Advertising 2017 Abstracts

A Contributing Factor to the Obesity Paradox: Biological Food Cues in Food Advertisements and Packaging • Rachel Bailey, Washington State University; Jiawei Liu; Tianjiao Wang, Washington State University • This paper presents two studies that examine how food cues in advertisements and on packaging interact with ad claims and nutrition packaging information to influence encoding and storage of information and evaluations of healthiness. Results indicate that direct food cues facilitate greater perceptions of health, especially for objectively healthy food, and enhance encoding of episodic nutrition information, but may serve to inhibit the encoding and storage of information into semantic networks.

Veiled hyper-sexualization: How the Women’s Tennis Association deciphers collective identity through advertising. • Travis R. Bell, University of South Florida; Janelle Applequist, University of South Florida • This study performs a textual analysis of 36 individual images in the Women’s Tennis Association’s “Strong is Beautiful” ad campaign. The WTA constructs a collective identity of women’s professional tennis players that is empowering, yet contradictory. Instead of promoting the athletic event itself, the WTA follows the financially effective advertising model of product endorsement which deemphasizes the legitimacy of female athleticism and reifies the struggle for female athletes to justify their respective athletic credentials.

Digital Manipulations of the Human Body as a Form of Schema Incongruity in Print Ads • Mark Callister, Brigham Young University; Lesa Stern, Westmont College; Melissa Seipel, Brigham Young University; Matt Lewis • This study explores a popular form of schema violation in print advertising wherein advertisers digitally manipulate the human body through removing, adding, distorting, replacing, reshaping, or disfiguring body parts. Such manipulations are termed body disturbances and introduce a unique form on schema incongruity designed to draw attention to the ad and mark message content. Based on our lifetime of exposure to the human body’s appearance, properties, and capabilities, our schema is quite established, and the disfiguring or distorting of human body parts can carry strong emotional and physiological reactions. Results reveal that compared to non-disturbance, body disturbance ads function similar to schema incongruity reported in previous research in that violations lead to greater eye fixation duration of the visuals and motivate higher elaboration. However, the added elaboration does not result in greater recall of the body disturbance image, copy, logo, brand name, or product. While such disturbance ads are better liked, such liking does not extend to the actual brand, and actually evokes more aversive reactions than non-disturbance ads. Nonetheless, such ads were viewed as more unexpected, original, intriguing, and entertaining, but not more enjoyed than non-disturbance ads. Implications for advertisers are discussed.

Characteristics of High-Engagement Facebook Ads: A Data-Analytics Approach to Engagement, Content and Sentiment Analysis • Chetra Chap, Ohio University • In the light of two-way symmetrical communication framework (TSC), this study measured engagement of—and conducted content and sentiment analysis on—200 randomly selected Facebook advertisements (ads) to identify the characteristics of high-engagement Facebook ads. Confirming previous literature, the findings showed that advertising messages that encourage open and dialogic communication, as explained in TSC, increase ad engagement. Other ad characteristics like featured video, and positive ad sentiment were also found to create high ad engagement.

Is Snapchat a Better Place than Facebook to Advertise? • Huan Chen, University of Florida; Yoon-Joo Lee, Washington State University • The study investigated young consumers’ perception and receptivity of Snapchat advertising by using a mixed method research design. Specifically, a qualitative study was conducted to explore young consumers’ perception toward Snapchat advertising and an online survey was launched to examine young consumers’ receptivity of Snapchat advertising compared to Facebook advertising. The qualitative study revealed that young consumers showed relatively positive evaluation toward Snapchat advertising. Their preference of Snapchat advertising comes from the sense of freedom of choice. Their fondness of Snapchat advertising also comes from the subtle nature of this marketing strategy. Based on the nature and characteristic of Snapchat, events, festivals, and travel related products are perceived to be more appropriated to advertise via Snapchat. The quantitative study confirmed some findings from the qualitative study. The quantitative study further uncovered that while young consumers have a more positive attitude toward advertising on Snapchat, advertising on Facebook works better to motivate their behavioral intention of consumption. Theoretical and practical implications were offered.

Cultural difference and message strategy of global brands • Su Yeon Cho; Suman Lee • This study investigated the global brands’ Facebook message strategy and their Facebook fans’ response by assuming that there are cultural differences of message strategy and people’s response between the US (individualistic and low-context culture) and South Korea (collectivistic and high-context culture). A total of 867 Facebook messages posted by seven global brands operating in both the U.S. and South Korea were analyzed. The results showed that (1) sales/marketing messages appeared more frequently in the US Facebook than South Korea; (2) conversational messages appeared more frequently in the Korea Facebook than the US; and (3) Korean Facebook users respond more actively on sales/marketing messages than conversational messages.

Effects of Multicultural Advertising Strategies on Consumer Attitudes and Purchase Intentions • Carolyn, A. Lin, University of Connnecticut; Linda Dam, California State University, Dominguez Hills • Literature on the effects of racial congruence between consumers and spokespersons on multicultural advertising strategies demonstrates a need for a more comprehensive understanding of the social dynamics between racial groups and advertising effectiveness. Specifically, the potential role of perceived social distance – or individual acceptance of people from another racial background – has not been explored to assess consumer responses toward advertising spokespersons from different racial groups. The current study investigates whether perceived social distance between consumers and multiracial advertising spokespersons will influence consumer attitudes and purchase intentions. This research also applies two theoretical correlates of social distance – social identity and a reconceptualized perceived similarity construct – to help explain consumer decision-making processes. Using a quasi-experimental design, Caucasian participants were randomly exposed to one of three ads that featured a Caucasian, Asian or African American spokesperson. Findings indicated that perceived similarity is a positive predictor of consumer attitudes toward the spokesperson but not perceived social distance. They also showed that participants have the most positive attitudes toward the spokesperson in the African American spokesperson condition and the most favorable attitudes toward the product in the Asian American spokesperson condition. Discussion and implications are also discussed.

Tracing the Emergence and Dominance of Visual Solution Advertising: A Preliminary Study • Mel White; Sreyoshi Dey; Arthur Badalian • This preliminary research focuses upon the emergence of visual solution advertising. Analyzing print and outdoor advertisements since the 1970s, using the method of content analysis, it was observed that with the establishment of the European Union (1993) and Eurozone (1999), there was a shift towards creating advertisements that could be interpreted and understood by a diverse audience. Advertisements were found to have moved away from predominantly language based concepts to more culturally relevant visual concepts.

The Duality of Traits and Goals: An Examination of the Interplay between Consumer Personality and Regulatory Focus in Predicting Consumer Responses to Social Media Ads • Naa Amponsah Dodoo; Cynthia Morton • Along with the growth of social media has been an equal rise of social media advertising. Although personalized advertising appears to be on the rise particularly in social media, the psychological determinants of consumer responses to social media ads still warrant further inquiry. Building on three research streams, this study investigated the effect of consumer personality traits, regulatory focus and product appeal on consumer responses to social media ads. Specifically, this study assessed whether extraversion and conscientiousness functioned to influence how consumers respond to social media ads that employed message strategies highlighting regulatory focus (promotion vs. prevention) and product appeal (hedonic vs. utilitarian). Experimental results indicate the main effects of personality traits on responses to social media ads. Furthermore, interaction effects were found which indicated that consumers who scored higher in extraversion were more likely to prefer prevention focus messages combined with a utilitarian product appeal relative to eWOM and purchase intention, in contrast to the proposed findings. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

Measuring the Content Characteristics of Augmented Reality Advertising • Yang Feng, San Diego State University; Quan Xie, Bradley University • Despite the rise of featuring AR technology in advertising, generally accepted definitions of the content characteristics of AR advertising do not exist. This study develops and validates a measurement instrument to gauge the content characteristics of AR advertising and to provide a deep understanding of the relationship between each content feature of AR advertising and ad efficacy. To this end, possible items were generated via a review of prior literature, supplemented by content analysis, and a free-association task. The measurement instrument was then refined and validated using a pretest of a general consumer sample, and further validated using a second general consumer sample. Results indicate that the content characteristics of AR advertising can be measured using a 15-item, 4-construct (informativeness, novelty, entertainment, and complexity) index.

Factors Affecting the Performance of China’s Advertising Agencies: A Time Series Cross-Sectional Analysis • Guangchao Feng, Shenzhen University; Yuting Zhang, Jinan University; Qiuyu Hu, Jinan University; Hong Cheng, Virginia Commonwealth University • China is the world’s second-largest advertising market after the United States in terms of advertising spending since 2006. Nevertheless, how advertising agencies in China have performed and what factors have determined their performance have been understudied. Using the Structure-Conduct-Performance (SCP) model incorporating the agency theory and through time series cross-sectional (TSCS) analysis, we found that concentration in the advertising industry and the number of regulations have had significant negative effects on agencies’ performance. In addition, agencies with mainly foreign capital performed better did than those with only Chinese capitals. Agencies adopting strategies of going public (IPO) and ‘having name changes and merges’ performed better than those doing nothing. Implications are also discussed.

Danger or Fear? Examining Consumers’ Blocking Intention of Online Behavioral Advertising: Integration of the Persuasion Knowledge Model and the Extended Parallel Processing Model • Chang-Dae Ham, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; Joonghwa Lee, University of North Dakota; Soojung Kim, University of North Dakota • This study examines how consumers intend to block online behavioral advertising, looking at the role of persuasion knowledge in the simultaneous control processes of privacy infringement thereat and preventable efficacy. Integrating the Persuasion Knowledge Model (PKM) with the Extended Parallel Processing Model (EPPM), this study proposes a hypothetical model that explains how consumers’ recognition of online behavioral tracking technology elicits danger and fear control processes, which in turn, motivate them to block online behavioral tracking. Using quasi-experimental design, the results revealed that consumers intended to block online behavioral tracking only when they appraised the danger of privacy infringement was significantly harmful and when they perceived they could control the blocking technology. Interestingly, perceived severity, vulnerability, and self-efficacy significantly mediated the impact of persuasion knowledge on the blocking intention; but response efficacy did not mediate the relationship. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

Catching Eyes: Dissecting Ad Disclosures of Native Advertising • Jun Heo, Louisiana State University; Soojin Kim, Louisiana State University; A-Reum Jung • This study explored how people discover, attend to, process, and identify native advertising by the types of ad disclosure. FTC’s disclosure guideline was used to identify components of ad disclosure (e.g., wording, placement, proximity, font style, size, color, effects, background, and repetition). The results of an eye-tracking experiment revealed that each of the components is related, to a different degree, to the cognitive responses to native advertising. Implications are discussed for regulators and marketers.

All They Want for Christmas: The Agenda-Setting Influence of Television Advertising on Parents’ Gift-Giving Perceptions • Steven Holiday, Texas Tech University; Mary Norman, Texas Tech University; Terri Manley, Texas Tech University; Derrick Holland, Texas Tech University; Glenn Cummins; Eric Rasmussen, Texas Tech University • This study examines the agenda-setting role of advertising in influencing parents’ Christmas season gift-giving perceptions. A content analysis of commercials in children’s programming was compared with a questionnaire of parents to test agenda-setting’s transfer of salience and contingent condition of interpersonal communication through advertising mediation and child purchase requests. Results indicate a significant transfer of salience from advertising agenda to parents’ perceptions of the most important gifts to give during the Christmas season.

The Influence of Self-Brand Congruity and Ad Position on Emotional Responses to Online Video Ads • Todd Holmes, State University of New York at New Paltz • The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of self-brand congruity and ad position and how these factors impact emotional responses to embedded online video advertisements. To achieve these aims, an online experiment was conducted based on a two (self-brand congruity) X two (ad position) between-subjects design. Self-brand congruity and ad position were found to significantly impact the pleasure and arousal dimensions of emotional response.

The Effects of Self-Imagery on Advertisement Evaluations: The Mediating Role of Sense of Presence • Wonseok (Eric) Jang, Texas Tech University; Sun Young Lee, Texas Tech University; Akira Asada • The results indicate that when consumers imagined themselves as the main characters in the scene depicted in the advertisement, such imagery experience created a sense of presence in the scene, which in turn enhanced consumers’ engagement with the imagery and their evaluation of the advertisement. However, when the advertisement promoted a high-risk activity, self-imagery decreased consumers’ evaluations of the advertisement because a greater sense of presence evoked by self-imagery induced a feeling of fear.

What Components Should Be Included in Advertising Media Literacy Education?: Effect of Component Types and the Moderating Role of Age • Se-Hoon Jeong; Yoori Hwang • Exposure to advertising could result in multiple health risks, such as obesity or anorexia/bulimia. Ad media literacy education could help audiences view ads critically, and prevent the negative effects of ads. This study examined the effects of different literacy education components in an ad literacy program on children’s knowledge and criticism, and the moderating role of age. An experiment was designed with varying literacy components: (a) content literacy only, (b) content + grammar literacy, and (c) content + grammar + structure literacy. Results showed that, for younger children, there was inverted-U shaped relationship between literacy components and knowledge such that the content + grammar literacy condition was more effective than the content literacy condition and the content + grammar + structure literacy condition. However, this relationship was not observed for older children. Implications for designing effective ad literacy education programs are further discussed.

Firearms, Brass Knuckles… and Instagram: Interactive Effects of Social Media and Violent Media on Gun Control Support • Valerie Jones, Ms.; Ming Wang, University of Nebraska-Lincoln • As visual social networking sites keep growing, advertising professionals and researchers are beginning to solve the puzzle of how visuals can best inform and influence audiences. Drawing up priming and desensitization theories, this study explores the mechanism through which Instagram content consumption and prior media use interact in affecting public issue support. A between groups experiment found that the Transportation Security Administration’s Instagram content increases support for gun control depending on levels of crime show and violent video game engagement.

Antecedents of Consumers’ Avoidance of Native Advertising on Social Media: Social Media-related Factors, Institution-based Trust Factors, and Ad Perceptions • Soojung Kim, University of North Dakota; Joonghwa Lee, University of North Dakota; Chang-Dae Ham, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; Amanda Pasierb, University of North Dakota • This study examined the antecedents of consumers’ avoidance of native advertising on social media. An online survey with 503 respondents from Amazon MTurk showed heavy social media users and consumers who perceived social media platforms as fair to display native advertising were less likely to avoid it. Trust in online advertisers contributed to reducing ad avoidance. Consumers who found native advertising less intrusive and irritating and more entertaining did not tend to avoid native advertising.

Why we #hashtag brand: Consumer motivations associated with posting brand hashtags • Gu Zhiquao; Eunice Kim, University of Florida • Hashtags (#) have received a great deal of attention from academia and industry as an effective tool for engaging consumers and facilitating electronic word-of-mouth for brands. The present study delved into motivations concerning consumers’ brand-related hashtag-posting behavior on social media. The findings revealed three consumer motivations for posting brand-related hashtags on social media: social acceptance, brand related altruism, and incentive seeking. Additionally, the study examined the relationships between motivations and consumer-brand relationship variables.

Antecedents of Skepticism toward Pro-Environmental Advertising: Application of the Persuasion Knowledge Model • Jinhee Lee; Eric Haley, University of Tennessee • The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of consumer prior experience and their coping knowledge on skepticism toward pro-environmental advertising, and to examine the mediation effects of consumer coping knowledge between consumer prior experience and skepticism. An online survey was conducted and a total 186 respondents participated in the survey. The study revealed that three types of consumer coping knowledge, such as persuasion, agent, and topic knowledge, were significantly related to their skepticism, and were interrelated to each other. In addition, the results showed that consumer prior experience with pro-environmental advertising and products affected three types of coping knowledge. Lastly, the mediation effects of consumer coping knowledge were revealed. . Based on the results, there were several theoretical and practical implications.

Is it the Ad or What Precedes it?: Responses to Ads Following Emotional Content, an Excitation Transfer Perspective • Kristen Lynch, Michigan State University; Tao Deng, Michigan State University; Olivia JuYoung Lee; Ali Hussain, Michigan State University; Emily Clark, Michigan State University; Alex Torres; Saleem Alhabash, Michigan State University • Based on excitation transfer theory, arousal evoked from a prior stimulus can impact the perception and emotional response subsequent stimuli (Zillman, 1971). Prior advertising research largely focused on ad-elicited emotions and memory outcomes (Bakalash, & Riemer, 2013; Hartmann, Apaolaza, D’Souza, Barrutia & Echebarria, 2014). Little attention has been given to the effects of prior emotional stimuli on processing advertising messages. This study uses a 2 (arousal: low vs. high) x 2 (valence: positive vs. negative) x 3 (ad repetition) x 3 (order) mixed factorial design to investigate the effects of prior exposure of emotional stimuli on later cognitive and affective processing of ads. It is hypothesized that exposure to prior stimuli that are high in arousal and negative valance will produce negative emotions for the preceding ad evidenced by increased heart deceleration, increased skin conductance levels, and increased orbicularis oculi muscle activation; thus resulting in lower ad evaluations. Participant (N=45) were exposed to arousing or calm images that vary in positive or negative emotional valence—selected from the International Affective Picture System (Lang, Bradley, & Cuthbert, 2008)—followed by an ad of a household products of neutral valence; determined by a pretest. Self-reported attitude towards ad and purchase intentions were measured. Results indict that negative images preceding ads produce lower ad and brand rating, purchase intentions and viral behavioral intentions for the ad.

College Students’ Processing of Non-celebrity Male Athletic Spokespersons in Health PSAs: The Mediational Role of Status • Adrienne Muldrow; Yoon-Joo Lee, Washington State University • Studies suggest that spokespersons are supposed to help drive beneficial behaviors. Athletic spokespersons, in particular, due to their known exercise and nutritional regimens in additional to their status in the eyes of college students, should be germane spokesperson for driving these behaviors. Furthermore, with limited budgets, many non-profit public relations practitioners need practical, cost-effective solutions to driving desirable health behaviors. One cost-effective solution may be the use of an unknown athletic spokesperson in the health advertisement. Hence, this experimental study investigates how college students process non-celebrity athletic spokespersons in advertisements to build their health intentions. In this study, we examined three common features present in athletic spokesperson advertising: athletic identity, ethnicity, and status. In particular, 173 college students were either exposed to an athletic, non-celebrity, White or Black spokesperson in a health PSA and answered similar questions about their athletic identity, commonalities to their ethnicity, status-orientations with regard to health, and health intentions. We used social cognitive theory to form hypotheses stating that more perceived similarities with the athletic spokespersons and thus greater identified advertising appeal would lead to greater intentions to perform health behaviors. We extended knowledge on existing advertising literature by examining how college students’ acknowledgement of reward-oriented, status-seeking through health behaviors could aid processing of health intentions. We used a Hayes’ PROCESS model to reveal the process of how college students interpret characteristics of non-celebrity athletic figures in helping them form health intentions.

Investigating Psychophysiological Processing of Alcohol Advertising on Social Media among Underage Minors: Policy Implications • Juan Mundel, DePaul University; Kristen Lynch, Michigan State University; Michael Nelson, Michigan State University; Emily Clark, Michigan State University; Tao Deng, Michigan State University; Ali Hussain, Michigan State University; Duygu Kanver, Michigan State University; Yadira Nieves-Pizarro, Michigan State University; Saleem Alhabash, Michigan State University; McAlister Anna, Michigan State University; Elizabeth Quilliam, Michigan State University; Jef Richards, Michigan State University • Underage drinking remains a significant health risk among young adults in the United States. Alcohol marketing and advertising has been charged with being one of the most influential factors in consumers’ intentions to drink. With few regulations imposed on the Internet in relation to alcohol marketing, underage youth may receive alcohol promoting messages through electronic word-of-mouth. We hypothesized that alcoholic beverage ads including young models will be more motivationally relevant due to similarities between participant and model. To test this hypothesis, this study relied on psychophysiological and self-reported measures. Our findings showed that when beer ads featured younger (vs. older-looking) models, participants exhibited greater intentions to drink. We outline recommendations for policy changes based on our findings.

Examining E-cigarette Advertising through Social Media: Effects of Consumer-Celebrity Risk-Oriented Image Congruence and Parasocial Identification on Ad Attitude, Electronic Word-of-Mouth, and E-Cigarette Smoking Intentions • Joe Phua, University of Georgia; Jhih-Syuan Elaine Lin, University of Georgia; Dong Jae Lim, University of Georgia • This study examined effects of congruence between consumers’ risk-oriented possible self and celebrity endorsers’ image on attitudes towards an Instagram e-cigarette advertisement, eWOM and smoking intentions. Results indicated consumer-celebrity risk-seeking image congruency led to significantly more positive ad attitudes, eWOM and smoking intentions. Consumer-celebrity risk-averse image congruency, meanwhile, led to significantly more negative ad attitude, eWOM and smoking intentions. Parasocial identification also moderated effects of celebrity-product congruence and consumer-celebrity image congruency on key dependent measures.

Facebook Organic Reach Has Viral Marketers Down: Post Content That Drives Shares, Likes And Comments. • Keith Quesenberry, Messiah College; Michael Coolsen, Shippensburg University • Facebook is a prominent form of viral marketing, yet with declining brand page organic reach, which factors influence virality or engagement? A textual content analysis of 1,000 brand Facebook posts found significant (or marginally significant) effects for: (1) new/now posts on increasing shares and comments, (2) time/date posts on increasing shares, and (3) education posts on decreasing likes and comments. Promotion/contest and social cause/CSR posts produced no significant results. Managerial and theoretical implications are discussed.

Visuals, Inferences, and Consumers’ Biased Information Seeking • Sann Ryu; Patrick Vargas; Sang Ryu, University of Edinburgh • We investigated how varying product visual appeals—package design (plain vs. good design) and image quality (low vs. high resolution)—can influence consumers to generate inferential beliefs about the product and skew their subsequent information search. We also tested consumers’ cognitive responses a mediator between product visuals and brand attitudes, and the moderating role of need for cognition between brand attitudes and selective exposure.

The Influence of Mood States on Information Seeking and Evaluations of Advertised Novel Shaped Fruit: The Moderating Roles of Variety Seeking Trait • Sela Sar; Supathida Kulpavaropas; Lulu Rodriguez • This study investigated the influence of consumers’ pre-existing mood states and variety seeking trait on their information seeking about a novel-shaped product and their attitude and purchase intention toward the product. The results revealed that consumers in a positive mood and with higher variety-seeking trait showed a more favorable attitude toward the product, sought more information and had higher purchase intention than those in the same mood with a lower variety-seeking trait. There were significant main effects of mood on attitude toward the product and information seeking. There were also significant main effects of variety-seeking trait on information seeking and purchase intention. Implications for advertising research and practice are discussed.

What’s Your Favorite Filter? An Exploratory Analysis of Snapchat Advertising • Alexandra Ormond, St. John Fisher College; Morgan van der Horst, St. John Fisher College; Ronen Shay, St. John Fisher College; Lainie Lucas, St. John Fisher College; Kyle Cataldo, St. John Fisher College • Snapchat presents advertisers with a variety of interactive formats by which to engage consumers with relevant and thoughtful ad experiences. Through the use of three focus groups (n = 21) this study examines the perceptions young adults (18-24) have towards Snapchat advertising by exploring themes that include the temporary nature of communication on the platform; factors that contribute to a user’s engagement with geofilters, interactive lenses, and snap ads; tolerance towards the high volume of advertising on the platform; and why the lack of traditional like or share features can both help and hinder advertisers.

Blowing smoke: Uncovering and addressing college students perceptions, use and knowledge of e-cigarettes • Debbie Treise, University of Florida; Summer Shelton, University of Florida; Nicki Karimipour; Vaughan James, University of Florida • Electronic cigarette use is rising dramatically among young people, and advertising is thought to be one of the contributors to those increases. This study employed focus groups and in-depth interviews to determine user and potential user knowledge of product ingredients, risk assessments and uses. Findings showed a general lack of understanding, creative uses for the devices and an emerging community of vapers. Recommendations for PSA informational campaigns and future research are discussed.

“Really Being There?”: Telepresence in Virtual Reality Branded Content • JIE SHEN, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; Michelle Stenger, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; Julia Lechowicz, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; Chen Chen, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; Rachel Yang, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; Aparna Sivasakaran, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; Yanyun Wang, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; Ji Zhang, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; Yixin Zou, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; Helen Katz, Publicis Media Analytics & Insight; Michelle Nelson, UIUC Department of Advertising • Despite the growing interest of immersive technologies such as virtual reality (VR) among both professionals and academics, few studies have assessed consumers’ awareness of or attitudes toward VR media or witnessed reactions to VR brand experiences. Eighteen in-depth interviews were conducted to observe how participants perceived VR in general and to gauge their reactions to a branded VR experience for a university. Findings revealed individual differences in awareness of VR experiences. Varying levels of ‘telepresence’ (feeling present in the mediated environment) were noted in interviews and on the telepresence scale. Emerging themes that contributed to or detracted from telepresence included feelings of control, observations of sensory/media richness, seeing the virtual as a ‘microcosm’, and desire for a social experience. The ramifications of VR technology for advertising and branding are discussed.

The Psychological Processes of Mixed Valence Images: Emotional Response, Visual Attention and Memory • Jing (Taylor) Wen, University of Florida; Jon Morris, University of Florida; Mark Sherwood, University of Florida; Alissa Meyer, University of Florida; Nicole Rosenberg, University of Florida • Despite the growing significance of emotional images in advertising, the psychological and physiological responses toward multiple opposite valence images presenting simultaneously remain somewhat unexplored. This research examined the relationship between emotional response, visual attention, and recall. The results showed that individuals were more likely to gaze toward the positive images than the negative ones when exposed to the both simultaneously. More importantly, longer gaze duration translated into their emotional response toward the images. Gaze duration and the Empowerment dimension of emotional response together significantly predicted the recall of the images. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

Examining consumers’ identification of native and display advertising on news websites • Kasey Windels, Louisiana State University; Lance Porter • Consumers are spending more time with digital media, causing advertisers to invest more heavily in digital advertising. This has shaken up the newspaper industry, as advertisers have abandoned the high costs and shrinking readership of print newspapers and turned to digital advertising. In conjunction, click through rates on banner ads continue to decline. As digital publishers seek ad revenues and advertisers seek more effective advertising options, native advertising, which is advertising designed to mimic the style and content formats of the publisher’s content, has grown tremendously. Using an eye-tracking method, this study examined whether consumers could identify native and display ads on digital news websites with similar speed and effectiveness. Results suggest that native ads are more discoverable, or more quickly noticed on digital websites. However, only 68% of participants could identify native ads, and those who did took significantly longer to do so. The implications for the news and advertising industries are discussed.

Understanding the Effectiveness of Meaningful Advertisements: The Influence of Mortality Salience and Age Difference • Linwan Wu, University of South Carolina • Meaningful advertisements, which portray moral virtues and life meaning, have been widely produced around the world, but attracted limited academic attention. Based on the Terror Management Theory (TMT), this research investigates how mortality salience (Study 1 & Study 2) and age difference (Study 2) influence the effectiveness of meaningful advertisements. Results from Study 1 indicated that people expressed more favorable attitudes to the meaningful ad under mortality salience compared to the control condition. Study 2 further demonstrated that such a phenomenon was more salient among young participants. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

Does Interactivity Benefit New Product Acceptance? The Influence of Desire for Control • Linwan Wu, University of South Carolina; Denetra Walker • The failure rates of new products are surprisingly high in general. Previous advertising research has identified a number of message strategies of encouraging consumers to accept new products. However, little attention has been paid to media interface in this area. To fill this gap, this study investigates how interactivity influences evaluations of new products among consumers with different levels of desire for control. The results indicated that participants high in desire for control expressed more favorable attitudes toward the new product when the level of interactivity was high versus low. Their attitudes toward the classic product didn’t differ across distinctive levels of interactivity. Participants low in desire for control expressed similar attitudes toward both the new and classic product across different interactivity conditions. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

Native Advertising on Social Media: the Effects of Company Reputation, Perceived Relevanc and Privacy Concerns • Anli Xiao, the Pennsylvania State University; Ruobing Li; Guolan Yang; MICHAIL VAFEIADIS, Auburn University • “Through an online experiment (N = 207), this study examines native advertisings on social media by investigating the impact of a company’s reputation, the perceived relevance of the sponsored post and the role of social media privacy concerns on consumers’ attitudes toward the sponsored post, perceive brand credibility, company trust and social media engagement intentions. Theoretical and practical implications were discussed.

Social information in Facebook news feed ads: Effects of personal relevance and brand familiarity • Fei Xue; Lijie Zhou • The current research examined effects of the “Social Information” feature in Facebook news feed ads, in relation to personal relevance and brand familiarity. Ads with social information did not always lead to more favorable advertising and brand perceptions. However, interaction effects were found among social information, personal relevance, and brand familiarity, in terms of attitude-toward-the-ad and purchase intention. Social information could help create more favorable advertising responses for unfamiliar and low-relevance brands.

Development of Conceptual and Attitudinal Advertising Literacy and Influencing Factors among College Students in China • Fangfang Gao; Yusi Liu, Zhejiang University; Tao Shan • Given the pervasive role of advertising and commercial culture in the modern society as well as its substantial influence on the younger generation, scholars have called for more evidence of advertising literacy development among college students, i.e., the ability to recognize, evaluate and understand advertising. Notwithstanding the importance of advertising literacy among college students, most of the current studies are in the Western settings. There are limited empirical studies about the development of advertising literacy among Chinese population. The general purpose of the study is to examine the conceptual and attitudinal advertising literacy among college students in China, exploring possible predicting factors that may influence their level of advertising literacy, suggesting possible interventions to enhance media education and strategic communication. Based on a survey of 515 Chinese college students, our study provided empirical evidence to show that product desires, resistance strategies, BMI, self-esteem, and critical attitudes towards food and fitness products, as well as gender, grade and major are important predictors of college students’ advertising literacy. The current study expands the research of media literacy to a more specific area of advertising, exploring the advertising literacy for college students in China. Moreover, when investigating predicting factors for advertising literacy, two dimensions, both conceptual and attitudinal advertising literacy, were analyzed, providing more detailed information concerning the concept of advertising literacy. Implications for academic research and public policy were discussed. Further research is needed to gain understanding of the complex developmental process of advertising literacy among young people in China.

Global Collaboration to Teach Research Methods for Advertising, Public Relations, and Communication Majors: Review of Student Reflections and a Plan • Pamela Morris • This study investigates an innovative way to teach undergraduate research methods courses, specifically by collaborating globally. The paper provides an example of a research methods course taught by pairing U.S. and South Korean university students and an evaluation of the course based on the students’ reactions of the semester. The method of investigation is review of 22 student reflection papers. The student responses suggest that this model created an effective learning environment as seen in several themes, such as a wider perception, better understanding, and more respect for research, acknowledgement of the fun and excitement in conducting research, gaining more confidence, using skills in other classes, and considering how research could be used in their future careers. Culturally, students reported it was an eye-opening experience and that they also learned about themselves. The exploratory study attempts to add to the literature, as well as provide a foundation for new ideas and creative ways to leverage current technology, the globalized world, and students’ interest of other cultures.

Teaching Ad Tech: Assessing Collaborative Teaching in an Advertising, Computer Science, and Design Course • Jay Newell; Wallapak Tavanapong; Sherry Berghefer, Iowa State University • Advertising technology is advancing quickly, incorporating digital techniques that may be beyond the experience of the individual faculty member. Collaborative teaching, where faculty members from different disciplines co-teach a course, may be a solution. This report assesses the learning outcomes of an advertising technology course taught by faculty from advertising, computer science and human-computer interaction programs. Two semesters of pre- and post-tests were analyzed, finding increases in student comfort with preparing and presenting technologically-advanced solutions to marketing challenges.

Mentors and minority advertising students: A survey of the 2017 Most Promising Multicultural Student class • Alice Kendrick; Jami Fullerton • U.S. advertising agencies have struggled to attract and retain ethnic and racial minority talent for decades, and the absence of professional mentors has been cited as an issue in job satisfaction among minority employees in the advertising industry. University advertising programs are recognized as an important pipeline of prospective minority hires, especially for agencies. This paper examines a group of minority advertising college students in terms of whether they currently have a professional mentor, as well as their career preferences and perceptions of advertising industry employment. The role of mentorship for minority advertising students as well as implications for advertising educators and employers who seek to diversify their advertising organizations are discussed.

Aspiring Advertising Professionals: Workplace Expectations Through a Gendered Lens • Jean Grow; Shiyu Yang • Generation Z, whose personal and professional expectations differ from previous generations, are entering our classrooms. Yet, workplace environments, and their structural underpinnings tend to change slowly. The advertising industry is no exception. This research investigates the expectations of 98 aspiring advertising professionals using social capital theory. We study the gaps between Generation Z’s expectations and workplace realities, while exploring the influences of gender; and suggest ways educators might bridge the gap between expectations and reality.

Effects of Cosmetic Surgery Advertisements on Surgery Intention and Attitudes Toward Surgeons • Sung-Yeon Park, Univ. of Nevada, Reno; Sasha Allgayer, Bowling Green State University • The effects of cosmetic surgery advertising on perceived benefits, risks, acceptance of cosmetic surgery and attitudes toward cosmetic were explored. The advertising exposure was positively related to perceived benefits and surgery intention, but unrelated to perceived risk. Compared with doctors in general, cosmetic surgeons were trusted less, though exposure to cosmetic surgery advertisements improved some perceptions about cosmetic surgeons. In addition, consumer evaluation of cosmetic surgery advertising elements revealed many areas of confusion among consumers.

The Use of Search and Display Advertisements in Digital Advertising • Lindsay Bouchacourt • The purpose of the study is to examine search advertisements and display advertisements used in digital advertising and investigate whether one type of advertisement produces a lower cost-per-acquisition. The study also explores the use of different electronic devices (mobile phone versus desktop computers) and whether this has an effect on cost-per-acquisition. The study uses a Paraguayan mortgage company as the advertiser and Google AdWords as the source of media placement.

It Takes “Less Than U Think”: Implementation Of An Anti Binge-Drinking Campaign Targeting Expectancy • Eric Cooks; Katie Bell • This study analyzed the effectiveness of a student-led anti binge-drinking campaign in influencing alcohol expectancy. Results indicated that several components of social expectations for alcohol use changed significantly at posttest. Negative expectancies increased for alcohol’s ability to make parties fun, and to put people in better moods. Changes were also seen in expectations related to the taste of alcohol. Significant associations were observed in relation to participant gender and Greek affiliation. This campaign represents an integrated communications effort that incorporates psychological theory to address a significant public health concern.

Any Benefits from Anxiety and Curiosity?: Exploring the Impact of Personality Traits in Ad Avoidance on Social Networking Sites • Naa Amponsah Dodoo; Jing (Taylor) Wen, University of Florida • Social network advertising continues to be a prevalent way advertisers employ to deliver their messages to their consumers. In this increasingly cluttered ad environment, consumers may adopt varying strategies, as ad avoidance, to prevent exposure to these ads. Literature suggests the link between personality traits and SNS use. Consumers’ personality traits may be important factors that determine how they engage in SNS ad avoidance. This study investigated potential underlying mechanisms of SNS ad avoidance and how personality traits function to determine consumers’ attitude and behavior toward SNS ads. The results of this study indicate the roles of perceived ad relevance, perceived ad intrusiveness and privacy concern in SNS ad avoidance. Specifically, while perceived ad relevance decreased ad avoidance, perceived intrusiveness and privacy concern increased ad avoidance. Interestingly, neuroticism and openness to experience were found to have significant relationships with perceived ad relevance, perceived ad intrusiveness and privacy concern. Theoretical contributions and implications are discussed.

The effect of celebrity athlete endorser identification on brand attitude in TV advertising • Joongsuk Lee, University of Alabama • This study examined the effect of celebrity endorser identification (ID) on brand attitude under a soccer star’s religious or non-religious goal celebration as well as the reliability, validity, and applicability of Mael and Ashforth’s (1992) organization ID scale in measuring celebrity ID. Goal celebrations are the acts of celebrating a goal scored in a game. Two real and different TV ads, showing a sports drink brand endorsed by a sports celebrity, were used as stimuli to enhance the present results’ generalizability. Findings reported that the effect of celebrity endorser ID on brand attitude is negatively affected by a soccer star’s religious goal celebration (i.e., praying to God without sharing joy of scoring a goal with others) but positively affected by a soccer star’s non-religious goal celebration (sharing such joy with them without praying to God). Other findings showed that five of six items based on Mael and Ashforth’s (1992) organization ID concept were applicable, reliable, and valid in measuring celebrity ID.

Making the unfamiliar the familiar: A qualitative framing analysis of disabilities as inspiration in advertisements • Summer Shelton, University of Florida • Research identified four frames advertising uses to inspirationally portray physical disabilities: inspiration porn, bionic or superhuman, supercrip and pity-heroism or tragedy-charity. Identified as problematic representations among disabled consumers, this study examined the framing of disabilities in advertisements. Because advertisements including models with disabilities are scarce, a purposive sample of 35 advertisements was identified. A qualitative content analysis of these advertisements was conducted. Recommendations for more accurate portrayals of disabilities in advertisements are provided.

Sex, Nudity, and Humor: A Content Analysis of Condom Advertisements and Taboo Content on YouTube • Matthew Struss, Indiana University Of Pennsylvania; Sharon Storch; Mark Beekman, Indiana University of Pennsylvania • YouTube is an ideal media for sharing condom advertisements with taboo content. By conducting a quantitative content analysis of 85 different condom advertisements on YouTube over a 24-hour period we found there were no significant differences in the use of humor in the condom advertisements for birth control and disease control versus advertisements that promoted condoms as pleasure aids. Most condom advertisements with the “be prepared” theme did not employ heavy levels of sex.

Scare’em or Irritate’em: Congruity between Emotions and Message Framing Promotes Advertising Engagement and Message Evaluation • Jing (Taylor) Wen, University of Florida • Emotional messages can capture audience’s attention and therefore be persuasive. Building on prior studies, this research examined the interplay between emotion types (anger vs. fear) and message framing (gain vs. loss) on individuals’ responses to different advertising messages. Experimental results revealed that individuals reported more favorable attitudes toward a fear appeal with a gain-framed message whereas individuals had more positive attitude toward an anger appeal with a loss-framed message. Additionally, increased in advertising engagement drives the observed improvement in attitudes toward the ad. These findings suggest direct implications for advertising design.

From us to me: Cultural value changes from collectivism to individualism in Chinese commercials • Jingyan Zhao • China is generally regarded as a collectivistic society while the United States is treated as a country with individualism. However, Scholars noted that individualism has revealed itself in Chinese younger generation. This change may affect the content of Chinese commercials, as effective advertising must cater to its audience to promote products. This study conducted a content analysis of Chinese commercials in approximately 2006 and 2016 to examine how the cultural value of commercial has changed, with the consideration of merchandise type and production place. Results exhibit an increase of individualism usage in Chinese commercials. Research results exhibited an increase of individualistic factors usage in Chinese commercials. There was no significant difference between imported and domestic merchandise of using individualistic factors around 2006, in 2016 or regardless the time period. In addition, the merchandise usage type affected the percentage of individualistic and collective factors used in commercials. Collective usage merchandise still employed more collective factors regardless the time period. On the contrary, for individual usage merchandise, commercials have begun to apply more individualistic factors than they did ten years ago.

#Sponsored #Ad: An Agency Perspective on Influencer Marketing Campaigns • COURTNEY CARPENTER CHILDERS, University of Tennessee; Laura Lemon; Mariea Hoy • As social media continues to grow in terms of usage, influence, and ad spending, the advertising industry has been forced to develop innovative strategies to bring strong return on investment to clients. One such strategy to recently emerge is influencer marketing, where the focus is placed on connecting with specific online personas that target audience members trust and engage with regularly. eMarketer (2016) found that 48% of marketers plan to increase their budgets for influencer marketing in 2017. This study seeks to gain insight into strategic decision-making, impact on agency life and understanding of sponsorships and disclosures based on in-depth interviews with 15 U.S. advertising agency professionals. Results show that the billion-dollar influencer marketing industry is still largely unchartered territory that involves high cost but offers high reward; is keenly dependent on an effective vetting process; and reflects an appreciation of adherence to FTC endorser guidelines.

Decoding Engagement: Chinese Advertising Practitioners’ Perspective • Huan Chen, University of Florida; Rang Wang, University of Florida; Xuan Liang • A qualitative study was conducted to examine Chinese advertising practitioners’ perception and interpretation of engagement in the digital age. Twenty three face-to-face in-depth interviews were conducted to collect data. Findings revealed that in the life-world of Chinese advertising professionals, the meaning of the imported term “engagement” is multidimensional, fluidly, and diversifying lacking consensus on both conceptualization and execution. The current study also uncovered the perceptional gaps between academia and industry regarding the conceptualization and execution of engagement.

Brand Sponsorship of Sport Officiating Technology: Effects of Social Identity and Schadenfreude on Attitude toward Sponsoring Brand • Jihoon (Jay) Kim, University of Georgia; Jooyoung Kim, University of Georgia • This study examined fan perceptions of an ad embedded in an instant replay video (IRV) and its sponsoring brand, using Social Identity Theory and the concept of schadenfreude. Results revealed that the positive emotion induced by a negative outcome supported by IRV for the opposing team (i.e., schadenfreude) led to a positive attitude toward the advertisement (Aad-IRV) and the sponsoring brand (Ab-IRV). The results also showed the suspense level moderated the schadenfreude’s effects on Aad-IRV.

The Effects of Ad Framing, Regulatory Focus and Processing Fluency on Controlling Sugar Intake • Kang Li • Health authorities has pointed out that Americans consume too many sugar, which causes many health problems. The aim of this research was to examine the effectiveness of ad framing (gain vs. loss vs. neither gain nor loss) on persuading people to control their sugar intake. There were 1,104 participants completed an online experiment study. The results showed that both gain and loss frame were more effective than the neutral frame. Gain frame was the most effective one to persuade people to lower sugar intake. Moreover, individual difference of regulatory focus moderated the effect of ad framing (gain vs. loss). In addition, processing fluency mediated the effects of ad framing (gain vs. neutral/loss vs. neutral) on people’s intention to limit sugar intake. Contributions and implications were discussed.

To Vape or Not to Vape: How E-Cigarette Companies Advertise Via Twitter • Joon Kim, University of South Carolina, Columbia; Carol Pardun, University of South Carolina; Holly Ott, University of South Carolina • This study examines how electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) companies advertise and engage with potential customers on Twitter. Using quantitative content analysis, this exploratory study examined 525 tweets from the top five e-cigarette companies that occurred between July 9, 2016, and September 9, 2016. Results highlight differences in how companies used Twitter as an advocacy role or as a purely commercially driven strategy. Theoretical and practical implications for advertising research and practice are discussed.

Can Inspiring Advertisements Bust the Social Media Blues? The Effect of Inspirational Advertising on Consumer Attitudes and Sharing Intentions • Amanda Bailey, University of Florida; Frank Waddell, University of Florida • Social media has become common for advertising, yet research shows that social media use can negatively affect users’ mood. How can advertisers adapt their appeals to be successful in this advertising context? The present study tested the efficacy of “inspirational” advertising as a form of mood repair. Consistent with mood management theory, an experiment (N = 188) showed that inspirational advertising increased brand attitudes and sharing intentions via heightened photographic transportation and meaningful affect.

Direct-to-consumer advertising, vulnerability and ethics of care • Tara Walker; Erin Schauster • This study conducts a textual analysis of direct-to-consumer advertisements for heart disease and cancer prescription drugs using an ethics of care framework. Direct-to-consumer advertising, (DTCA) is a controversial practice, often critiqued for ethical issues. Ethics of care provides a novel approach to understanding the relationships between patients, ethics and vulnerability within the context of DTCA. Ultimately, findings showed that the DTCA examined in the sample considered audience points of view and lived experiences, but fell short of honoring patient vulnerability and providing accurate, useful health information.


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