What Motivates Online Shoppers to “Like” Brands’ Facebook Fan Pages? • Mohammad Abuljadail, Bowling Green State University, Ohio; Fang Wang, Bowling Green State University, Ohio; Liu Yang • “Brands’ Facebook fan pages have been frequently used as a marketing tool to reach to more individuals; however, Facebook users’ motivations to participate in those fan pages are still unclear. This paper investigates the motives that stimulate online shoppers to “like” brands’ Facebook fan pages. This study is interested in knowing if online shoppers’ proclivity to “like” brands’ Facebook fan pages is based on their hedonic or utilitarian motivations. The authors propose a model based on hedonic and utilitarian motivations and uses and gratifications theoretical framework. An online survey was conducted among college students who shopped online in Northwest Ohio (N=198). The findings show that utilitarian motivations have positive significant relationships with “liking” brands’ Facebook fan pages.
Going Public: The role of Public relations in Initial Public Offering (IPO) communication • Jee-Young Chung, Southern Utah University; Eyun-Jung Ki, The University of Alabama • The present study aims to investigate the role of public relations in initial public offering (IPO) communication and the features of IPO disclosure utilizing Impression Management theory. Specifically, the present study examines the public relations practices in IPO process in terms of financial disclosure (i.e., form S-1: registration statements) and the media attention during the Quiet Period. The prospectuses of 248 IPO companies during 2013 were content analyzed based on IM strategies. Media relations efforts of those companies and media attention on companies were analyzed, and whether it relates to investors’ evaluation and attention on IPO companies. The results suggest the practical guidelines for IPO disclosure for public relations practice.
Promoting and Branding of News on Twitter: An Examination of CNN International • Michael North, University of Miami; Terry Bloom, University of Miami; Eisa al Nashmi, Kuwait University; Johanna Cleary • This content analysis examines the individual Twitter accounts of three high-profile reporter/anchors, and the corresponding network feed at CNN International, and how they used those tweets for branding and promotion. Specifically, it looks at 1,158 tweets from CNN International reporters/anchors Christiane Amanpour, Becky Anderson, and Richard Quest, and the general Twitter feed for CNNi. The tweets were issued over the course of one month in late 2013. The study confirmed that this important legacy media company often uses its various Twitter feeds to promote and brand their products. Results showed that CNNi’s strategic use of Twitter feeds varied between classifications of feeds (i.e. individual and network-specific). The individual reporter/anchor feeds were more likely to demonstrate branding and promotional messages than was the network feed, while the latter was more likely to concentrate on breaking news and news updates. Overall, CNNi’s Twitter presence offered an opportunity for branding and promoting its various products, programs, and personnel.
Media brands as symbolic resources – An audience-centered approach • Kati Förster, University of Vienna; Sabine Baumann, Jade University; Katharina Kleinen-von Königslöw • As never before media are expressions of people’s self-concepts for themselves as well as for others. In displaying media use habits or preferences in one’s social environment, media products provide relevant constituents in producing the social self. The aim of this paper is to explore the use of (popular) media brands in everyday media practices, and to uncover their symbolic meanings for identity practices of affiliation with in-groups and distinction towards out-groups. We suggest an audience-centered approach that considers different levels of aggregation and, by that, functions of media brands. At an individual level we investigated everyday media practices using online media diaries (n = 59) over a period of four weeks. Based on these findings we selected twelve genres to explore their symbolic impact within a social group using a projective technique (n = 225). The results show that only six of the selected twelve genres serve as distinctive features when signalling a certain social belonging towards others: News as informative content, comedy shows as performative content and comedy as fictional entertainment are those genres that act as social ‘glue’ in our investigated group. Contrastingly, society formats, scripted documentaries and fantasy/science fiction/horror increase distinction, as they negatively affect likability and the perceived similarity with oneself and/or with friends.
Media management education: Challenges, key themes and pedagogies • Kati Förster, University of Vienna; Ulrike Rohn, U of Tartu • “The media sphere has changed significantly as a result of globalization, technology and new modes of media use habits. Scholars in journalism and mass communication thus call on a transformation and reinvention of higher education in the field. The purpose of this article is to investigate how media management is taught across different institutions, and how educators cope with this interdisciplinary, international and dynamic field. In an online-survey we asked educators from fourteen different countries across Europe about the key themes addressed in teaching, the pedagogies applied and the fundamental challenges.
Organizational Strategic Decision Processes at U.S. Newspapers: A Study of Mobile Business Model Innovation • Geoffrey Graybeal, Texas Tech University • Using strategic management theories of organizational decision-making and upper echelons as theoretical frameworks, this study addresses the strategic decision processes used by U.S. daily newspapers to address mobile disruption of newspaper business models. Through a nationwide survey of publishers of daily newspapers, the study found that the majority of newspaper publishers do not perceive wireless mobile devices as a disruptive threat to their business, and thus engage in a comprehensive decision-making process.
The resilience of journalists who remain: A longitudinal study of technological and economic changes at newspapers and journalists’ perceived identities • Amber Hinsley, Saint Louis University • This longitudinal study used online surveys of newspaper journalists to explore how they believe technological and economic changes affected their job roles in 2010 and 2014. Using social identity theory, the research also investigates whether those changes have impacted newspaper journalists’ connections to their organization (known as organizational identification) and to the profession (professional identification). Implications for managers include the enduring nature of OI and PI in the face of a continually changing industry.
Factors Affecting Mobile Application Usage: Exploring the Roles of Gender, Age, and Application Types • Kyung-Ho Hwang, Sungkyunkwan University; Sylvia Chan-Olmsted, University of Florida; Sang-Hyun Nam, Sungkyunkwan University; Byeng-Hee Chang, Sungkyunkwan University • Adopting the uses and gratifications perspective, this study investigates the effect of mobile apps types, and the moderating effects of gender and age on mobile apps usage through actual user experience, as captured by metered software on a sample of mobile phone users in the United States. The variable of apps usage is examined from both the width (i.e., reach) and depth (i.e., intensity) aspect to capture the multiplicity of mobile apps usage behavior.
Structural Changes in Communities and Newspaper Circulation in the Digital Age • SEOK HO LEE, University of Texas at Austin • Despite growing concerns over decline in newspaper circulation, only a few studies have examined determinants of the slump in the digital age, and most of them have limitedly focused on technological factors, such as the effect of the Internet. Present study examines to what extent structural changes in the neighborhood affects newspaper circulation in order to provide holistic understanding of the decline in newspaper circulation. We investigated four important neighborhood attributes, which influence newspaper circulation: penetration of high-speed Internet, median household income, long distance residential mobility, and voter turnout. Evidence presents that the decline in newspaper circulation results from a combination of diverse factors, rather than a single determinant. In particular, the effect of long distance residential mobility and median household income challenges the conventional belief that newspaper circulation has a positive relationship with length of residency and earned income. While there are speculations on imminent demise of printed newspapers, the results suggest that newspapers may survive as did in the rise of the previous technology evolution with radio and television, once the nation recovers from political cynicism and stagnant residential mobility.
Is traditional media losing audience? • Qianni Luo, Ohio University • This study sought to determine several variables that may influence people’s choice to shift from old to new media. These included time spent on social activities, the structure of traditional media, the user’s gender, and use of social media. Based on the theory of uses and gratifications, logic of media economics, and time budget theory, all of those variables potentially influence people’s choice of the Internet over traditional media. A secondary data retrieved from Pew Research Center’s 2012 media consumption survey was used in this project. Twelve questions from the questionnaire regarding people’s media usage were mainly analyzed in this article. The results indicate that time spent on social activities, gender and the structure of newspapers influence time spent on the Internet.
Mobile News Business Models: Promise or Pitfall? • Logan Molyneux, University of Texas • The narrative surrounding mobile news is one of opportunity, just as optimism characterized early online news ventures. But have newspapers venture into mobile, are they repeating the same mistakes they made online? This study conducts a meta-analysis of industry data to determine what business models newspapers use in mobile markets in order to predict performance in the long run. Results suggest newspapers’ mobile efforts rely on the same old business models that failed them online which, given the additional challenges of mobile, are even less likely to succeed. Faulty assumptions behind this approach and suggested ways forward are discussed.
Repeat Consumption of Media Goods: Examining the Factors Affecting Repeat Theatrical Viewing of Movies • Byeng-Hee Chang, Sungkyunkwan University; Sang-Hyun Nam, Sungkyunkwan University; Sylvia Chan-Olmsted, University of Florida; hun kim • This study explored the factors affecting repeat theatrical viewing of movies. By using a comprehensive framework of four variable groups, content characteristics, audience characteristics, social influence, and availability/competition, the analysis reveals several important findings. A theoretically significant discovery is that the drivers of repeat viewing of media contents might be very different from the first viewing of those contents. This study also discovers differences between first and second repeat viewing of theatrical movies.
Mergers and Acquisitions (M&A) Strategy and the Financial Health of Internet Media Firms • Huyen Nguyen, Ohio University • Do mergers and acquisitions bring more profits for traditional media firms? The question has long been asked by many scholars in the field of media management and economics (Rizzuto, 2006). However, their answers have never been consistent. Observing the popular use of M&A strategy by Internet media firms, this paper reconsiders this controversial issue. Our selected sample includes 9 public firms: Amazon, AOL, Apple, Facebook, Google, Microsoft, Twitter, Yahoo and Zynga. As a result, we found a significant positive linear relationship between the current profit margin and total acquisition costs of these firms. Besides, we also found that these firms tend to acquire firms having the same SIC (Standard Industrial Classication) code, to empower their core assets and competences, as well as get rid of potential competitors.
Brand Personalities of Video Game Consoles • Anthony Palomba • As consumers play video game consoles, they become more engaged and formulate a relationship with them. From this, perceived brand personality traits may manifest among consumers. This study created brand personality scales for all seventh generation video game consoles including Nintendo’s Wii, Microsoft’s XBOX 360 and Sony’s PlayStation 3. Principal component factor analyses were conducted to measure each video game console’s brand personality and across all three video game consoles.
The AM Radio Conundrum • Ian Punnett, Walter Cronkite School of Journalism and Mass Communication/ASU • Due to radio frequency encroachment from all electronics, AM radio signal quality is deteriorating. As a result, the FCC is offering unprecedented technical assistance. This exploratory study documents the disposition of media managers about the future of the AM band, the recent FCC’s efforts and role of new technologies. Findings show that elite interviewees offered candid and surprising comments on the state of AM radio and the advent of digital delivery.
Likes, Shares, and Comments: Examining the Relationship between Social Media Metrics and Brand Equity • Ronen Shay, University of Florida • Structural equation modeling is used to explore the relationship between the engagement metrics produced by social networks and brand equity, when mediated by online reach. Relationships explored include: direct effects of online reach on brand equity; direct effects of platform engagement on online reach; which brands generate high engagement; which brands have high online reach; which social networking platform has the greatest indirect effect on brand equity; and which brands are present on which platforms.
Factors Affecting Platform Selection between Offline Television and Online Video • Ronen Shay, University of Florida • This exploratory study provides a comprehensive analysis of the factors that affect platform selection between offline television and online video. The theoretical framework draws from diffusion of innovations theory, the convergence paradigm, brand segmentation research, and layered communication systems to identify a diverse selection of demographics, psychographics, and content selection preferences that act as predictor variables in a multiple discriminant analysis that attempts to classify survey respondents based on their platform preference.
Communication trade associations: Increased value under increased competition? • Amy Sindik, Central Michigan University • This study examines the role broadcast and wireless trade associations play in the competitive communications industry, and if the management perspective on the value of trade associations has changed as the two industries engage in increased competition. The study is conducted through in-person interviews with lobbyists employed by broadcast and wireless organizations. The interviews suggest that competition has increased the value of trade associations to organizations, and has also resulted in member organizations becoming more fully committed to industry trade associations, and having less extreme reactions when trade association and organizational policy stances do not align. The interviews also suggest that benefits of trade association membership in a competitive environment include the ability of a trade association to serve as a political shield for a controversial policy stance and to magnify the voice of individual organizations.
Stability or Rigidity: Management, Boards of Directors and the Newspaper Industry’s Financial Collapse • John Soloski, U of Georgia • This paper examines the composition of the top management of publicly traded newspaper companies and the make up of their boards of directors before and after the industry experienced the worst financial collapse in its history.
Free Newspapers in the United States: Alive and Kicking • James Ian Tennant, Mount Royal University • This study considers the economic health of free newspapers given their heavy reliance on advertising. Do free newspapers face two options?: continue producing free content by relying on advertising (in addition to other revenue sources), or abandon the advertising-based business model. The researcher employed a Web-based survey and in-depth interviews with publishers of four different types of free newspapers. Results show free newspapers are not only viable but in many markets they are thriving.
Entrepreneurial Journalism: Shifting Journalistic Capital? • Tim Vos, University of Missouri; Jane Singer, City University London / University of Iowa • This exploratory study culls references to entrepreneurial journalism from a broad range of industry and popular publications and sites from 2000 to the present, examines the journalism field’s textual and discursive construction of entrepreneurial journalism and explores how this discourse raises issues regarding the principles, norms and ethics of the journalism field. The study found entrepreneurial journalism to be loosely defined and generally portrayed positively and largely free of ethical or normative implications. The study considers what this means for the stability of journalism’s cultural capital.
The Relationship between Twitter Use and Television Ratings A Content Analysis of Television Networks’ Twitter Sites • Yuan Wang, University of Alabama • Television networks are increasingly using social networking sites to interact with the audiences of their programs. Through a content analysis of the Twitter sites of some popular television programs from three big television networks, this study examined the relationship between Twitter use of television networks and television ratings of specific programs, and how these networks used Twitter. One finding was that overall there might be a significant relationship between Twitter use of television networks and television ratings. In particular, the relationship was positive for CBS’s and FOX’s programs, and also for comedy and drama programs. Besides, the relationships between Twitter use and television ratings varied based on different television networks (CBS, ABC and FOX) and program genres (comedy, reality and drama).
Retransmission Consent and Television Blackouts: An Examination of Consumer Reaction • Gillian Wheat • A content analysis examined consumer reaction to a 32-day television blackout that was the result of unsuccessful retransmission consent negotiations between Time Warner Cable and CBS. Comments made on the Facebook pages of Time Warner Cable and CBS during the blackout were analyzed. The findings of the study revealed that the placement of blame for the blackout varied, as did mention of issues such as payment for access to programming and online access to programming.
Competition between Mobile News and Traditional News Media: A Longitudinal Analysis from 2010 to 2014 • Mengchieh Jacie Yang • The current study sought to understand the evolving mobile news landscape with two large-scale online surveys conducted in the United States. With one survey conducted in 2010 and the other in 2014, this study provides a longitudinal perspective for both the news industry and the academic community. With a media economics approach, the results showed that both smartphones and tablet computers remain to be viable news media, complementing traditional news media. Important practical and theoretical implications are discussed.
Gratification Niches of Blogs and Online Legacy News Media: A Study of Competition and Coexistence • Mohammad Yousuf, University of Oklahoma; Peter Gade, Professor at the University of Oklahoma • A survey of young adults explored the extent to which blogs and online legacy news media compete and coexist. Findings indicate that blogs are cutting into niches that used to be controlled by journalism and professional news organizations, suggesting displacement on three dimensions—surveillance gratifications, gratification opportunities and content gratifications. Results also show that legacy media have higher niche breadth and competitive superiority over blogs. Moderate niche overlap between media exists, indicating competition.
Professional Freedom & Responsibility
What’s the Score?: A Longitudinal Content Analysis of Mature Adults in Super Bowl Commercials • Mary Brooks, Texas Tech University; Shannon Bichard; Clay Craig, Coastal Carolina University • Based on the rising older adult population, the importance of advertisers recognizing this consumer group is imperative. Thus, this content analysis of 239 Super Bowl commercials applied framing theory to examine how mature audiences are represented in one of the most expensive and highly viewed advertising venues. Previous research suggests that older adults are typically underrepresented in all media and often stereotyped. The results show underrepresentation is still problematic; yet positive frames were used often.
Inoculating the Electorate: American Corporatocracy and its Influence on Health Communication • Laura Crosswell; Lance Porter • Much like Socrates’ separation of art and cookery suggested the need for a new rhetoric centuries ago, commercially driven agendas reflect a contemporary need for a moral code in the corporate healthcare industry. This research examines the profit-driven agendas, non-branded marketing strategies, and commercialized propaganda that influence public trust in pharmaceutical products. Specifically focusing on Rick Perry’s 2007 HPV vaccination mandate, we examine the role that corporate funding plays in legislation, regulation, and voter/consumer behavior. Emergent findings from in-depth field interviews with Texas residents illustrate the capitalized communications contaminating consumer trust and public health, and present an argument for regulation realignment in the healthcare industry.
Tokens in a Man’s World: A Global Analysis of Women in Advertising Creative Departments • Jean Grow, Marquette University; Tao Deng, Marquette University • Using the Standard Directory of Advertising Agencies this study quantitatively explores the underrepresentation of women in advertising creative departments across five global geographic clusters. Engaging the Hofstede and GLOBE models and considering both horizontal and vertical distribution, data demonstrate fairly consistent patterns across 41 countries indicating significant complications for women both horizontally and vertically. Data further demonstrate a global scarcity of creative women with their numbers actually declining, across time, when compared to previous data.
Ethics of the Business Case for CSR Communication: An Integrated Business and Moral Perspective on CSR • S. Senyo Ofori-Parku, University of Oregon • Is it unethical to use corporate social responsibility (CSR) to enhance business goals through public relations, advertising, branding, and marketing efforts? In attending to this question, this paper points out the duality of CSR. It places profitable business in a framework that embraces utilitarianism economics and ethical principles such as duties, rights, and obligations. Drawing on literature from philosophy, business management and ethics, and communication ethics, it proposes that CSR is inherently both economic (strategic) and social (involves morality).
Message Strategies for Ads in U.S. Children’s magazines: An Application of Taylor’s Six-Segment Strategy Wheel • Meenakshi Trichur Venkitasubramanian; Jinhee Lee; Ronald Taylor, University of Tennessee • This study explores the message strategies employed by advertisers for children’s products in U.S. children’s magazines. This study also explores the association between product category and the message strategy. The study uses Taylor’s six-segment strategy wheel as its theoretical framework. A total of 531 ads from three different children’s magazines were examined for the years 2010-12. Content analysis of the ads reveals that advertisers use more transformational approaches than informational approaches.
From Clicks to Behaviors: The mediating effect of viral behavioral intentions on the relationship between attitudes and offline behavioral intentions • Saleem Alhabash, Michigan State University; Anna McAlister, Michigan State University; Chen Lou, Michigan State University; Amy Hagerstrom, Michigan State University • Advertisers, marketers, and other professional communicators are heavily investing in social media marketing in hopes that online engagement will ultimately lead to offline behaviors (e.g., purchase). However, the relationship between online engagement behaviors (i.e., viral behaviors) and offline behavior still remains puzzling. The current study reports results of four experiments that investigated the mediating effect of intentions to like, share, and comment on persuasive social media messages with regard to informing the relationship between attitudes and offline behavioral intentions. The results are mixed with regard to this mediating effect. Findings are discussed in relation to redefining persuasion models within the context of the new media environment and in relation to practical implications of valuing online behaviors.
The Effects of the Valence of National Events on Persuasion in Patriotic Message: Regarding the Goal Framing • Hye Jin Bang, University of Georgia; Dongwon Choi; Jinnie Jinyoung Yoo, Gachen University • This study aims to examine if the activation of national identity through different contextual cues interplays with regulatory-focus message framing on consumers’ reaction to patriotic advertising. Specifically, this study explores the effective forms of patriotic ad message (promotion-focused vs. prevention-focused) depending on different valence of national identity priming contexts (positive vs. negative). Findings from an experiment suggest that the interaction between the valence of national identity priming and regulatory framing. Specifically, it appears that promotion-focused message yielded favorable Aad, Ab and PI when the valence of contexts that activate national identity is positive. On the other hand, the prevention-focused message elicited more favorable Ab if the valence of contexts that prime national identity is negative.
Exploring the Role of Parasocial Relationships on Product Placement Effectiveness • D. Jasun Carr, Susquehanna University • The practice of product placement, the embedding of goods and services within media, has experienced a resurgence of interest in recent years both from the stand point of the practitioner seeking additional avenues by which to reach the elusive consumer, and by scholars seeking to better understand the influence that media have on the consumptive practices of the audience. Many practitioners, and some scholars, have taken the stance that the practice of product placement may currently be the most influential form of advertising and persuasion.
Product Placement in Hollywood Movies: A Longitudinal Analysis • Huan Chen, Penn State Erie, The Behrend College; Ye Wang, University of Missouri – Kansas City • The study examined the nature and characteristics of product placement in the U.S. top-grossing movies from 2001 to 2012 with a historical approach. Several important findings and trends were identified from the results: First, product placements were found to be prolific in the U.S. top-grossing movies, with an average of 32 brands embedded in each movie. Second, the product categories of automobile, electronic equipment, and media and entertainment enjoyed the highest exposure in the movies. Third, brands appeared visually or verbally, but rarely demonstrated dual modality. Fourth, the majority of the placed brands seemed to fit with the movie setting regardless of visual or verbal oriented placements, and the most popular presentation mode of brand was full product. Finally, more than half of the product placements involved the interaction of characters.
Your Favorite Memory: Emotional Responses to Personal Nostalgic Advertising within Reminiscence Bump across Generations • ILYOUNG JU; Yunmi Choi, University of Florida; Jon Morris • This study examined the influence of reminiscence bump years when it comes to nostalgic advertising. Emotional responses toward nostalgic advertisements from late boomers and generation x were investigated. An online experiment was conducted to collect data from general consumer panels in their 30’s (x-gen) and 50’s (late boomers). Different emotional responses toward nostalgic advertisements were identified between the two generations. The result of this study revealed that nostalgic advertisements indicating reminiscence bump years were more likely to 1) evoke nostalgic feeling, 2) bring more positive Appeal (late boomers) and Engagement (x-gen), and 3) increase purchase intention.
Putting Things into Context: How evaluations are influenced by organic product claim and retail brand • Brenna Ellison, University of Illinois- Urbana Champaign; brittany duff, University of Illinois- Urbana Champaign; Xinyang Liu, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign; Jiachen Yao, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign • Organic food labels have been shown to have a “health halo” whereby products that are labeled organic are judged to be healthier and worth more money. However, the majority of work on organic product claims have ignored both product type and the context in which they are seen in (retail environment). We randomly assigned people (n=900) to see either a processed (cookie) or fresh (strawberry) product that had (not) been labeled as organic and put the scenario in the context of a retail brand (Walmart, Target or other). Results showed that organic labels had many of the previously found effects but these effects were modified by product type and the retail store at which they were supposedly going to be placed in.
Country Reputation as a Moderator of Tourism Advertising Effectiveness • Jami Fullerton, Oklahoma State University; Alice Kendrick, SMU Temerlin Advertising Institute • This study examines the role that country reputation plays in moderating the effects of tourism advertising to that country as well as attitude toward its government and citizens. A pre-post online study conducted in Australia used the current Brand USA’s “Land of Dreams” television commercial as the experimental stimulus. The country reputation index was factor analyzed to reveal three dimensions – Leadership, Investment and Culture. Results indicated that Leadership moderated the main effects of the tourism ad, as well as attitude toward the US government.
Sweetening the Deal: The Impact of Using “That’s-Not-All” Techniques in Promotional Emails • Zijian Gong, Texas Tech University; Shannon Bichard • This experiment investigated the “that’s-not-all” (TNA) technique as a promotional strategy and offered suggestions for maximizing its effectiveness in email advertising. Results denote a significant TNA impact on attitudes and perceptions of offer value, and this impact was robust across various types of products. Additionally, adding a time limit to TNA offers enhanced the perceptions of offer value. The research contributes to the current literature by developing strategies to increase the effectiveness of TNA techniques.
Segmenting The U.S. Product Placement Market: On the Basis of Consumers’ Cognitive and Attitudinal Responses to Advertising in General • Chang Dae Ham; Jin Seong Park, University of Tennessee Knoxville; Sejin Park, University of Tennessee • The purpose of the present study is to examine how U.S. consumers respond to product placement according to their perceptions about advertising in general. Based on a nationally representative sample of US adults from Experian Simmons (N = 22,348), this study identified five clusters of U.S. consumers, segmented by their cognitive and attitudinal responses to advertising in general. The study further reveals that each cluster has distinct demographic and media usage profiles and exhibits varying responses to product placement across television and movie. Implications for the practice of product placement are discussed.
A Model of Consumer Response to OTC Drug Advertising: Antecedents and Influencing Factors • Jisu Huh, University of Minnesota; Denise DeLorme, University of Central Florida; Leonard Reid, University of Georgia • Given the importance of OTC drugs in the healthcare marketplace and the lack of systematic research about OTC drug advertising effects, this study proposed and tested a Consumer Over-the-Counter Drug Advertising Response (CODAR) model. SEM analysis provides support for the model, explaining the OTCA effect process from key consumer antecedents to ad involvement, from ad involvement to ad attention, from ad attention to cognitive responses, then to affective/evaluative responses, leading to the final advertising outcomes.
Where Should Brands Position their Advertisements during the Sporting Event? Spectators’ Mental Energy Perspective • Wonseok Jang, University of Florida; Yong Jae Ko, University of Florida; Jon Morris; Jungwon Chun, University of Florida • The current study proposes a novel way to understand when brands should display advertisements during sporting events to maximize effectiveness. Relying on the ego-depletion model and the self-determination theory, this study explains how sport fans use, store, or increase their mental energy in the body system during the sporting event. Subsequently, how the increase or decrease mental energy transfers to the sport fans’ evaluation process of advertisements that were positioned during the sporting event.
The Effectiveness of Ecolabels among Young Adults: Environmental Warning Messages in Differing Message Contexts • Yongick Jeong, Louisiana State University • This study determines the contextual relationships between ecolabels and message contexts. By conducting two experiments, via a two-way mixed-repeated-measures design, the impacts of contextual similarity (Study 1) and the effects of context-induced moods (Study 2) on the effectiveness of ecolabels are examined. This study found ecolabels perform differently based on context formats (ads vs. PSAs), context-induced moods (positive vs. negative) and environmental issues (energy conservation, recycling, and pollution). Interaction effects were also examined and discussed.
The Role of Personal and Societal Norms in Understanding Social Media Advertising Effects: A Study of Sponsored Stories on Facebook • Joonghwa Lee, Middle Tennessee State University; Soojung Kim, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities; Doyle Yoon, University of Oklahoma • This study examines the antecedents and behavioral consequences of personal and societal norms in the context of Facebook sponsored stories. The survey findings indicate that personal descriptive and injunctive norms influence consumers’ intentions to interact with sponsored stories, whereas societal descriptive and injunctive norms do not. Interpersonal influences (e.g., family) and social influences (e.g., number of ‘likes’) form personal and societal norms, respectively. Theoretical and practical implications for social media advertising effects are discussed.
Development of an Other Minds Confidence Scale for Advertising • Esther Thorson; Eunjin (Anna) Kim, University of Missouri; Eunseon Kwon, University of Missouri; Heather Shoenberger, University of Missouri • The present study develops a rationale for why the construct of “other minds confidence” is generally an important one for human communication and specifically for theory about how people respond to advertising and other intentionally persuasive messages. We develop an exploratory scale for measuring what we conceptualize as “other minds confidence,” evaluate its reliability and factor structure, test whether it is different from a closely related construct, “persuasion knowledge,” and then further assess its validity by see whether it predicts general attitude toward advertising. Finally, we discuss some potential applications of the scale.
Perceived Norms and Consumer Responses to Social Media Advertising: A Cross-Cultural Study of Facebook Sponsored Stories among Americans and Koreans • Soojung Kim, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities; Joonghwa Lee, Middle Tennessee State University • This study examines the differences in the relationship among three types of norms (i.e., subjective, personal descriptive, and personal injunctive norms), attitudes toward interacting with Facebook sponsored stories, and behavioral intentions between Americans and Koreans. The findings indicate that personal injunctive norms were a stronger predictor of behavioral intentions for Koreans, whereas subjective norms and personal descriptive norms were stronger predictors of behavioral intentions for Americans. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
The Cognitive and Affective Effects of Brand Categorization and Evaluation on Brand Extension Purchase Intent • Jungsuk kang; Carolyn Lin • This study tested an expanded categorization model to examine how consumers evaluate and process perceived brand relationships between a parent brand, an extension product category and a brand extension. Study findings confirmed that perceived product-feature fit instead of perceived parent-brand image fit between a parent brand and its extension product category significantly enhanced the perceived similarity between the parent brand and its brand extension as well as brand-extension attitude and brand-extension purchase intent.
Uses and Gratifications that Drive Young Adults’ Smartphone Use and the Implications for Advertising Effectiveness • Kelty Logan, University of Colorado at Boulder • This quantitative study focuses on young adults in the U.S. and their use of smartphones in the belief that a thorough understanding of the gratifications sought will provide guidance to advertisers regarding the relative levels of involvement associated with each function. Specifically, the study explores the participants’ hierarchy of needs, the needs they seek to gratify through the use of various smartphone functions and applications, and their attitudes toward the advertising found in those environments. The results suggest that the heavy users of smartphone functions and apps are those who feel that “connection with friends and family,” “building relationships,” “increasing self-esteem,” and “mood elevation” are extremely important. Light users of smartphone functions and apps are those who feel that “seeking information/knowledge” or “seeking escape” are extremely important. While all light users appear to share negative attitudes toward advertising on smartphone functions and apps, not all heavy users share the same attitudes. There appears to be a distinction among heavy users based upon gratifications sought from smartphone use. Those who value connection, relationship-building, and mood elevation do not have positive attitudes toward advertising they encounter on smartphone functions and apps. Those who value increased self-esteem, however, appear to accept advertising on email and apps for information, assistance, and social media.
The Effectiveness of Cross‑media Advertising in Simultaneous Media Use: Combining TV and Web Advertisements • Shanshan Lou; Hong Cheng • Focused on cross-media advertising under simultaneous media exposure, this study explores the effectiveness of combining TV and web advertising by asking experiment participants (N = 168) to consume TV and web content simultaneously. In contrary to results from prior studies, media combination was not found to yield detrimental effects on ads attitudes and recalls. Multitasking seemed to have more negative influence on the recall of TV ads when compared with that of complex web ads simultaneously exposed to.
The “Boomerang Effect” of Disclosures: How Placement Disclosures Affect Brand Memory, Persuasion Knowledge, and Brand Attitude • Joerg Matthes; Brigitte Naderer, U of Vienna • Despite the relevance of disclosures to policy makers and consumer organisations, we have limited knowledge as to whether disclosures hinder or foster the impact of brand placements. This paper develops and tests a theoretical model of placement disclosure effects. An experimental study exposed participants to the video clip “Telephone” by Lady Gaga. Product placement frequency (zero, moderate, high) and presence of brand disclosures were experimentally varied. Results demonstrated that brand disclosures lead to an increase in brand memory for frequently depicted placements. Disclosures also affected defence motivation against persuasive influence by activating conceptual and attitudinal persuasion knowledge. However, defence motivation did not lead to more negative brand attitudes. On the contrary, findings suggest that disclosures can lead to more positive brand attitudes by activating, and therefore, strengthening already existing favourable brand evaluations. In terms of protection against covert marketing techniques, we conclude that disclosures may be a double-edge sword.
Exploring Qualifications for Senior-Level Advertising Agency Positions • Sheryl Oliver, Howard University; Rochelle Ford, Howard University • Using institutional theory to frame this study explores the qualifications talent and diversity professionals in advertising agencies perceive to be necessary to obtain senior-level positions in the advertising industry. Because African Americans and other minority groups are under-represented in mid and senior-level positions, this study explored particular characteristics desired among them. Using qualitative interviews, leadership experience within advertising agencies was the most important quality because they will be able to demonstrate a track record of success, the ability to thrive in a fast-paced environment, a level of toughness, and ability to generate new business. These characteristics will give credibility to candidates and help them motivate their teams. African Americans are expected to give back and mentor others. Results reinforce the need for strong retention programs to help entry-level candidates obtain mid-level managerial agency positions so they can be promoted into senior-level roles.
Beyond Exclusivity and Convenience: Real Estate Advertisements and the Singapore Story • Fernando Paragas, Nanyang Technological University; Aaron Tan, Nanyang Technological University; Dennis Kom, Nanyang Technological University; Stacey Anne Rodrigues, Nanyang Technological University; Joyce See, Nanyang Technological University • Using textual analysis, this paper explores the narrative that real estate advertisements depict and nurture in Singapore. Through the stages of identification, construction and deconstruction, the paper explores connections between and among advertising as text, culture as context and discourse as supra-text. It reveals paradoxes within the advertisements that depict not only what developers infer as the aspirational lifestyle in Singapore but also inform the tensions of life in the city-state.
The Influence Mechanism of the Advertising and National Economy：the Chinese Experience (1979-2010) • Linsen Su; Mingqian Li • The paper found that GDP and economic openness predicted the advertising positively in China, whereas the Engel coefficient and unemployment had negative effects on the advertising, but the effect of the urbanization on advertising could not be confirmed, basing on the co-integration analysis of the per capita advertising, per capita GDP, urbanization, economic openness, urban unemployment rate, and Engel coefficient.
Let’s conserve energy but you recycle! Environmental claim types and responsibility attributions in green ads • Edson Tandoc, Nanyang Technological University; Margaret Duffy, Missouri School of Journalism • This study seeks to test the effects of two elements used in green advertisements—claim type and attribution of responsibility—on ad attitude, attitude toward the company, and purchase intention. An experiment involving 869 participants found that energy and recycling claims were more effective in getting a positive ad attitude than a selling sustainable products claim. The company’s taking responsibility for saving the environment is the most effective strategy to get a positive brand attitude.
Health Buzz at School: Evaluations of a Statewide Teen Health Campaign • Ming Wang, University of Nebraska-Lincoln; Amy Struthers, University of Nebraska-Lincoln • Drawing upon data from the first two years of a state-wide health communication campaign that employed a peer-to-peer marketing strategy to encourage high school students to adopt healthy behavior, this paper finds that the buzz component increased campaign awareness among students in participating schools compared to those in the comparison schools, but there was no significant difference between their health attitudes. Furthermore, attitude toward the campaign mediated the effect of buzz exposure on health attitudes.
Deception by Design? Analyzing native advertising design and disclosure on news websites • Bartosz Wojdynski, University of Georgia; Nathaniel Evans • In the face of evidence that consumers selectively, or even reflexively, avoid many forms of display advertising online, content publishers have sought more subtle ways to deliver viewers’ attention to advertisers’ content. One recent emergence is an increase in the use by online publishers of advertising copy presented in the form of editorial content, often called “native advertising.” Although this practice has analogs in print and broadcast media forms, the present research identified and analyzed recent examples of such native advertising on online editorial content publishing sites (N=28), with a focus on the language, positioning, and size of information that discloses the content as advertising. The findings suggest a lack of standard practice in all three areas. Although a majority of examples offered some disclosure elements positioned before the start of the page content, very few explicitly used any form of the word “advertising” in the disclosure labels. The findings are discussed in the context of the need greater for empirical research into effects of design characteristics in disclosure labeling.
A little training goes a long way: Increasing children’s recognition of embedded advertising through education • Eilene Wollslager, Our Lady of the Lake University • This study examined the relationship between media literacy training and elementary students’ (grades 3-4) ability to recognize embedded advertising (advergaming) in a children’s online website. Children could not recognize advergames as advertising at the beginning of the study (0%). Following a brief, 10-minute training session, children’s ability to recognize an advergame as a commercial message increased to 30%. Additionally, there was no indication of a digital divide in student’s awareness of advergaming. Rural students outperformed urban counterparts in the recognition of online advertising.
Understanding Consumer Animosity in the Politicized Global Market: From the Perspective of Young Transnational Consumers • Qinghua Yang; Katy Snell; Wanhsiu Sunny Tsai, University of Miami • Contextualized in the recent territorial dispute between Japan and China, this research examines consumer animosity from the perspective of transnational Chinese consumers. This study provides a multidimensional model of animosity and tests an integrative model that links cultural identification, antecedents (i.e., patriotism, nationalism, and internationalism), and moderators of consumer animosity (i.e., perceived symbolism and perceived threat). Transnational Chinese consumers’ cultural identification was found to significantly influence the mechanisms underlying their animosity against Japan and Japanese products.
Does “green” work? The role of message framing, construal level and environmental concern • Lingling Zhang, Towson University; Hua Chang • Many firms adopt green advertising and put great emphasis on the value of green marketing strategies. However, little research has examined the effectiveness of green appeal in advertisements. Building on message framing and construal level theory, this study conducts two experiments to examine the interaction effect of construal level and gain or loss framed messages on consumers’ attitudes and purchase intention towards advertised product, as well as the moderating role of consumers’ environmental concern in this interaction. The findings demonstrate that a congruency between loss (gain) frame and low (high) level construal leads to more positive outcomes in consumers’ attitudes and purchase intention. Furthermore, this research reveals that the congruency effect is moderated by the level of consumer environmental concern, which has important theoretical and practical implications.
Special Topics Papers
Connecting Science to Advertising: How John B. Watson Laid the Foundation of Behavioral Targeting • Abigail Bartholomew, University of Nebraska–Lincoln; Frauke Hachtmann, University of Nebraska-Lincoln • Behaviorism as defined in 1913 by John B. Watson was a science that used repeated, observable human activity to develop hypotheses that would eventually predict and control responses. Through repeated experiments, Watson developed a thorough knowledge of what he defined as base human reactions. Stanley Resor, then president of J. Walter Thompson Agency, hired Watson to promote a partnership between advertising and science, and the subsequent 15 years of Watson’s career included some notable scientific contributions. This historical study shows that though these outcomes may not have provided many measurable positive results, they set into motion industry-wide change that continued to develop until the present. The study also argues that though behavioristic principles may not have found solid footing in a mass media environment, the current networked communication state provides much more fertile ground for analyzing message receivers and eliciting desired responses.
A Case History of Small Advertising Agency Leadership: An In-Depth Look at Knoxville’s Lavidge & Associates • Daniel Haygood, Elon University • Most of the advertising agency-related articles in the trade press and the research contained in academic journals focus on the large multi-national advertising agencies. This is unfortunate because much innovation, creativity, and resourcefulness are found in the local advertising agency communities. This case history takes an in-depth look at Lavidge & Associates, a small advertising firm located in Knoxville, Tennessee. This advertising agency is in its sixty-third year of business, a journey that has seen the firm begin as a two-person shop, rise to employ fifty to sixty individuals, and then return in the recent decade to a small firm with two full-time business partners. Throughout its long history, the agency has survived by demonstrating leadership in different areas of the business. This quality of leading appears to be the key to its success and survival. Specifically, the firm’s story reveals leadership lessons in management, client service, creative development, and production. It shows that innovation can often come from the smaller firms of the advertising community.”
Educating the Next-Generation Don Draper • Valerie Jones, University of Nebraska-Lincoln • Technology and the proliferation of data have transformed the advertising industry. Those with digital and analytical skills are now more employable than those with “traditional” advertising skills. At the same time, colleges face increasing emphasis on job placement rates. Are advertising programs providing students with the skills needed to win jobs today? Today’s “next-generation Don Drapers” must not only be fluent in creativity and big ideas, but also be fluent in analysis and big data.
“Putting On Campaigns”: A History of 70 Years of Advertising Education at X University • Ronald Taylor, University of Tennessee; Joyce Wolburg, Marquette University • Two philosophies of advertising education have existed in American colleges and universities since the early 1900s. This paper traces the two philosophies—a “how to philosophy” vs. a “why philosophy” as they were sequentially implemented across 70 years at a land grant university in the Southeast.
Assessing Brand Personality on Social Media: An Analysis of External Perceptions of University Twitter Activity • Brandi Watkins, Virginia Tech; Regina Lewis, The University of Alabama • Universities market to diverse audiences and when combined with a common struggle within many universities for funding, online social media marketing possibilities become an important component of the university brand. This investigates the influence of Twitter activity on perceptions of university branding. Findings indicate that there is little difference in how universities are perceived by external audiences; the study contributes to the current body of literature by applying traditional brand personality scales to non-traditional media.
Motivating savings behavior in PSAs: The effect of social norms and the moderating role of financial responsibility • Hye Jin Yoon, Southern Methodist University • Personal savings rates in the United States are low, creating potentially negative consequences. This study conducted two experiments to test the effects of social norms and the moderating role of an individual’s financial responsibility in responses to public service advertisements promoting savings behavior. Across two studies, perception of norm and benefit information varied with financial responsibility. Implications for social norm theory and improving social marketing ad campaigns to promote saving are provided.
Blogging In The Classroom: Using WordPress Blogs With Buddy Press Plugin As A Learning Tool. • Keith Quesenberry, Johns Hopkins University; Dana Saewitz, Temple University; Sheryl Kantrowitz, Temple University • Three professors used WordPress blogs with 130 students one semester in three different advertising courses. Descriptions of how blogs were used to enhance student participation, engagement and skill building are included along with students’ quantitative and qualitative assessments. The use of course blogs led to multiple positive self-reported student learning outcomes. Based on the researchers’ self-evaluation and analysis of students’ survey feedback, this article offers insights for using blogging as a learning tool.
Teach Like They Build It: A User Experience Approach to Interactive Media in Advertising Education • Adam Wagler, UNL • The proliferation of interactive media and new technology on college campuses is blending together student academic work and online personal lives. Advertising instructors have unique opportunities to leverage interactive instructional technology to reach more students and give them various ways to engage in learning materials while modeling professional applications of emerging media. User experience (UX), a term normally associated with interactive design, provides a framework for all advertising instructors to effectively integrate interactive media into their teaching. An in-depth review of the literature is provided to bridge the research between cognition, mass communications, and web usability creating a foundation for a UX approach to using interactive media in advertising education. The purpose of this paper is to provide theory-based strategies for advertising instructors to take advantage of interactive technology for student learning while modeling professional uses of interactive media.
The Moderating Role of Brand Familiarity on Media Synergistic Effect: An Information Processing Perspective • Guanxiong Huang, Michigan State University • Cross-media advertising campaigns have become commonplace in today’s multimedia environment. Drawing from the multiple source effect theorization, this study explores the underlying mechanism of media synergistic effect from an information processing perspective. Brand familiarity is proposed as a moderator of media synergistic effect: people with different level of prior brand-related knowledge tend to process advertisements in diverse cognitive routes. An experiment found that for an unfamiliar brand media synergy outperforms repeated exposures via a solo medium in terms of raising message credibility and generating more positive thoughts, while similar effects were not seen on the familiar brand.
A New Perspective on Brand Avoidance Behaviors: Attention to Social Comparison Information matters! • Eunjin (Anna) Kim, University of Missouri; Eunseon Kwon, University of Missouri • Prior research on brand consumption behaviors, especially those that potentially affect a person’s social identity, has mainly focused on approach rather than avoidance motives. We examine brand avoidance behaviors in the context of an individual-difference construct, attention to social comparison information (ATSCI). Our overarching argument is that high ATSCI consumers, being anxious and uncertain about others’ reactions, will seek to keep a low profile in their brand choices—they will prefer to blend in rather than to stand out. In study 1, we show that although high and low ATSCI consumers identify themselves with equally prestigious brands, the former do so with less distinctive brands. In study 2, we find that high ATSCI consumers, unlike their low ATSCI counterparts, avoid conspicuous brand logos even in the case of highly prestigious brands.
Perfect Mothers: How Mothers are Presented in Images in Food Advertising • Jinhee Lee; Jimi Hong, University of Texas at Austin • The purpose of study is to explore how food advertising portrays mother images in food advertising and which advertising themes in food advertising. The study selected sample advertisements from three magazines: Parents, Family Fun, and Working Mother. For analyzing data, content analysis was conducted. The study showed that food advertising portrayed traditional mother images and highlighted the traditional meanings of mothering. Theoretical and practical implications were addressed.
Anonymous vs. Non-anonymous Online Comments: The effects of Comments’ Visual Anonymity and Valence on Consumers’ Attitude and Purchase Intention • Chen Lou, Michigan State University; Pradnya Joshi; Eunsin Joo • Using the theoretical framework of social identity model of deindividuation (SIDE) and elaboration likelihood model, this study investigated how online commenters’ visual anonymity and comments’ valence (either positive or negative) affect consumers’ attitude and purchase intention toward products sold on social commerce websites. In a 2 (commenters’ visual anonymity: anonymous vs. recognized) x 2 (comments’ valence: positive vs. negative) between-subjects factorial design, participants (n= 157) were exposed to one of the four Groupon webpage selling a printer before being asked to indicate their evaluation and purchase intention toward the printer. Results indicated that online peer comments do have persuasive effects on online users, and such effects are not limited to only anonymous users’ reviews. Also, visually recognized negative comments – compared to anonymous negative comments – seem to be more efficient in persuading users not to buy the product. Findings are discussed in the context of computer-mediated-communication with new technology change in relation to consumer behavior research and social commerce marketing.
Playing with the Brand: Exploring the Influence of Advergame Play on Company Evaluations and Recall • Matthew VanDyke, Texas Tech University; Ann Rodriguez, Texas Tech University • This experiment employed a 2 X 2 factorial design to assess the influence of advergame play on evaluations of a company and game-specific information recall. Advergame play did not influence participants’ attitude toward the company or an ambiguous company news event. Participants’ perceptions of the advergame’s interactivity predicted whether the game was perceived as informative and enjoyable. Recall data suggested that regardless of interactivity perceptions, participants tended to recall game-specific information.
Mouse Tracking as a Method to Explore Brand Personality Distinctiveness • Zongyuan Wang, University of Missouri at Columbia; Russell Clayton, University of Missouri • Brand personality is an important value for a brand to differentiate itself from other brands and to create unique brand images. This study used mouse tracking as an unobtrusive cognitive indicator measure of brand personality distinctiveness and examined how product involvement and function orientation might jointly influence brand personality distinctiveness. Results showed that brand personality distinctiveness and accessibility was higher for functional brands than for sensory brands and was the lowest for low-involvement sensory brands.
Larger, Closer, Brighter: How Advertising Design Influence Advertising Recognition • Zongyuan Wang, University of Missouri at Columbia; Mikkel Christensen, University of Missouri; Andrew Brown, University of Missouri at Columbia; Michelle Reed, University of Missouri at Columbia • Ads on media suffer from competitions of their counterparts, which can be detrimental to ad recognition. Physical properties ad design may influence ad recognition. This study examined how brand name contrast, brand name size, and distance between the brand name and the product image influenced ad recognition. Findings suggest that larger brand name, shorter distance between the brand name and the product image, and higher brand name contrast produced the highest ad recognition.
Disgust in Advertising – Social and Gender Implications • Kivy Weeks, University of Connecticut • This exploratory research increases understanding of the implications for disgust in marketing communications. It details an experiment manipulating the amount of disgust in an advertisement depicting a low involvement, brand new product. It evaluates the importance of gender, social variables, as well as state and trait disgust on product attitude. Important findings include a significant interaction between gender and disgust manipulation, such that gender moderates the relationship between disgust advertising and product attitude, with disgust having a greater negative effect on attitude for women than men.
AEJMC 2014 Conference Paper Abstracts
Montréal, Canada • August 6 to 9
The following AEJMC groups conducted research competitions for the 2014 conference. The accepted paper abstracts are listed within each section.
- Communicating Science, Health, Environment, and Risk (ComSHER)
- Communication Technology (CTEC)
- Communication Theory and Methodology
- Cultural and Critical Studies
- Electronic News
- International Communication
- Law and Policy
- Mass Communication and Society
- Media Ethics
- Media Management and Economics
- Minorities and Communication (MAC)
- Newspaper and Online News
- Public Relations
- Scholastic Journalism
- Visual Communication (VisCom)
- Community Journalism
- Entertainment Studies
- Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender
- Graduate Student (formerly Graduate Education)
- Internships and Careers
- Participatory Journalism
- Political Communication
- Religion and Media
- Small Programs (SPIG)
- Sports Communication (SPORTS)
Rewarding Good Teaching
By Karen Miller Russell
Standing Committee on Teaching
University of Georgia, Grady College
(Article courtesy of AEJMC News, March 2014 issue)
One of the best things that the AEJMC Standing Committee on Teaching offers is its Best Practices in Teaching Competition.
Becoming a good or even great teacher is a life-long process, one that is not always rewarded by educational institutions in the same way that good or great research can be.
“Currently, research universities base tenure decisions primarily on research productivity and quality,” organizational psychologist Adam Grant recently stated in an op-ed in The New York Times. “Teaching matters only after you have cleared the research bar: It is a bonus to teach well.”
Of course, not all universities overlook good teaching, and many colleges and departments of mass communication recognize teaching through annual awards. These awards are significant ways to reward good work, but they don’t go far enough.
Writing for Inside Higher Ed, Elizabeth H. Simmons points out that faculty must be strategic in how they spend their time. Therefore, she argues, “If a department or college believes that innovative teaching is important, then innovative teaching must be rewarded in decisions related to salaries, reappointment, promotion and tenure.”
The Standing Committee on Teaching tries to facilitate that process by providing a national forum to call attention to innovative teaching in journalism and mass communication. Each year the committee selects a different theme — this year it’s “Globalizing the Classroom” — and members submit their assignments, classroom activities or ideas for competitive review.
Winning faculty members will be invited to present their ideas at the national convention in Montreal, and they’ll receive a cash prize.
But the competition does more than reward faculty who are trying innovative approaches; it also allows them to share their ideas with other faculty. In addition to being presented at the meeting, the winning entries are published in an e-booklet, and I cheerfully admit to shamelessly copying at least one past winner in my own classroom.
“Teaching is the core of what we all do. Recognizing great teaching ideas helps us learn from each other and become better teachers,” said Chris Roush of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, this year’s competition chair. “I’m constantly learning from my peers at UNC, and this is how I can expand that learning to the best around the country.”
If you would like to enter this year’s competition, the process is simple. Just write a two-page statement describing a new and effective approach you used to bring global ideas into your classroom. The call for entries (on p. 10) specifies that you need not be teaching a class specifically on international media. In fact, the committee would like to learn how you incorporate awareness of global communities and/or the practice of journalism and mass communication beyond national borders into any course.
I also urge you to take a few minutes to check out the downloadable booklets from past best practices competitions, on subjects ranging from writing to ethics and from information gathering to critical thinking. They can be found on the AEJMC website at http://www.aejmc.org/home/2010/09/best-practices-in-teaching-booklets/.
You might find inspiration for your own great teaching ideas.
George Sylvie is associate professor of the School of Journalism at The University of Texas at Austin. The former reporter, columnist and editor earned his MA at the University of Missouri and PhD at the University of Texas. Focusing on decision-making, Sylvie studies organizational culture; newsroom management, diversity, and ethics; management styles; and the Black Press.
He has authored, coauthored or edited 8 books on media management, reporting, and writing and has chapters in 9 others. He is a two-time visiting scholar at Jönköping International Business School Media Management & Transformation Centre.
As Chair and Vice Chair of the Media Management & Economics Division and Research Chair for MME and the Newspaper divisions, he promoted transparent planning, increased submissions, recruited more diverse reviewers, and supported better assessment while fostering relationships with Graduate Student Interest Group. On the editorial board of several journals (including Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly), Sylvie headed The AEJMC Reporter (the first daily convention paper), chairs the Strategic Plan Implementation Committee, and serves on the Future of News Audience Engagement Committee.
A research panel member for Borrell Associates and The McKinsey Quarterly, Sylvie has published in JMCQ, Journal of Media Economics, International Journal on Media Management, Journal of Media Business Studies, Howard Journal of Communications, Newspaper Research Journal, and Mass Comm Review. He has had seven Top 3 papers.
Jane Singer is Professor of Entrepreneurial Journalism in the Department of Journalism at City University London and associate professor (on leave) in the School of Journalism and Mass Communication at the University of Iowa. She was elected to the PF&R committee in 2011 and currently serves as its chair.
Her teaching and research, which for nearly two decades have focused on dramatic and continuous newsroom change, have kept her well-connected to journalists and their concerns. Her current position at a university just down the road from London’s “Silicon Roundabout” (!) reminds her daily of the need for innovation, the opportunities it affords and the challenges it poses. She would welcome the opportunity to continue helping AEJMC strengthen its international commitment to a level of professional excellence that is more vital than ever in an open, networked world.
Singer is co-author of two books, on participatory journalism and online journalism ethics. Her work has been published in Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, Journalism, Journalism Studies and elsewhere; she serves on the editorial board of these and several other journals. She is editor of the forthcoming International Encyclopedia of Journalism Studies, which will be published by Wiley-Blackwell. She is a former AEJMC division head and former president of Kappa Tau Alpha, the national journalism honor society housed at her alma mater, the University of Missouri.
Reinardy serves on AEJMC’s Graduate Student Recruitment and Information Center Committee, and was elected as the inaugural AEJMC Sports Communication Interest Group chair in 2010-11. He’s been an AEJMC member since 2003.
Since 2005, Reinardy’s work has earned eight top research paper awards among national and international journalism and mass communications organizations, including AEJMC’s Newspaper Division, Broadcast Education Association’s Sports Division, and the International Communication Association’s Journalism Division.
For more than a decade, Reinardy has researched the organizational change of newspaper and television newsrooms by examining burnout and job satisfaction among news workers. His work has been published in Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly; J&MC Educator; Journalism: Theory, Practice and Criticism; Journal of Media Business Studies; Atlantic Journal of Communication; Newspaper Research Journal; Journalism Practice; and Journal of Sports Media. Reinardy also conducts research that examines journalism ethics, and journalism education. At the University of Kansas, Reinardy has developed Media Crossroads Multimedia Center at the student union, and the KU Statehouse Wire Service, which provides coverage of the legislative session to Kansas media.
Reinardy worked 15 years at five different daily newspapers before earning his PhD from the University of Missouri in 2006.
Tim Gleason is a Special Assistant to the Provost and a Professor of Journalism at the University of Oregon School of Journalism and Communication (SOJC), where he joined the faculty in 1987, and was dean from 1997 to 2013. As dean, he led the SOJC through three successful reaccreditation reviews. Gleason is the recipient of the 2012 Scripps Howard Foundation Journalism Administrator of the Year Award. He has been an active member of AEJMC and ASJMC for more than 25 years. A member of accreditation site teams since 1995, Gleason represented ASJMC on the Accrediting Council for two terms and twice chaired the ACEJMC Appeals Board. He served on the ASJMC Executive Committee, an ASJMC Constitutional Review Committee, the ASJMC Publications Committee, the ASJMC/AEJMC Committee on Alliances, the Communication Law & Policy Publications Committee, and as a Law Division Research Co-Chair. Gleason’s research and teaching focuses on communication law and ethics. He was a guest editor of Communication Law & Policy and has served on the editorial boards of Communication Law & Policy, Journalism History, American Journalism, Mass Communication and Society, and Journalism Educator. He was the first recipient of the SOJC Jonathan Marshall Award for Innovative Teaching. Gleason holds the PhD in Communication from the University of Washington. In an earlier career, Gleason was a photojournalist and reporter in New York State.
Paul Voakes is a Journalism & Mass Communication professor at the University of Colorado – Boulder. He came to Colorado in 2003 and served as the JMC school’s dean through June 2011. He is currently faculty director of CU’s Digital News Test Kitchen, which seeks to enhance journalism by applying emerging technologies to newsgathering processes, and of the Journalism Summer Intensive Workshop, a residential summer program that prepares incoming first-generation first-year students for academic success.
Prior to his arrival in Boulder, he spent nine years on the faculty of the Indiana University School of Journalism. His Ph.D. is from the University of Wisconsin-Madison; for his dissertation at Wisconsin, he received AEJMC’s Nafziger-White Dissertation Award. His research and teaching specializations are in mass media law and ethics, news writing, reporting and editing, and math/statistics for journalism.
Voakes has enjoyed a number of roles in AEJMC. He has held several offices in the Mass Communication and Society Division and was division head in 2001-02. He served two terms on the Standing Committee on Teaching and chaired the committee from 2005 to 2007, which enabled him to serve on the AEJMC Board of Directors for those two years. He was chair of the Convention Host Committee in 2010, when the meeting was held in Denver. He chaired the Nominations and Elections Committee in 2010 and 2012. He is a member of the Mass Communication & Society, Law & Policy, Media Ethics and Newspaper & Online News divisions.
Voakes’ bachelor’s degree is from the University of California – Davis, and his master’s is from the Graduate School of Journalism at the University of California-Berkeley. Before entering academia he was a journalist for 15 years at newspapers in the San Francisco Bay Area, finishing that period as an op-ed columnist and editorial writer for the San José Mercury News.
He is co-author of Working with Numbers and Statistics: A Handbook for Journalists (2005); and a co-author of The American Journalist in the 21st Century, which won SPJ’s Sigma Delta Chi Award in 2007. In 2011 he was named a Fulbright Specialist and in 2012 consulted and taught at Makerere University in Kampala, Uganda. He has served two terms on the national Accrediting Committee of the Accrediting Council on Education in Journalism and Mass Communications (ACEJMC).
He won numerous teaching awards at Indiana, and in 2013 he received the Faculty Excellence Award in Colorado’s JMC program.
Volumen 68 Número 3 Otoño 2013 (Volume 68 Number 3 Autumn 2013)
(English Version & Spanish Translation)
Conferences Focus on Renewal, Innovation, and the Future
Maria B. Marron
Conferencias Centrarse en la Renovación, Innovación y Futuro
Maria B. Marron
A Vision for Transformative Leadership: Rethinking Journalism and Mass Communication Education for the Twenty-First Century
John V. Pavlik
Journalism and mass communication education is in urgent need of transformative leadership. The media are in the midst of a sea change, and educators and professionals alike are groping for a pathway to a future in which they play a vital role. This essay offers a vision for reinventing journalism and mass communication through a model based on innovation and entrepreneurship in media, guided by ethics, freedom of speech, and rigorous, independent, and critical inquiry.
Una visión para el liderazgo transformador: Repensando Periodismo y Comunicación de Masas de Educación para el Siglo XXI
John V. Pavlik
Abstract Traducción español
Periodismo y Medios de comunicación educación es una necesidad urgente de liderazgo transformador. Los medios de comunicación se encuentran en medio de un cambio radical, y educadores y profesionales por igual están buscando a tientas por un camino hacia un futuro en el que juegan un papel vital. Este artículo ofrece una visión para reinventar el periodismo y los medios de comunicación a través de un modelo basado en la innovación y el espíritu empresarial en los medios de comunicación, guiado por la ética, la libertad de expresión, y la investigación rigurosa, independiente y crítico.
artículos de Investigación
Media Entrepreneurship: Curriculum Development and Faculty Perceptions of What Students Should Know
Michelle Barrett Ferrier
To prepare students for the changing media industry, educators must determine whether part of their mission is to prepare students to think and act entrepreneurially. This international study queries faculty who are developing media entrepreneurship courses. The study finds that while the courses take varied forms, the main objectives of the courses are to introduce students to the business side of media startups and to teach students to identify opportunities for innovation—whether inside legacy media organizations or as part of a media startup. The study offers some cautions and challenges for institutions seeking to embark on similar curriculum changes.
Emprendimiento medios: Currículo Desarrollo y Facultad percepciones de lo que los estudiantes deben saber
Michelle Barrett Ferrier
Abstract Traducción español
Para preparar a los estudiantes para la industria cambiante de los medios, los educadores deben determinar si parte de su misión es la de preparar a los estudiantes a pensar y actuar empresarialmente. Este estudio internacional consulta profesores que están desarrollando cursos de espíritu empresarial de los medios. El estudio revela que mientras que los cursos tienen formas variadas, los principales objetivos de los cursos son introducir al alumno en la parte comercial de nuevas empresas de medios de comunicación y para enseñar a los estudiantes a identificar las oportunidades de innovación, ya sea dentro de las organizaciones de medios de legado o como parte de una nueva empresa de medios . El estudio ofrece algunas precauciones y desafíos para las instituciones que deseen embarcarse en cambios curriculares similares.
Coorientation Theory and Assessment of the RFP Solution to Client/Service Learner Matchmaking
Cathy Rogers and Valerie Andrews
Tensions that result from varying expectations of service learners and clients/community partners are as common as the pedagogical practice of service learning in public relations courses. The matchmaking process between instructors and clients can influence expectations; however, the literature includes little guidance about the process of client selection. This paper analyzes a request-for-proposal (RFP) client selection process through the lens of coorientation theory to gauge the effectiveness of communication in the service-learning relationship.
Coorientation Teoría y Evaluación de la Solución RFP para Cliente / Servicio de Estudiantes Matchmaking
Cathy Rogers y Valerie Andrews
Abstract Traducción español
Las tensiones que se derivan de las diferentes expectativas de los estudiantes de servicios y socios clientes / comunidad son tan comunes como la práctica pedagógica de servicio de aprendizaje en cursos de relaciones públicas. El proceso de emparejamiento entre los instructores y los clientes pueden influir en las expectativas, sin embargo, la literatura incluye poca orientación sobre el proceso de selección de clientes. Este trabajo analiza un (RFP) proceso de selección de la petición del cliente para la propuesta a través de la lente de la teoría coorientation para medir la efectividad de la comunicación en la relación aprendizaje-servicio.
Exploring Determinants of Relationship Quality between Students and Their Academic Department: Perceived Relationship Investment, Student Empowerment, and Student–Faculty Interaction
Moonhee Cho and Giselle A. Auger
Given the increasing need for the retention of satisfied and successful students, the purpose of this study was to explore the factors that influence the perceived quality of relationships formed between students and their academic departments. Based on the extensive review of interdisciplinary literature, the study proposed three factors—student–faculty interaction, perceived relationship investment (PRI), and student empowerment. Results of the study demonstrate the significance in associations between student–faculty interaction, PRI, and student empowerment to quality of student–departmental relationships.
Explorando los Determinantes de relación calidad entre los estudiantes y sus Departamento Académico: Percibido Relación de Inversiones, Estudiante de Empoderamiento y Student-Facultad de Interacción
Moonhee Cho y Giselle A. Auger
Abstract Traducción español
Dada la creciente necesidad de la retención de estudiantes satisfechos y exitosos, el propósito de este estudio fue explorar los factores que influyen en la percepción de calidad de las relaciones que se forman entre los estudiantes y sus departamentos académicos. Sobre la base de la amplia revisión de la literatura interdisciplinaria, el estudio propone tres factores-la interacción estudiante-profesor, percibida relación de inversión (PRI), y el empoderamiento de los estudiantes. Los resultados del estudio ponen de manifiesto la importancia de las asociaciones entre la interacción estudiante-profesor, PRI, y fortalecimiento de los estudiantes con la calidad de las relaciones entre los estudiantes del departamento.
Ethnic/Racial Minorities’ Participation in AEJMC: How Much and What Type of Progress?
Mia Moody, Federico Subervi, and Hayg Oshagan
This paper provides an assessment of the diversity of the leadership positions of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (AEJMC) from 2007 to 2011. While numerous studies have analyzed AEJMC’s membership demographics, gender, and scholarship production, there have been few investigations regarding people of color in leadership positions. Findings indicate little progress for people of color has been made in the past five years. Ideally, the educational institutions and academic organizations most responsible for preparing the next generation of media scholars as well as the professionals who produce the content and manage the media catering to the changing population patterns would be at the forefront of diversity in their own leadership. This is especially so for academic organizations, which through journal publications, conference presentations, and various awards, can often have a direct influence on the research emphases and curricular direction of programs nationally.
Participación racial/étnica de las minorías en AEJMC: ¿Cuánto y qué tipo de progreso?
Mia Moody, Federico Subervi, and Hayg Oshagan
Abstract Traducción español
Este documento proporciona una evaluación de la diversidad de las posiciones de liderazgo de la Asociación para la Educación en Periodismo y Comunicación de Masas ( AEJMC ) de 2007 a 2011. Si bien numerosos estudios han analizado la demografía de AEJMC de membresía , el género, y la producción de becas , ha habido pocas investigaciones sobre la gente de color en posiciones de liderazgo . Los hallazgos indican se ha avanzado muy poco para la gente de color en los últimos cinco años. Lo ideal sería que las instituciones educativas y las organizaciones académicas más responsables de la preparación de la próxima generación de estudiosos de los medios , así como los profesionales que producen el contenido y gestionar el catering de medios a los patrones cambiantes de la población estarían en la vanguardia de la diversidad en su propio liderazgo . Esto es especialmente cierto para las organizaciones académicas, que a través de publicaciones en revistas , presentaciones en congresos y diversos premios , a menudo pueden tener una influencia directa en los énfasis de investigación y dirección curricular de los programas a nivel nacional.
A Modest Proposal: One Way to Save Journalism and Journalism Education
Jeffrey Alan John
This essay suggests that because anyone and everyone can now be a “journalist,” the standards of the field of journalism have been greatly diminished. To regain respect for the profession and retain stature in the academy, journalism education should offer an assurance of the legitimacy of journalism program graduates by recognizing only programs with appropriate personnel, infrastructure, and the financial means to assure the quality of their graduates, and then award an official appellation such as “certified” or “credentialed.” Academia and the profession must join together to agree on the appropriate requirements.
Una modesta proposición: Una forma de ahorrar Periodismo y Periodismo Educación
Jeffrey Alan John
Abstract Traducción español
Este ensayo sugiere que debido a que todos y cada uno puede ahora ser un “periodista”, las normas del campo del periodismo se han disminuido en gran medida. Para recuperar el respeto por la profesión y retener estatura en la academia, la enseñanza del periodismo debe ofrecer una garantía de la legitimidad de los graduados del programa de periodismo reconociendo sólo programas con personal adecuado, la infraestructura y los medios financieros para asegurar la calidad de sus egresados, y luego premio una denominación oficial, como “certificados” o “acreditados”. Academia y de la profesión deben unirse para acordar los requisitos correspondientes.