been divided for too long.
Unselling the Cigarette: A Content Analysis of Persuasive Elements of Two Types of National Anti-Tobacco Advertisements • Jensen Moore & Keith Greenwood University of Missouri – Columbia • The purpose of this study was to examine the persuasive elements of a traditional anti-tobacco social marketing campaign to an industry manipulation campaign. It was suggested that because of reported effectiveness differences between the two campaigns, that different persuasive elements were being used. Ninety-Six print advertisements were content analyzed for visual and verbal persuasive elements.
A Content Analysis of Direct-to-consumer Pharmaceutical Television Commercials: A Look at the Information Cues Again • Daniel Ng, University of Leicester • The debate of direct to consumer ads has been a controversial one. Marketers enjoy huge advantages while advocate groups still fight for consumers’ rights. Both has entirely different point of view yet not one side has a convincing footing. A re-look at the information cues via using content analysis of television commercials indicate that there has nothing change except consumers certainly overloaded with overwhelming medical information. Some cues obviously appear more importantly than others.
Market Scarcity and Persuasion • Feng Shen, University of Florida • This study examined the role of purchase quantity restriction, a type of market scarcity, in persuasion. Purchase quantity restriction alone decreased message elaboration and product attitude favorability. The effect was further moderated by message quality. When a weaker message was present, the restriction still decreased message elaboration and product attitude favorability. When a stronger message was present, the restriction increased message elaboration and product attitude favorability.
The Master Settlement Agreement and Visual Imagery of Cigarette Advertising in Two Popular Youth Magazines • Yongjun Sung, and Heidi J. Hennink-Kaminski, University of Georgia • The 1998 Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) between tobacco companies and forty-six states bans tobacco companies from targeting youth through advertising and promotions. While previous studies examined the effect of the MSA on the overall cigarette marketing environment changes, no study has addressed possible shifts in the visual imagery and claims of cigarette ads in youth magazines since the MSA took effect in 1998. To address this issue, we analyzed cigarette advertisements in two popular youth magazines across two eras (pre-MSA vs. post-MSA).
The Mediating Role of Attitude toward the Ad and Identification with the Spokesperson Xiao Wang, Florida State University • This study examined the underlying psychological process of participants’ evaluation of source ethnicity and expertise on their acceptance of a public service announcement. The study proposed the effects of such evaluation were mediated by identification with the spokesperson and attitude toward the ad. Five hundred and twenty two participants evaluated one of four PSAs for HIV awareness campaigns.
Science Communication Interest Group
Media Use and Procedural Fairness Perceptions in the Context of Local Cancer Cluster Investigations • John Besley, Cornell University • Research on procedural justice argues that individuals often care as much about fair process and they do about fair outcome when it comes to assessing political authorities. Previous media research, however, has failed to consider whether a relationship exists between news media use and fairness perceptions.
Dispensing Information or Propaganda? Appraising Frames in News Coverage of Prescription Drug Advertisements • Cynthia-Lou Coleman and L. David Ritchie, Portland State University • One of the key arguments in favor of prescription drug advertisements has been that they inform and educate consumers. We explore how news stories about direct-to-consumer advertising from 1997 through 2004 qualitatively framed the concept of information, including salient metaphors used to enrich the term. The study is informed by theories of news construction, framing and agenda building in the context of conveying “information.”
Framing Coastal Erosion: A Qualitative Assessment of National Media’s Coverage of Louisiana Coastal Erosion Pre- and Post-Katrina • Jane Dailey and Lisa Lundy, Louisiana State University • This study examined how the media framed the issue of coastal erosion before and after Hurricane Katrina. We examined newspaper coverage of Louisiana’s America’s Wetland campaign and coastal erosion problems in other coastal areas around the country. The results generally show that newspaper coverage of coastal erosion was scant but increased rapidly following Hurricane Katrina.
Reporting on a Potential Pandemic: A Content Analysis of Avian Influenza Newspaper Coverage • Anthony D. Dudo and Michael F. Dahlstrom, University of Wisconsin-Madison • While quality information does not guarantee accurate risk perceptions, it provides the public with the means to perform an informed assessment of a risk. We analyzed four American newspapers to assess the quality of coverage related to avian flu. Quality was conceptualized around five dimensions: risk magnitude, self efficacy, risk comparisons, sensationalism, and thematic and episodic framing. Coverage exhibited high quality only in terms of risk magnitude and risk comparison information.
After the Flood: Anger, Attribution and the Seeking of Information • Robert J. Griffin, Marquette University and Janet Yang, Cornell and Ellen ter Huurne, University of Twente, THE NETHERLANDS and Francesca Boerner and Sherry Ortiz, Marquette University and Sharon Dunwoody, University of Wisconsin-Madison • In an effort to understand what motivates people to attend to information about flood risks, this study applies the Risk Information Seeking and Processing model to explore how local residents responded to damaging river flooding in the Milwaukee area. Anger at managing agencies was associated with the desire for information and active information seeking and processing, as well as with risk judgment, personal efficacy, lower institutional trust, and attributions for the causes of flood losses.
The Effects of Mr. and Mrs. Reeve on Public Health and Social Issues: Celebrity Identification and Parasocial Interaction • Bumsub Jin, University of Florida • This research assessed whether celebrity identification process affects individual concerns with and attitudes toward public health and socially relevant issues. A survey study indicated that identification with Christopher Reeve led to individual concerns with health insurance coverage, research on spinal cord injuries, and legislation to legalize research on stem cells. An experimental study also revealed that identification with Christopher and Dana Reeve predicted individuals? positive attitude toward supporting quality of life for the disabled.
Genetic Science Information in News about Obesity: Effects on Controllability Attribution of Others’ Obesity and Perceptions about One’s Own Weight Problem • Se-Hoon Jeong, University of Pennsylvania • This study tests the effects of genetic explanations of obesity in news stories with a nationally representative sample. Surprisingly, with regard to one’s own obesity, subjects reported the most negative attitudes toward weight loss (i.e., difficult to lose weight) after reading the strong behavioral news story.
Can a Personality Trait Predict Talk about Science? Sensation Seeking as a Science Communication Targeting Variable • Yoori Hwang and Brian Southwell, University of Minnesota • Sensation seeking, a trait that has been invoked by public health campaign scholars as a targeting variable, also holds promise for informal science education professionals who seek to engage social networks in their promotion efforts. We contend here that sensation seeking should positively predict talk about science, even after controlling for often-cited predictors such as education, perceived understanding of science, and relevant employment.
Where Do Ohioans Get Their Environmental News? • Stephen Lacy, Michigan State University and Daniel Riffe, Ohio University and Miron Varouhakis, Michigan State University • A survey of 971 Ohio residents in February 2005 found a high percentage of people attended to environmental news at all geographic levels, but the percentages declined as the focus of the environmental news got “closer to home.” Newspapers and television news continued to dominate environmental news at all levels, with newspapers edging television as environmental problems become more local.
The Method Had Originally Been the Theory: How the Media Describes Science, Scientific Theories, and Scientific Method • Bruce Lewenstein and Sara Ball, Cornell University • Recent public debates about “intelligent design” have often highlighted definitions of science, scientific theories, and scientific method. We identified 324 newspaper articles in the past year that used the terms; about half referred to “intelligent design.” The data suggest that no single definition is presented in the media. Although there were clear differences between stories that focused on intelligent design and those that didn’t, the diversity was present in both types of stories.
American Newspapers and the Great Meteor Storm of 1833: A Case Study in Science Journalism • Mark Littman, University of Tennessee • On November 13, 1833 Americans witnessed an unprecedented meteor storm. The response of American newspapers was surprising. Papers of this period focused on national politics, were highly partisan, and ignored local happenings and science. Yet confronted with an unexpected celestial spectacle, American newspaper coverage of the 1833 Leonid meteor storm was so accurate, innovative, responsible, and extensive that it quieted fear and superstition and helped to found a new branch of astronomy, meteor science.
Nanotechnology: Constructing the Public and Public Constructions • Susanna Priest and Hillary Fussell, University of South Carolina • Nanotechnology is following in biotechnology’s wake as the next wave of major technoscientific advancement. In the U.S., perhaps because the introduction of biotechnology was rockier than expected, substantial public resources are being invested in public outreach and education efforts for nanotechnology. Risk communication specialists are key players in this effort.
Metaphor Use in Stem Cell Research Coverage: A Comparison of U.S. and South Korean Newspapers • Lulu Rodriguez and Hye Hyun Hong, Iowa State University • A qualitative content analysis of the metaphors applied by two elite newspapers, the Chosun Ilbo of South Korea and the New York Times in the U.S., in their coverage of stem cell research over a five-year period (2001-2005) was conducted to compare their intensity of and differences in metaphor use.
Penchant for Print: Media Strategies and Choices of Agricultural Communication Professionals • Amanda Ruth, College of Charleston • The purpose of this study was to explore the media strategies and choices of agricultural communication professionals in their role as sources of agricultural information for the news media. This applied-exploratory study utilized qualitative methods in order to gather rich data through 12 in-depth interviews and three online asynchronous focus groups from a snowball sample of agricultural communication professionals. Overall, the data suggests a preference for working with trade, print media outlets.
Persuasion Theory: Frame and Source in the Promotion of Regular Physical Activity • Wanda Siu, Chinese University of Hong Kong • This study integrates framing postulate of prospect theory and the source factor to study the promotion of regular physical activity. Results show that a match of frame valence and source valence (gain frame-healthy source, cost frame-unhealthy source) enhanced message evaluation. Also, the effects of a semantic match of frame and source on message evaluation were moderated by enhanced message elaboration.
Stem Cell Research: Visual Framing of the Ethical Debate in Time and Newsweek • Nicole Smith, University of North Carolina• The ethical controversy surrounding stem cell research is fueling increasing debate. Based on the ability of a photograph to provoke emotion that words alone cannot do, the research study examined how newsmagazine photographs frame this ethical debate. Previous scholars have indicated that framing is particularly relevant when the topic is political and/or social, such stem cell research. Qualitative analysis of newsmagazine photos found that four themes emerged as news frames: science, politics, medical, and religion.
Assessing the Impact of Media Literacy Training on Middle School-Aged Children’s Attitudes toward Women in Science, Engineering, and Technology • Jocelyn Steinke, Western Michigan University and Maria Lapinski, Michigan State University and Aletta Zietsman-Thomas, Northwest University in Potchefstroom and Paul Nwulu, Nikki Crocker, Yaschica Williams, Stephanie Higdon and Sarvani Kuchibhotla, Western Michigan University • This study examined the efficacy of media literacy training on middle school-aged children’s recognition of gender stereotypes, perceptions of women in SET, and attitudes toward SET and SET careers. A total of 302 seventh-grade students were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: discussion, discussion plus viewing of media images of women, or a control. The implications for future research on media influences on middle school-aged children’s perceptions of gender and science will be addressed.
A Comparison of Media Portrayals of Nano R&D in Major Newspapers in China (PRC), the United States and Europe, 2004-2005 • Lowndes Stephens and Qingjiang Yao, University of South Carolina and Zhao Xi Liu, University of Missouri • We examine news narratives about nanoscale science and technology from 2004-2005 in a sample of major newspapers in the United States (n=150 articles), Europe (n=73 articles) and China (n=143 articles) and compare the breadth of and dominant frames/themes with similar content analytic studies in U.S. and British newspapers. Dominant frames are “finance, intellectual property and PR” in the U.S., “ELSIs” in Europe, and “general commercial or consumer applications” in China.
Trolleys and Other Health Service Targets: Irish Journalists’ Perceptions of their Influence on Health Policy Development • Kim Walsh-Childers, University of Florida • This study examined perceptions news media influence on Irish health policy development among Irish journalists who specialize in covering health issues. In-depth interviews with eight of the most influential Irish health journalists revealed three themes: perceptions of the role of journalism in Irish society; assessments of the quality of and problems with news coverage of health, especially health policy; and perceptions of the influence of news coverage on health policy development.
Graduate Education Interest Group
Cultivating Political Activism Online: A Case Study of Democratic Meetup Groups in the 2004 Presidential Election • Carole V. Bell, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill • Political interest groups and candidates are increasingly turning to the Internet for a variety of political communication functions, from fundraising to volunteer mobilization. Much of this renewed attention results from the successes of the 2004 presidential primaries, most spectacularly the growth of Meetup.com, an online service that enables people with common interests to meet.
The Media’s Role in Declining Voter Turnout in Presidential Elections, 1960-2004 • Andrew Kaplan, University of Maryland • Voter turnout has declined precipitously in the past 45 years for presidential elections, from about 73% of the non-South in 1960 (the South is not counted due to discriminatory practices) to 54% in 2000 and 60% in 2004. In 1996, nearly half the country did not vote. For decades, scholars asserted that as education levels rose, voter participation would also increase. Yet, it has sharply declined.
Triple play competition in U.S. telecommunications industry: Exploring factors affecting cable operators’ adoption of triple-play services • Sangho Seo, Penn State University • The primary purpose of this study is to estimate empirically factors affecting adoption of triple-play bundled services of a cable operator in U.S. local telecommunications market and discovered what factors are important in order to lead to additional convergence in the future.
“Hidden cameras” in Bollywood: Indian responses to the journalistic ethics of undercover reporting of celebrities • Jaya Shroff and Mansi Tiwari, Ohio University • The paper discusses the serious and the ethical issues associated with the methods of investigation and news gathering namely the hidden cameras and changed identities. It looks at several cases from India and the United States with a focus on the IndiaTV controversy of March 2005 and analyses the responses from across the media to the newsgathering methods involved. The main concerns raised in the article deal with deception and invasion of privacy.
Supervision and Accuracy in an Online Newsroom: A Pilot Study • David Stanton, Diane Hickey and Keith Saliba, University of Florida • The current study examines supervision of a Web-driven news production and editing course at a large, southeastern university. The course, which has been taught for over a decade, recently transitioned from a static HTML Web site to a dynamic site driven by a relational database and XML. Content management systems (CMS) allow journalists to remotely input content, edit and deliver the final product to print and Web-based publications.
“I’m confident I’ll vote for you, but only if you go to church with me:” Motivated message processing, religious ideology and evaluation of political candidates • John Wirtz and Penelope Sheets, University of Minnesota • The current paper examines the relationship between commitment to religious beliefs, need for closure (Kruglanski, Webster, & Klem, 1993), and the level of confidence individuals place in the inferences they draw when given limited information about a political candidate. A statistically significant relationship (F(1, 74)=4.103, p<.O5) was found between participants’ commitment to Christian orthodox beliefs and the level of confidence they placed in their inferences about a political candidate.
Community Journalism Interest Group
Weekly Dilemmas: A Study of Community Journalism, Connections, and Ethics in Small Towns • Lisa Coble-Krings, Kansas • Small-town journalists are able to connect with their communities by practicing community journalism. This form of journalism is explained by examining community ties and the potential problems close connections can cause for small-town journalists. The data used in this study was gathered during visits to five weekly newspapers and from interviews with journalists and non-journalists. Conclusions developed from this study show how small-town journalists answer ethical questions and how community members feel about their newspapers.
The Historical Mission and Evolution of the Capital Outlook Newspaper • Yanela Gordon, Florida A&M • This study explores the history and mission of the Capital Outlook, Tallahassee’s only African-American owned newspaper. Established in 1975, the Capital Outlook has existed under five-periods of ownership. For thirty years, the newspaper has been a voice of victory and vision for African Americans living in Florida, especially within the North Florida region. The Capital Outlook has distinguished itself having been awarded, three times, the A. Philip Randolph Messenger Award, known as the Black Pulitzer.
No Union in Humboldt, Kansas: Readers’ Perceptions of Loss When a Community Loses Its Newspaper • J. Steven Smethers, Bonnie Bressers, Amber Willard, Linda Harvey and Gloria Freeland, Kansas State • This study seeks to gauge perception of loss among newspaper readers in Humboldt, Kansas, in the aftermath of losing their community newspaper, the Humboldt Union. Variables relating to newspaper use and the degree to which readers miss certain features in the Union are examined, along with perceptions about the role of the newspaper in the community and the effectiveness of other area media outlets in filling the communications void left by the Union’s demise.
The Rumble in the Dark: Regional Newspaper Coverage of the West Virginia Buffalo Creek Mine Disaster of 1972 • Rita Colistra, North Carolina-Chapel Hill • The flood caused by the Buffalo Creek coal mine disaster was one of the worst on record in West Virginia history. This paper examines news coverage of the disaster by two regional newspapers with historically different stances on the coal industry and unions.
Toward a measure of community journalism • Wilson Lowrey, Amanda Brozana and Jean Mackay, Alabama • This paper represents a first step toward an index measure of community journalism. Academic literature over the last 10 years that focuses on the relationship between news media and community were systematically explored. Definitions of “community” and of “community journalism” from the literature were organized, and models of community and community journalism are proposed.
Public Relations Division
College students and Creatine: Are Fear Appeals Effective in Communicating Health Risks? • Hyang Sook Kim, Donna Sheffield and Talal Almutairi, Kansas State University • This study looks at the effect of fear appeals on self-protective behavior. A total of 121 college students viewed advertisements depicting side effects of creatine consumption. Comparing three groups with different levels of knowledge, we found that messages were most effective on those who were familiar with creatine, but had never used it. Primary results suggest that previous knowledge is a factor to be considered when presenting threatening health information.
Examining the Social Context of the College Learning Environment for the Growing Population of Older Adult Students • Terri Ann Bailey, University of North Carolina • Age-based nontraditional students, defined as students 25 years old or greater, represent the fastest growing postsecondary educational group in the United States. The size and growth of the population of older adult students suggests that information about their unique experiences has implications for public relations faculty in developing more open pedagogies and mentoring strategies.
A Sense of Agency: Utilizing Firms in the Public Relations Campaigns Course • Vince Benigni, College of Charleston and J. Christopher Wood, University of Georgia and Glen T. Cameron, University of Missouri • Extending Benigni and Cameron (1999) and subsequent works, this essay espouses the notion of agency partnership in the public relations campaigns course. Because 90 percent of campaigns professors utilize an “agency structure” in this capstone course, it stands to reason that area firms are a natural bridge to fully embracing the concept. The authors examine pedagogical, role definition, and careerist literature, and offer a 10-part list of best practices for agency partnership.
An Investigation of Public Relations’ Role in Supporting Corporate Culture: A Case Study of a Regional Healthcare Facility • Pamela G. Bourland-Davis and Beverly L. Graham, Georgia Southern University • Tapping into the stories of an organization provides an opportunity to capture an organization’s culture. This study examined an organization’s culture to assess the public relations role in regard to the culture. Focused interviews of employees and a content analysis of newsletters identified recurring cultural themes. The results provide support for public relations playing an integral role in advocating for or supporting the culture of the organization as identified in the key themes generated.
The Power of Public Relations in Media Relations: A National Survey of Health PR Practitioners • Sooyoung Choo, University of South Carolina • Based on the typology of power suggested by French and Raven, this study identified five types of power PR practitioners have in media relations. The survey results suggest that PR practitioners working for health organizations have “expert power” in the media relations. Especially, those who work for non-profit organizations, who have frequent contacts with reporters, and who develop close relationships with reporters have “expert power.”
The Role of Public Relations Practitioners’ Communication Networks: A Social Network Perspective on Public Relations Management • Joungwha Choi, Michigan State University • This study examines the relationship between public relations practitioners’ and departments’ communication networks and organizations’ public relations performance. Based on the social network approach and the Excellence theory of public relations, theoretical propositions are provided on the relationships between the network structure that PR practitioners have and public relations excellence.
Effects of Entertainment Television Program Viewing on Student’s Perceptions of Public Relations Functions • Youjin Choi, University of Florida • This study conducted a survey with students in an introductory public relations course to examine the effects of television viewing of entertainment programs with public relations characters on the perceptions about public relations functions. A factor analysis classified students’ perceptions into five categories: two-way communications, political communication, spokesperson, writing, and informal media relations.
Excuse us, please: Examining the Effect of Excuses on Corporate Credibility after an Adverse Incident • Colleen Connolly-Ahern, Penn State University • Crisis communication is an important area of public relations research. This paper details the results of an experiment that examined the effectiveness of different types of excuses and different delivery formats for those excuses on the credibility of a fictitious company after an adverse incident. Results indicate that excuses help corporations regain some their credibility after an adverse incident.
Persuasion and Ethics: Towards a Taxonomy of Means and Ends • Brenton Danner and Spiro Kiousis, University of Florida • The literature on persuasion ethics either largely ignores the distinction between the means and ends of ethical persuasion or at least does not recognize the finer distinctions at work. This paper provides a review of the current literature on persuasion ethics with particular attention to the distinction between when it is ethical to engage in persuasion and the ethical boundaries when performing persuasive acts in a public relations context.
Relationship Types and Outcomes: A Case Study of Internal Military Relationships • Tiffany Derville and Teresa Heisler, University of Maryland University College • Internal military base relationships were examined through 18 interviews and a focus group. The researchers found that the order of importance for relationship outcomes is either situational or in need of adjustment; publics with long relationships with organizations evaluate them against their histories with them; and the need to carry concerns up a chain of management results in dissatisfaction, even when needs are ultimately met. A three-tiered method for classifying relationship types is proposed.
Building an Understanding of the Main Elements of Management in the Communication/ Public Relations Context: A Study of U.S. Practitioner Practices • Barbara DeSanto, University of North Carolina-Charlotte and Danny Moss, Manchester Metropolitan University and Andrew J. Newman, Manchester Business School • This study is the U.S. stage of an international research program identifying the managerial elements of public relations work. Building on previous research studies, this study had two aims: (1) examining the efficacy of the five-factor model emerging from the previous U.K. study, and (2) identifying and exploring the U.S. practitioners’ managerial elements. The results include the validation of the five-factor model among U.S. practitioners, along with identification of managerial role characteristics in U.S. organizations.
Transparency in Government Communication • Jenille Fairbanks, Kenneth Plowman and Brad Rawlins, Brigham Young University • Basic to a successful democracy is the existence of a public informed about government actions. This requires government information to be open and accessible to the public. This study sought to understand how communicators in government value and practice transparency. Constant comparative thematic analysis of 18 semi-structured interviews of government communicators revealed a transparency model for government communication. This paper outlines that model and identifies practices and structures that promote transparent communication practices.
Man or Mouse – Which is Better: Proctored or Online Exams? A Comparison of Test Score Among a Graduate Public Relations Management Course • Lisa T. Fall, University of Tennessee • The purpose of this study is to determine if online exam administration is inferior to traditional face-to-face proctored (pen and paper) administration. The population for this sample consists of 186 graduate students enrolled in an online Master’s degree in Science Administration program at a mid-sized Midwestern state university. In particular, these students have all taken JRN 670 (Public Relations Management) as an elective course toward their degree.
The Intersection of Administration Support for the Faculty Advisor and Student Need Satisfaction • Vincent F. Filak and Robert S. Pritchard, Ball State University • This paper investigates a “motivation transference” wherein instructors receiving administration support are likely to perceive greater student motivation and need satisfaction. A survey of PRSSA faculty advisors (n=104) found that higher levels of administrative support and self-determined motivation predicted the advisor’s own rating of how positive they thought their students would be in rating their performance as the advisor.
Extending Models of International Public Relations Practice: An Analysis of the Arla Foods Crisis • T. Kenn Gaither, Elon University and Patricia A. Curtin, University of Oregon • This study examines communications materials from the Arla Foods case to test models of international public relations practice, extend theory in the discipline, and provide suggestions for international practice. It begins by classifying the models according to their underlying macro-level philosophical assumptions and outlining the ramifications of those assumptions.
Communicating During Times of Crises: An Analysis of Press Releases from the Federal Government Before, During, and After Hurricanes Katrina and Rita • Amanda Hall Gallagher, Maria Fontenot and Kris Boyle, Texas Tech University • This paper examines crisis communication strategies before, during, and after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Press releases from the Federal Emergency Management Agency, the Mississippi Emergency Management Agency, Homeland Security, and U.S. Senators and Governors from Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas were analyzed using Coomb’s (1995; 1996; 1998; 1999) symbolic approach to crisis communication. Findings from the study demonstrate that the tactic used most commonly by state officials were suffering and attacking the accuser.
Predicting Media Coverage of Corporate Performance • Soo Yeon Hong, Kiuli Wang, Syracuse University • This study collected and analyzed 838 news stories to identify predictors of corporate performance coverage in the media. A context of company’s quarterly earnings reported to the Securities and Exchange Commission was used. The hierarchical regression analyses found that economic power and earnings per share surprise are significant predictors.
Contemporary Attitudes Toward Integrated Marketing Communication • Jeffrey D. Hutson, Ball State University • This research explored whether attitudes regarding integrated marketing communication (IMC) among both educators and practitioners can place IMC in an inductive or pre-theory stage of theory development. The analysis indicates an acceptance of IMC methods. However the data does not place attitudes regarding IMC in an inductive or pre-theory stage of development. This then permits the conclusion that IMC at present is a communications management approach, not a nascent communication theory.
What you Don’t Know will Hurt You: Information Literacy, Service Learning, and Future Public Relations Practitioners • Ann D. Jabro, Robert Morris University • Students’ information literacy skills of “know” and “access” were determined to be inadequate during a 15-week course titled “Writing for Advertising and Public Relations,” a writing and research-intensive course featuring a service learning component. Pre- and Post- course assessment surveys, weekly student journals, and research portfolio analyses support that students’ information literacy skills can be enhanced by altering pedagogic practices, consulting with experts and empowering students to seek assistance.
Building Online Dialogic Relationship: The U.S. Fortune 500 versus China 500 Corporate Web Sites • Jing Jiang, California Lutheran University • This study explored the similarities and differences of corporate Web sites in the use of dialogic principles to build online dialogic relationship by the U.S. Fortune 500 and China 500 companies. Consistent with previous studies, the results show that both the U.S. Fortune 500 and China 500 companies corporate Web sites do meet the prerequisites of dialogue, namely, they are easily navigated, contain useful information for customer, investor, and media publics, and provide features to maintain visitors on the site.
An Analysis of the Literature on Third-Person Effect for Implications in Public Relations Strategic Message Design • Deena G. Kemp, University of South Florida • Third-person effect (TPE) theory states that people respond to messages based on the expectation that others will be more influenced than themselves. For public relations, TPE can result in unintended outcomes or may be used strategically to achieve communication goals. This paper reviews seven studies that examine TPE for strategic communication in order to formulate a TPE research agenda for public relations in the areas of audience analysis, message design, and program evaluation.
Exploring the Effects of Negative Publicity: News Coverage and Public Perceptions of a University • Sei-Hill Kim, John P. Carvalho and Christy E. Cooksey, Auburn University • Using content analysis of a local newspaper and data from a survey of local residents, this study examines the effects of negative publicity on public perceptions of and support for a university. Our data indicated that greater exposure to unfavorable news articles was associated with lower levels of perceived reputation and trust in the university. Unfavorable perceptions were also related to decreased support for the university.
Differences in Gender Roles in Public Relations and South Korea • Sora Kim and Roxanne Hovland, University of Tennessee • This study examined gender differences in the roles of public relations practitioners, inclusion in influential networks, and relationships with mentors in South Korea. Altogether 102 South Korean public relations practitioners participated in the survey from January to February 2006. The results of the study confirm some of the findings of Western research as well as suggest new insights about important cultural differences in the roles of practitioners as managers and technicians.
The Portrayal of Public Relations Practitioners in The West Wing • Emily Kinsky, Texas Tech University • An investigation of the portrayal of public relations practitioners was performed using content analysis of the 22 episodes in the debut season of The West Wing. The practitioners were coded based on demonstrated traits and work performed or discussed. Significant differences were found between male and female practitioners being included or disciplined, appearing as major characters, dealing with government officials and the media, discussing speech writing, and appearing silly.
Understanding Influence on Corporate Reputation: An Examination of Public Relations Efforts, Media Coverage, Public Opinion, and Financial Performance from an Agenda-Building and Agenda-Setting Perspective • Spiro Kiousis, Christina Popescu and Michael Mitrook, University of Florida • This study investigates public relations efforts and media coverage beyond message outputs and media placement, by tracing the impact of public relations efforts and media coverage on corporate reputation through the theoretical grounding of first- and second-level agenda-building and agenda-setting. A triangulation of research methods compared public relations content, news coverage, public opinion, and corporate financial performance for 28 companies from the annual Harris Interactive (2005) Reputation Quotient.
Going Public to Restore a Tarnished Image: A Content Analysis of President Bush’s Major Post-Katrina Speeches • Brooke Fisher Liu, University of North Carolina • When Hurricane Katrina swept the Gulf Coast, President Bush’s newly formed Department of Homeland Security received its first test and failed. In this paper, I apply image repair discourse theory to analyze the major speeches Bush gave after Katrina. I examine: (1) how Bush presented his response to Katrina in his speeches; (2) how Bush responded to the public’s criticism in his speeches; and (3) how effective the speeches were in repairing Bush’s tarnished image.
Practicing Public Relations in China: An Examination of Multinational Public Relations Firms • Yi Luo, University of Maryland • This study of five multinational public relations firms in China seeks to (a) examine the multinational public relations firms’ sensitivity to societal culture and (b) explore three core concerns in public relations management: function, gender diversity and communication models. Results with 16 practitioners in the firms supported global public relations theory. Suggestions for specific application of global public relations theory are recommended.
Challenging the Monolithic View of Ethnic Minorities in Public Relations Strategies: Hispanic Culture-frames of the Healthcare Issue • Belio A. Martinez, Jr., University of Florida • Framing, and etic/emic concepts are combined to formulate a culture-framing model to discern between minority subgroup issue-frames. An analysis of 21 in-depth interviews with Colombian, Cuban and Puerto Rican Americans in the state of Florida resulted in five unique healthcare frames for these Latino subgroups. Findings in this study challenge the myth of a monolithic Hispanic community and call for more nuanced public relations research and campaign efforts targeting multicultural publics.
The Secret Key to Beautiful Skin is not a Secret Anymore: A Case Study of SK-II’s Image Restoration Strategies • Juan Meng, University of Alabama • SK-II, a high profile beauty line of Proctor & Gamble, was sued by a Chinese consumer in 2005, which raised serious questions about SK-II’s product safety and the credibility of its advertisements. The theory of image restoration discourse was applied in this case to analyze SK-II’s attempts to restore its tarnished reputation in the Asian market. More rigorous image restoration strategies for multinational corporations (MNCs) in the Asian market were also recommended.
Digging Deeper: Crisis Management in the Coal Industry • Barbara Miller and J. Suzanne Horsley, University of North Carolina • Through an analysis of the coal industry, this study provides insight into the unique considerations associated with responding to crises among risk-related industries. Given the often-negative image associated with risk industries, crises may be a context for improving existing public perceptions by demonstrating a commitment to responding to crises effectively.
The Academy versus the Profession: A Comparative Analysis of Ethical Discussion in Public Relations Publications • Michael A. Mitrook and Benton Danner, University of Florida • Content analysis concerning the nature of ethical discussion in both peer reviewed public relations journals and public relations industry publications. Of the 35,944 articles from four scholarly journals and four industry publications covering the period 1998-2005, 1057 mentioned ethics in some substantive way and were further analyzed in four categories: appeal to a normative ethical theory; mention of a code of ethics; mention of metaethical issues; and relating ethics to a particular public relations theory.
Cultivation of Relationships as Resource Management: Employee-organization Relationships (EOR) in the Context of Globalization • Lan Ni, University of Texas at San Antonio • Applying the framework of resource management to the cultivation of relationships for achieving organizational goals, this study examined how the cultivation of employee-organization relationships (EOR) was influenced by globalization strategies. Findings from 60 interviews in 14 organizations suggested that the process of cultivating EOR indeed reflected the demands of globalization strategies. Organizations focused on different dimensions of EOR cultivation, demonstrating a visible effort of public relations to build resources that could contribute to organizational effectiveness.
The Link Between Strong Public Relationships and Donor Support • Julie O’Neil, Texas Christian University • Based upon a mail survey completed by 275 donors of a non-profit organization, this study measured the association between perceptions of public relationships and donor support. A modified version of Hon and J.E. Grunig’s (1999) relationship scale was used. Results of one-way analyses of variance indicate that strong public relationships are not related to amount donated, but they are associated with years of support, happiness to continue donating, and happiness to recommend others to donate.
A New Typology of Risk Communication Process Variables • Michael J. Palenchar and Elizabeth A. Crisp, University of Tennessee • Risk communication process variables are a potentially useful typology for examining the strategic creation of risk communication messages and audience responses. Based on a literature review across disciplines, this meta-analysis identifies a new typology of psychometric and other risk communication process variables categorized by control, trust, context, uncertainty and knowledge. The authors also advocate for more reflection and review of risk communication research literature to systematically address present and future research needs in the field.
Roles and Blogs in Public Relations • Lance V. Porter, Kaye D. Trammell, Louisiana State University and Deborah Chung, University of Kentucky • A national email survey of public relations practitioners investigated the use and perceptions of weblogs or blogs and how that use is related to roles and status. Cluster analysis challenged Porter and Sallot’s 2003 roles typology, reverting to the previous manager-technician dichotomy. While blog use was on par with national audiences, practitioners were maintaining mostly personal blogs and using blogs professionally at low levels. Furthermore, women lagged behind men in the strategic use of blogs.
Public Participation: An Experimental Test of Stage of Involvement and Power Sharing on Satisfaction • Kristina M. Ray, David M. Dozier, Glen M. Broom and C. Richard Hofstetter, San Diego State University • The normative literature on public participation suggests that stakeholder satisfaction increases (a) when decision-making power is shared and (b) the public participates early in the decision-making process. In an experiment, 804 subjects were randomly assigned to groups and exposed to four treatments where power sharing and stage of public involvement were systematically manipulated.
The Dialogic Characteristic of NGO Web sites and The Concept of Interactivity • Hakimeh Saghaye-Biria and Foad Izadi, Louisiana State University • This study examined the interactive potential of the Web sites of 50 non-governmental organizations to understand how they are building dialogic relationships online. The data suggest that while most NGO organizations meet the technical and design aspects of dialogic communication – here referred to as user-to-system interactivity – they are not taking full advantage of the two-way communication potential of the Internet.
Claimsmaking and Mountaintop Removal Mining: A Frame Mapping Analysis of PR Material from the Coal Industry and Environmental Activists • Marc C. Seamon, Marshall University • This study is a computer-assisted analysis of how claimsmakers frame mountaintop removal mining in PR materials designed to influence public opinion and policy. The frames used by competing claimsmakers and the words that comprise those frames are identified. Abstract patterns of usage and association among the frames are documented and made visual through 3-D interactive graphs. Interpretation is provided of the frames and their associative patterns. Implications for PR practitioners and researchers are discussed.
A Qualitative Analysis of Fund Raiser Roles and Experiences at Public Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) • Natalie T. J. Tindall, University of Maryland • According to fund raising theory, the chief fund raiser should be a member of the dominant coalition for any advancement of fund raising effort to succeed (L. A. Grunig, J. E. Grunig, & Dozier, 2002; J. E. Grunig, 1992; Kelly, 1998). This paper examines the experiences of 27 institutional advancement officers at public historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs).1 The fund raisers enacted the expert prescriber, problem-solving facilitator, and technician roles described by Kelly (1998).
Perception of Public Relations: An Experiment Testing the Impact of Entertainment Portrayals of the Profession on Students and Practitioners • Kaye D. Trammell, University of Georgia and Lisa K. Lundy, Louisiana State University • In this pre/posttest experimental design involving practitioners (n =28), public relations majors (n=39), communication majors (n=33), and non-majors (n=40), researchers investigated the impact of entertainment portrayals of the public relations profession. Findings indicate that while all groups believe the portrayal of the profession in the stimulus was inaccurate, participants allowed the entertainment program to cloud their perception of public relations. Respondents experienced third-person effects but the phenomenon dissipated as one’s connection to the profession decreased.
Impact of Blogs on Relationship Management during a Crisis • Kaye D. Trammell, University of Georgia and Emily Metzgar, Louisiana State University • Using a post-test only experimental design with control group, this study investigated the impact of blogs on relationship management during a crisis. Participants (N = 109) were exposed to a personal blog (n = 45), organizational blog (n = 46), or control (n = 18). Results indicate blogs impact the perception of the level of crisis an organization experiences. Additionally, relationships created through blogs impact the perception of crisis. Use and credibility were also investigated.
Toward a Social Construction of the Field of Global Public Relations: A Case of Female Practitioners in Russia • Katerina Tsetura, University of Oklahoma • Social construction was used to develop a theoretical framework for studying multiple identities of public relations practitioners, based on professional, cultural, and gender characteristics, as a foundation for reconceptualization of the public relations field. Results of interviews and focus groups with female practitioners from Russia reported. This project provided baseline to systematically explore multiple identities of professionals and showed how the proposed framework can be used to understand public relations as a socially constructed field.
Women’s Meaning-making of Cervical Cancer Campaigns: Using a Cultural Approach to Reframe Women’s Involvement with their Health • Jennifer Vardeman, University of Maryland • This study extended the situational theory of publics to understand how women from different racial and ethnic backgrounds seek information about cervical cancer. Qualitative focus groups and in-depth interviews were employed with African American, Hispanic, Indian, and White women. Findings suggest that women represent both aware and latent publics because of differences in problem recognition and level of involvement. Furthermore, women tend to group reproductive health issues together rather than separating them.
“My Grandmother Ate Fish Her Whole Life and There Isn’t Anything Wrong With Her”: An Exploratory Study of How Women Perceive Contradictory Messages in Media about Fish Consumption • Jennifer Vardeman and Linda Aldoory, University of Maryland • This study employed focus groups with women to examine their perceptions of contradictory information portrayed in media about fish consumption. The situational theory of publics provided a theoretical framework in that women’s perceptions were understood in terms of how much they recognized eating fish to be a problem, how personally relevant the problem of eating fish was for them, and whether they perceived barriers to eating fish safely.
Priming, Framing and Position on Corporate Social Responsibility • Alex Wang, University of Connecticut-Stamford • This study tested the effects of priming, framing, and position on how participants judged a target corporation: effects produced by statements that focused on issues of corporate social responsibility (CSR) within a context without mentioning a target corporation (priming) and effects produced by stories that linked the target corporation to CSR issues through negatively framed news (framing).
Telling the American Story to the World: The Purpose of U.S. Public Diplomacy in Historical Perspective • Jian Wang, Purdue University • This paper seeks to provide a critical reflection on the mission and function of U.S. public diplomacy through an examination of the manifest mandate of the three major institutional settings for such international outreach programs, i.e., Committee on Public Information, Office of War Information, and the United States Information Agency. Through historical synthesis, this discussion aims to enrich our understanding of current and long-standing issues regarding the concept of public diplomacy.
Blogging 101: Issues and Approaches to Teaching Blog Management in Public Relations Courses • Richard D. Waters and Jennifer A. Robinson, University of Florida • As the social impact of blogging continues to grow, public relations practitioners must be prepared to develop and manage constituency relationships by managing and responding to blogs. This paper highlights how blog writing/management can be purposefully incorporated in public relations curricula, including a sample assignment. Results of informal interviews (n = 28) with students enrolled in a public relations writing course are reported and a variety of issues raised by students are discussed.
Measuring the Donor-Nonprofit Organization Relationship: The Impact of Relationship Cultivation on Donor Renewal • Richard D. Waters, University of Florida • Through the use of organization-public relationship measures developed by Grunig and Hon (1999), this project examined the value of the donor-nonprofit organization relationship. A survey of donors (n = 120) for a California-based healthcare organization revealed that major gift donors and repeat donors were more likely to have stronger feelings of trust, satisfaction, commitment, and balanced power than normal donors and one-time donors, respectively.
Beyond Counting: The Use of Press Clippings as a Measurement Tool • Brinn Wellise and Jennifer Greer, University of Nevada, Reno • A survey of a randomly selected sample of PRSA members found that practitioners deem press clippings, despite their simplicity, as an important and frequently used measurement tool. Practitioners counted press clippings and used more complex levels of clip analysis; those techniques combined ranked near the top of a list of what some have seen as “more sophisticated” PR measurement tools. Long-time and more upper-level practitioners placed less value on clippings than other professionals surveyed.
Constructing a Cultural Definition of Public Relations: A Textual Analysis of The New York Times • Candace White and Cheryl Ann Lambert, University of Tennessee • This study examined how public relations is contextually defined, using newspaper articles as cultural texts, to determine how readers would derive meaning of the term. Public relations was frequently used as an adjective to ascribe negative meaning to the noun it modified, and the media definitions, and therefore the cultural perceptions of public relations, do not often match textbook definitions. Newspaper readers would make negative inferences about public relations.
The Moral Development of Public Relations Practitioners: A Comparison with Other Professions • Lee Wilkins, University of Missouri and Renita Coleman, University of Texas-Austin • This study gathered baseline data on the moral development of 84 public relations professionals. The PR practitioners in this study scored sixth highest among professionals tested, ranking behind seminarians/philosophers, medical students, physicians, journalists, and dental students, but above nurses, graduate students, undergraduate college students, veterinary students, and adults in general. They performed significantly better when the ethical dilemmas were about public relations issues than when they were not.